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Tuberculosis

Tuberculosis is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria. Tuberculosis affects the lungs, but can affect other parts of the body. Most infections do not have symptoms. About 10% of latent infections progress to active disease which, if left untreated, kills about half of those affected; the classic symptoms of active TB are a chronic cough with blood-containing mucus, night sweats, weight loss. It was called "consumption" due to the weight loss. Infection of other organs can cause a wide range of symptoms. Tuberculosis is spread through the air when people who have active TB in their lungs cough, speak, or sneeze. People with latent TB do not spread the disease. Active infection occurs more in people with HIV/AIDS and in those who smoke. Diagnosis of active TB is based on chest X-rays, as well as microscopic examination and culture of body fluids. Diagnosis of latent TB relies on blood tests. Prevention of TB involves screening those at high risk, early detection and treatment of cases, vaccination with the bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine.

Those at high risk include household and social contacts of people with active TB. Treatment requires the use of multiple antibiotics over a long period of time. Antibiotic resistance is a growing problem with increasing rates of multiple drug-resistant tuberculosis and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis; as of 2018 one-quarter of the world's population is thought to be infected with TB. New infections occur in about 1% of the population each year. In 2017, there were more than 10 million cases of active TB; this makes it the number one cause of death from an infectious disease. More than 95% of deaths occurred in developing countries, more than 50% in India, Indonesia and the Philippines; the number of new cases each year has decreased since 2000. About 80% of people in many Asian and African countries test positive while 5–10% of people in the United States population test positive by the tuberculin test. Tuberculosis has been present in humans since ancient times. Tuberculosis may infect any part of the body, but most occurs in the lungs.

Extrapulmonary TB occurs when tuberculosis develops outside of the lungs, although extrapulmonary TB may coexist with pulmonary TB. General signs and symptoms include fever, night sweats, loss of appetite, weight loss, fatigue. Significant nail clubbing may occur. If a tuberculosis infection does become active, it most involves the lungs. Symptoms may include a prolonged cough producing sputum. About 25% of people may not have any symptoms. People may cough up blood in small amounts, in rare cases, the infection may erode into the pulmonary artery or a Rasmussen's aneurysm, resulting in massive bleeding. Tuberculosis may become a chronic illness and cause extensive scarring in the upper lobes of the lungs; the upper lung lobes are more affected by tuberculosis than the lower ones. The reason for this difference is not clear, it may be due to poor lymph drainage within the upper lungs. In 15–20% of active cases, the infection spreads outside the lungs, causing other kinds of TB; these are collectively denoted as "extrapulmonary tuberculosis".

Extrapulmonary TB occurs more in people with a weakened immune system and young children. In those with HIV, this occurs in more than 50% of cases. Notable extrapulmonary infection sites include the pleura, the central nervous system, the lymphatic system, the genitourinary system, the bones and joints, among others. A more serious, widespread form of TB is called "disseminated tuberculosis", it is known as miliary tuberculosis. Miliary TB makes up about 10% of extrapulmonary cases; the main cause of TB is Mycobacterium tuberculosis, a small, nonmotile bacillus. The high lipid content of this pathogen accounts for many of its unique clinical characteristics, it divides every 16 to 20 hours, an slow rate compared with other bacteria, which divide in less than an hour. Mycobacteria have an outer membrane lipid bilayer. If a Gram stain is performed, MTB either stains weakly "Gram-positive" or does not retain dye as a result of the high lipid and mycolic acid content of its cell wall. MTB can survive in a dry state for weeks.

In nature, the bacterium can grow only within the cells of a host organism, but M. tuberculosis can be cultured in the laboratory. Using histological stains on expectorated samples from phlegm, scientists can identify MTB under a microscope. Since MTB retains certain stains after being treated with acidic solution, it is classified as an acid-fast bacillus; the most common acid-fast staining techniques are the Ziehl–Neelsen stain and the Kinyoun stain, which dye acid-fast bacilli a bright red that stands out against a blue background. Auramine-rhodamine staining and fluorescence microscopy are used; the M. tuberculosis complex includes four other TB-causing mycobacteria: M. bovis, M. africanum, M. canetti, M. microti. M. africanum is not widespread. M. bovis was once a common cause of tuberculosis, but the introduction of pasteurized milk has completely eliminated this as a public health problem in developed countri

Kálmán Kánya

Kálmán de Kánya, Foreign Minister of Hungary during the Horthy era. He started his diplomatic career in Constantinople. In 1913 he appointed as Austro-Hungarian ambassador to Mexico to Berlin. From 1933 he served as Minister of Foreign Affairs. During his ministership Hungary joined to the Tripartite Pact, the county became an ally of the Nazi Germany. Inside this he tried to counterbalance Germany's hegemony with increased cooperation with Italy. On the other hand, he kept good connections with the Little Entente, he was flying with the Prime Minister Béla Imrédy to Berchtesgaden and asked Hitler for the support of the Hungarian territorial claims. Kánya was leader of the Hungarian-Czechoslovak delegation which attended on the negotiations in Komárom. On 21 November 1938 he had to resign because of the German-Italian démarche Carpathian Ukraine's planned attack failed, when the Imrédy cabinet cancelled. During the end of the Second World War he supported Miklós Kállay. Tóth, Imre: A polgári arisztokrata.

