Wheelchair Football (American)
Wheelchair Football is a fast-paced sport, best played when athletes are in maximum physical condition, at the top of their game in teamwork and wheelchair-handling skills for both manual wheelchair and power wheelchair users. The sport of wheelchair football was developed for interscholastic competition by the American Association of Adapted Sports Programs of Atlanta, Georgia, USA to incorporate both the manual and power wheelchair during game play. Wheelchair football is different from that of power football because the sport has been patterned after the game of American football and the rules are similar as such; the game of wheelchair football is played on a standard basketball court — 28 metres long by 15 metres wide. The required court markings are a center line and circle, a key area measuring 8 metres wide by 1.75 metres deep at each end of the court. It can be played either indoors or outside. All athletes must use either a power wheelchair when competing in the sport. Specified rules for manual and power wheelchair users Adaptive football players are classified into three different levels, the rules of play are different for each level.
Level 1 players: have full use of their arms and eyes. Level 2 players: may have some type of visual impairment. Level 3 players: have no arm-movement capability and/or have limited sight; the rules for Level 1 players are somewhat similar to "touch football," where players touch rather than tackle their opponents. In that adaptive game, the player - and not his or her chair - must be touched to count as a tackle. Players who have limited or no mobility in their arms use chair-to-chair contact for blocks and tackles. Level 1 players, kick offs, punts and goals are all scored using the hands. Level 2 and 3 players, points for pass completion are awarded if the ball hits the player in the area between the hands and their elbows. Although the players cannot grab the football, they still need to maneuver their wheelchairs so they can be in the right position for the ball to hit the right place to score. A team has six attempts to score. Teams may "run" the ball into the end zone. Field goals, kick -- punts are thrown.
A running game clock is used, as well as a play clock. Scoring is the same as in stand–up football, with one exception. A team that passes for the point–after–touchdown will receive two points. Field goals are scored when the ball is thrown through the first two vertical uprights that support the hanging basket. Powerchair Football Wheelchair soccer American Association for Adaptive Sports Programs
Indoor American football
Indoor American football is a variation of American football played at ice hockey-sized indoor arenas. While varying in details from league to league, the rules of indoor football are designed to allow for play in a smaller arena, it is a distinct discipline and not be confused with traditional American football played in large domed stadiums, as is done by some teams at the college and professional levels. The first documented indoor football games were those played at the Chicago Coliseum in the late 1890s; the first such game matched Michigan against Chicago on Thanksgiving Day 1896. The match was "the first collegiate game of football played under a roof." Adding to the novelty, as daylight turned to darkness, the field inside the Coliseum was lit with electric lighting. With seven acres of floor space, the sprawling Coliseum is believed to have not needed any compromises to accommodate an American football field. According to a newspaper account, the field grew dark in the second half, play was halted for ten minutes to discuss whether play should continue.
Play was resumed, the lights were turned on after Michigan scored a touchdown. The press proclaimed the experiment in indoor football to be a success: One thing at least was settled by the game, that is, that indoor football is and figuratively speaking a howling success; the men had no trouble in catching punts, football was played on its merits, without the handicaps of a wet field or a strong wind. Toward the end of the second half it got dark, the spectators were treated to a novelty in the shape of football by electric light." Although both critically and commercially successful, the Coliseum was destroyed in a fire less than two years after its opening, its replacement could not accommodate an American football field. At Madison Square Garden in 1902 and 1903, there were games known as the "World Series of Pro Football." The games were otherwise adhered to outdoor rules. Poor attendance led to the tournament being discontinued after two years; the Chicago Bears of the National Football League hosted an experimental game against their crosstown rivals, the Cardinals, after the 1930 NFL season, at the indoor Chicago Stadium.
Two years poor weather conditions led to the Bears hosting the 1932 NFL Playoff Game against the Portsmouth Spartans at the stadium. A dirt and tanbark field measuring 80 yards long and 45 yards wide was constructed on the arena's floor; the Chicago Stadium games were notable for introducing several rule changes, including the introduction of hash marks to keep play away from spectators who were seated next to the field, while goal posts were moved to the goal line. To compensate for the smaller field, teams were "penalized" 20 yards upon crossing midfield. In 1930, the Atlantic City Convention Center constructed a full-size indoor football field, used it for one to three games a year during the 1930s. In the 1960s the Boardwalk Bowl, a post-season game involving small college teams, was contested at the convention center; the Bowl was an attempt to make Atlantic City more of a year-round resort in the pre-gambling era as opposed to a single-season one. The Atlantic Coast Football League played its inaugural championship game at the convention center in 1962, but the game only drew 2,000 fans and the game would thereafter move to the home stadium of the team with the best regular season record.
The Philadelphia-based Liberty Bowl game, played at Municipal Stadium from 1959–1963, was moved into the Convention Center in 1964 for the contest between Utah and West Virginia. The game drew just over 6,000 fans and the Liberty Bowl moved to Memphis the next year, where it has remained. Unlike modern indoor football, the size of the playing surface and hence the rules were the same as in the standard outdoor game, with rules updated to deal with contingencies for what could happen indoors, such as a punt striking the ceiling; the end zones were shorter—eight yards instead of the standard ten. While several attempts to create a true indoor football game have been made since shortly after American football was developed, the first version to meet with widespread success and acceptance is Arena football, devised by Jim Foster, a former executive of the United States Football League and the National Football League, he devised his game while watching another game derived from a sport played outdoors.
He worked on the game in the early 1980s, but put any plans for full development of it on hold while the United States Football League, an attempt to play traditional American football in a non-traditional season, was in operation in 1983–1985. When the USFL ceased operations, Foster saw his opportunity, he staged a "test" game in Rockford, Illinois in 1986 and put together a four-team league for a "demonstration season" in the spring of 1987, with games televised on ESPN. Foster had to adopt a field that would fit within the smaller playing surfaces found in most arenas and thus created a field, identical in size to a standard professional ice hockey rink, 200 by 85 feet; this resulted in the field being 50 yards long with eight-yard end zones, the field being
Street football (American)
Street football known as backyard football or sandlot football, is a simplified variant of American football played informally by youth. It features far less equipment and fewer rules than its counterparts, but unlike the similar touch football, features full tackling. An organized version has seven players such as in the American 7's Football league. Games are played on fields ranging from as short as 10 to as large as 50 yards, with the occasional game being played on a full-size regulation 100 yard field such as in the A7FL; the larger the field, the more players that can be incorporated into the game. The A7FL plays on a full-size regulation field in regards to length, the width of the field is shortened, from 50 yards, to 40 yards in order to accommodate fewer players on the field. Most forms of backyard or street football use ad hoc house rules that vary from neighborhood to neighborhood; the teams organize each other at the beginning of the game. In the event of an odd number of players, one player will serve as an "official quarterback" or "all-time QB," who plays on offense the whole game and cannot run the ball past the line of scrimmage, or, if more players are on their way, the team, short handed will automatically draft the newcomer upon arrival.
Teams can be identified by memory or by the shirts versus skins system. The two teams organize on opposite sides of the field for the kickoff; because of skill, field size and other issues, this is not a kickoff but rather a punt-off or a throw-off. Many versions skip this process and start the offense at a certain point, similar to a touchback in other national leagues; as in regular American football, each team has four downs per series. In order to achieve a series of downs, backyard football requires the team with the ball to complete two passes or reach a certain point on the field. Few games include enough people, or the proper equipment, to run a chain crew to maintain the 10 yard familiar in most organized leagues; these structures encourages passing plays over running, as does the usual lack of offensive and defensive lines. The use of a center is optional, depending on the rules set forth, other ways to start the play are used in lieu of a snap. Play continues until there is a turnover on downs, an interception occurs, or the team on offense scores a touchdown.
Touchdowns are worth 7, or 1 point depending on the rules set out before the game. In some instances, depending on the width of the field more downs are used or teams are given a certain number of downs to score in as opposed to 4 tries to get a first down. For instance, a team might be given 8 tries to score and advance the ball from where they receive the ball or establish position; the length of a first down may differ due to the lack of a pass rush. For instance, a team may have to advance twenty yards to get a first down in 4 tries. Field goals and extra point kicks are nonexistent, although punts can happen during "4th and 2 completions" situations where the offensive team cannot earn a first down. In the event a touchdown is scored, the team on offense will stay in the end zone in which they had just scored and the other team will go into the main field and field the subsequent kickoff; this rule is some times known as "losers walk". Thus, until an interception or turnover on downs, both teams defend and attempt to score on the same end zone.
Rules vary from neighborhood to neighborhood and are customarily set before each game. There can be a rush on the QB depending on the rules set out before the game. If rushes are allowed, there are 2 rules that are applied: call rush and blitz count. Call rush is the first rule of rushing the QB in street; this is where the defense calls "Blitz" in a loud voice before the offense hikes the ball, signifying that they will rush, but there is a counter effect with this. The QB can get out of the pocket and run without having to pass or hand off the ball the quarterback can call "shotgun" before or after the other team says "blitz" causing the opposite to have to count to 5 or 10 depending on whether or not they called blitz 5 calling "shotgun" adds 5 seconds to the blitz count; the second, more common, rush QB rule is Mississippi rush, so called because the blitzing player must insert the word "Mississippi" between numbers so as not to allow the player to count ridiculously fast and give the quarterback no time to throw.