Kánya Kálmán jellemrajza a kezdetektől a miniszteri posztig. Aetas, 24. Évf. 2. Sz. 23–43. Pritz, Pál: Döntési folyamatok a magyar külpolitikában. In: uő: A magyar diplomácia a két háború között. Tanulmányok. Budapest, 1995. Tóth, Imre: Egy németbarát viszontagságai Berlinben. Kánya Kálmán követi évei Soproni Szemle, 2008. 3. Https://www.britannica.com/place/Hungary/History#ref411352 http://www.hungarianhistory.com/lib/baross/baross01.htm http://epa.uz.ua/00000/00010/00014/pdf/HSR_1986_1_003-034.pdf Newspaper clippings about Kálmán Kánya in the 20th Century Press Archives of the ZBW

Migu

Migu or miggo is a Talmudic law concept relating to civil law disputes. A migu is a reason that a claim that would otherwise be rejected by a Jewish civil court should be accepted based on the fact that the litigant could have prevailed in the case based on a different claim were he disposed to lie. To be effective, the logic underlying the migu must be impeccable and there are a variety of cases in which the Migu argument is invalid. One classic example of where a Migu does work is in the area of a loan repayment dispute. Where the lender accuses an alleged borrower of defaulting on an oral loan made without witnesses, the borrower may prevail in the case by claiming that the loan did occur, but that it had been repaid; when one makes a claim that a loan has been repaid, he would be expected to produce evidence that it had been repaid, such as a receipt. However, in this scenario the borrower would prevail under the theory that he must be telling the truth, as if he were interested in lying to the court, he could have said that the loan never happened.

Since the lender cannot prove the existence of the loan, that claim would have prevailed. Therefore, the claim that the loan was repaid is believed as well; this is a classic Migu. Other cases in which Migu is invoked are cases in which witnesses might have a personal gain in testifying, which would disqualify the testimony. If another option can be found for the witnesses to achieve the same personal gain, some authorities rule that the testimony can be accepted. There are exceptions to the rule of Migu the most common one is known as "Migu in the place of witnesses"; this takes on two meanings. The first is that in a case in which the claimant has irrefutable proof - such as valid witnesses - supporting his claim, the litigant cannot use Migu as a defense; the reasoning is. A second meaning to "Migu in the place of witnesses" is similar yet different from the first; that is, when witnesses support the alternative claim, thereby destroying the litigant's position, as the litigant can no longer claim that if he was looking to win dishonestly he/she would have claimed the alternative.

Because the alternative is no longer possible. This exception is true if the witnesses bear testimony after the litigant made his/her claim. Another exception would be if the proposed alternative claim is considered to be an embarrassment to the defendant. Cases that would qualify are, if the story being told is embarrassing by its nature, it is a unlikely story and a person would not be so brazen as to make the alternative claim or it is well known that the particular proposed fact is untrue if the claimant can't prove it; the logic behind this exception is elementary. The Migu lends credibility to the defendant by asking the question: "if he is lying in an effort to exempt himself from paying his dues, he should have told more believable lie". If the court can find a probable reason why he would avoid telling the harder-to-disprove story the entire logic falls apart. A third rule in the non acception of Migu's is that "a Migu to extract is not said"; this means that the logic of Migu will not be accepted on the claimants side..

The predominant reason for this is that the burden of proof is on the claimant and therefore though a defendant can avoid payment using the Migu as a defense, it is not sufficient proof for the claimant. Another point is that this would open endless opportunities for con men This is the opinion of the Tosafists; the Ramban among other Rishonim contend that it is a valid reasoning. Some explain that the root of the question lies in understanding Migu's properties as a tool in court; the Tosafists felt that a Migu is a leverage tool, meaning that if a person chose to make a less favorable claim over a more favorable one, he is given the benefit of the doubt, although he is not believed based on his Migu, therefore his Migu can only deflect charges but not charge others. The Ramban on the other hand felt that Migu provides proof of the legitimacy of the claim, it can therefore be used as an attack tool. According to Rabbi Betzalel Busel there exists a fourth exception to the rule of Migu, and, a stipulation that the potential claim be an alternative to the current claim and not an additional claim.

The reasoning given is that avoidinDHKH whereas giving an alternative claim gives the claim itself credence, for a Migu to be effective it must be a boost for the claim and not for the person. This goes against the ruling of many leading commentators. Rabbi Busel provides a rule of thumb in regards to Migu: No Migu can accomplish more than the alternative claim on which the Migu is based; the logic is that it would be unseemly to base the value of a claim on an alternative one and thereby give the actual claim greater power than the alternative. In most cases the greater power that the Migu has would be