Sometimes the two rules are combined, allowing one separate call of "Blitz!" per set of 4 downs. The other option to handle a rush is to use an offensive center to block any pass rush. A line is rare in street, the act of a center snapping to a quarterback is optional and impossible in 2 on 2; when a center is used, the center is eligible as a receiver. The center sneak, wherein the center
New England Patriots
The New England Patriots are a professional American football team based in the Greater Boston area. The Patriots compete in the National Football League as a member club of the league's American Football Conference East division; the team plays its home games at Gillette Stadium in the town of Foxborough, located 21 miles southwest of downtown Boston, Massachusetts and 20 miles northeast of downtown Providence, Rhode Island. The Patriots are headquartered at Gillette Stadium. An original member of the American Football League, the Patriots joined the NFL in the 1970 merger of the two leagues; the team changed its name from the original Boston Patriots after relocating to Foxborough in 1971. The Patriots played their home games at Foxboro Stadium from 1971 to 2001 moved to Gillette Stadium at the start of the 2002 season; the Patriots' rivalry with the New York Jets is considered one of the most bitter rivalries in the NFL. Since the arrival of head coach Bill Belichick and quarterback Tom Brady in 2000, the Patriots have since become one of the most successful teams in NFL history, winning 16 AFC East titles in 18 seasons since 2001, without a losing season in that period.
The franchise has since set numerous notable records, including most wins in a ten-year period, an undefeated 16-game regular season in 2007, the longest winning streak consisting of regular season and playoff games in NFL history, the most consecutive division titles won by a team in NFL history. The team owns the record for most Super Bowls reached and won by a head coach–quarterback tandem, most Super Bowl appearances overall, tied with the Pittsburgh Steelers for the most Super Bowl wins, tied with the Denver Broncos for the most Super Bowl losses. On November 16, 1959, Boston business executive Billy Sullivan was awarded the eighth and final franchise of the developing American Football League; the following winter, locals were allowed to submit ideas for the Boston football team's official name. The most popular choice – and the one that Sullivan selected – was the "Boston Patriots," with "Patriots" referring to those colonists of the Thirteen Colonies who rebelled against British control during the American Revolution and in July 1776 declared the United States of America an independent nation.
Thereafter, artist Phil Bissell of The Boston Globe developed the "Pat Patriot" logo. The Patriots struggled for most of their years in the AFL, they never had a regular home stadium. Nickerson Field, Harvard Stadium, Fenway Park, Alumni Stadium all served as home fields during their time in the American Football League, they played in only one AFL championship game, following the 1963 season, in which they lost to the San Diego Chargers 51–10. They did not appear again in an NFL post-season game for another 13 years; when the NFL and AFL merged in 1970, the Patriots were placed in the American Football Conference East division, where they still play today. The following year, the Patriots moved to a new stadium in Foxborough, which would serve as their home for the next 30 years; as a result of the move, they announced they would change their name from the Boston Patriots to the Bay State Patriots. The name was rejected by the NFL and on March 22, 1971, the team announced they would change its geographic name to New England.
During the 1970s, the Patriots had some success, earning a berth to the playoffs in 1976—as a wild card team—and in 1978—as AFC East champions. They lost in the first round both times. In 1985, they returned to the playoffs, made it all the way to Super Bowl XX, which they lost to the Chicago Bears 46–10. Following their Super Bowl loss, they lost in the first round; the team would not make the playoffs again for eight more years. During the 1990 season, the Patriots went 1–15, they changed ownership three times in the ensuing 14 years, being purchased from the Sullivan family first by Victor Kiam in 1988, who sold the team to James Orthwein in 1992. Though Orthwein's period as owner was short and controversial, he did oversee major changes to the team, first with the hiring of former New York Giants coach Bill Parcells in 1993. Orthwein and his marketing team commissioned the NFL to develop a new visual identity and logo, changed their primary colors from the traditional red and blue to blue and silver for the team uniforms.
Orthwein intended to move the team to his native St. Louis, but instead sold the team in 1994 for $175 million to its current owner, Robert Kraft. Since the Patriots have sold out every home game in both Foxboro Stadium and Gillette Stadium. By 2009, the value of the franchise had increased by over $1 billion, to a Forbes magazine estimated value of $1.361 billion, third highest in the NFL only behind the Dallas Cowboys and Washington Redskins. As of July 2018, the Patriots are the sixth most valuable sports franchise in the world according to Forbes magazine with a value of $3.7 billion. Continuing on as head coach under Kraft's ownership, Parcells would bring the Patriots to two playoff appearances, including Super Bowl XXXI, which they lost to the Green Bay Packers by a score of 35–21. Pete Carroll, Parcells's successor, would take the team to the playoffs twice in 1997 and 1998 before being dismissed as head coach after the 1999 season; the Patriots hired current head coach Bill Belichick, who had served as defensive coordinator under Parcells including during Super Bowl XXXI, in 2000.
Their new home field, Gillette Stadium, opened in 2002 to
In several forms of football a forward pass is a throwing of the ball in the direction that the offensive team is trying to move, towards the defensive team's goal line. The forward pass is one of the main distinguishers between gridiron football in which the play is legal and widespread, rugby football from which the North American games evolved, in which the play is illegal. In some football codes, such as association football, the kicked forward pass is used so ubiquitously that it is not thought of as a distinct kind of play at all. In these sports, the concept of offside is used to regulate who can be in front of the play or be nearest to the goal. However, this has not always been the case; some earlier incarnations of football allowed unlimited forward passing, while others had strict offside rules similar to rugby. The development of the forward pass in American football shows how the game has evolved from its rugby roots into the distinctive game it is today. Illegal and experimental forward passes had been attempted as early as 1876, but the first legal forward pass in American football took place in 1906, after a change in rules.
Another change in rules occurred on January 18, 1951, which established that no center, tackle, or guard could receive a forward pass. Today, the only linemen are the tight ends. Current rules regulate who may throw and who may receive a forward pass, under what circumstances, as well as how the defensive team may try to prevent a pass from being completed; the primary pass thrower is the quarterback, statistical analysis is used to determine a quarterback's success rate at passing in various situations, as well as a team's overall success at the "passing game." In American and Canadian football, a forward pass is referred to as a pass, consists of a player throwing the football towards the opponent's goal line. This is permitted only once during a scrimmage down by the offensive team before team possession has changed, provided the pass is thrown from in or behind the neutral zone. An illegal forward pass can incur a yardage penalty and the loss of a down, although it may be intercepted by the opponents and advanced.
If an eligible receiver on the passing team catches the ball, the pass is completed and the receiver may attempt to advance the ball. If an opposing player catches the ball it is an interception; that player's team gains possession of the ball and he may attempt to advance the ball toward his opponent's goal. If no player is able to catch the ball it is an incomplete pass and the ball becomes dead the moment it touches the ground, it will be returned to the original line of scrimmage for the next down. If any player interferes with an eligible receiver's ability to catch the ball it is pass interference which draws a penalty of varying degree; the person passing the ball must be a member of the offensive team, the recipient of the forward pass must be an eligible receiver and must touch the passed ball before any ineligible player. The moment that a forward pass begins is important to the game; the pass begins the moment. If the passer drops the ball before this moment it is a fumble and therefore a loose ball.
In this case anybody can gain possession of the ball. If the passer drops the ball while his arm is moving forward it is a forward pass, regardless of where the ball lands or is first touched; the quarterback either starts a few paces behind the line of scrimmage or drops back a few paces after the ball is snapped. This places him in an area called the "pocket", a protective region formed by the offensive blockers up front and between the tackles on each side. A quarterback who runs out of this pocket is said to be scrambling. Under NFL and NCAA rules, once the quarterback moves out of the pocket the ball may be thrown away to prevent a sack. NFHS rules do not allow for a passer to intentionally throw an incomplete forward pass to save loss of yardage or conserve time, except for a spike to conserve time after a hand-to-hand snap. If he throws the ball away while still in the pocket a foul called "intentional grounding" is assessed. In Canadian football the passer must throw the ball across the line of scrimmage—whether he is inside or outside of the "pocket"—to avoid the foul of "intentionally grounding".
If a forward pass is caught near a sideline or endline it is a complete pass only if a receiver catches the ball in bounds. For a pass to be ruled complete in-bounds, depending on the rules either one or two feet must touch the ground within the field boundaries, after the ball is first grasped. In the NFL the receiver must touch the ground with both feet, but in most other codes—CFL, NCAA and high school—one foot in bounds is enough. Common to all gridiron codes is the notion of control—a receiver must demonstrate control of the ball in order to be ruled in possession of it, while still in bounds, as defined by his code. If the receiver handles the ball but the official determines that he was still "bobbling" it prior to the end of the play the pass will be ruled incomplete; the forward pass had been attempted at least 30 years before the play was made legal. Passes "had been carried out but illegally several times, including the 1876 Yale–Princeton game in which Yale's Walter Camp threw forward to teammate Oliver Thompson as he was being