A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. The term is used in connection with national population and housing censuses; the United Nations defines the essential features of population and housing censuses as "individual enumeration, universality within a defined territory and defined periodicity", recommends that population censuses be taken at least every 10 years. United Nations recommendations cover census topics to be collected, official definitions and other useful information to co-ordinate international practice; the word is of Latin origin: during the Roman Republic, the census was a list that kept track of all adult males fit for military service. The modern census is essential to international comparisons of any kind of statistics, censuses collect data on many attributes of a population, not just how many people there are. Censuses began as the only method of collecting national demographic data, are now part of a larger system of different surveys.
Although population estimates remain an important function of a census, including the geographic distribution of the population, statistics can be produced about combinations of attributes e.g. education by age and sex in different regions. Current administrative data systems allow for other approaches to enumeration with the same level of detail but raise concerns about privacy and the possibility of biasing estimates. A census can be contrasted with sampling in which information is obtained only from a subset of a population. Modern census data are used for research, business marketing, planning, as a baseline for designing sample surveys by providing a sampling frame such as an address register. Census counts are necessary to adjust samples to be representative of a population by weighting them as is common in opinion polling. Stratification requires knowledge of the relative sizes of different population strata which can be derived from census enumerations. In some countries, the census provides the official counts used to apportion the number of elected representatives to regions.
In many cases, a chosen random sample can provide more accurate information than attempts to get a population census. A census is construed as the opposite of a sample as its intent is to count everyone in a population rather than a fraction. However, population censuses rely on a sampling frame to count the population; this is the only way to be sure that everyone has been included as otherwise those not responding would not be followed up on and individuals could be missed. The fundamental premise of a census is that the population is not known and a new estimate is to be made by the analysis of primary data; the use of a sampling frame is counterintuitive as it suggests that the population size is known. However, a census is used to collect attribute data on the individuals in the nation; this process of sampling marks the difference between historical census, a house to house process or the product of an imperial decree, the modern statistical project. The sampling frame used by census is always an address register.
Thus it is not known how many people there are in each household. Depending on the mode of enumeration, a form is sent to the householder, an enumerator calls, or administrative records for the dwelling are accessed; as a preliminary to the dispatch of forms, census workers will check any address problems on the ground. While it may seem straightforward to use the postal service file for this purpose, this can be out of date and some dwellings may contain a number of independent households. A particular problem is what are termed'communal establishments' which category includes student residences, religious orders, homes for the elderly, people in prisons etc; as these are not enumerated by a single householder, they are treated differently and visited by special teams of census workers to ensure they are classified appropriately. Individuals are counted within households and information is collected about the household structure and the housing. For this reason international documents refer to censuses of housing.
The census response is made by a household, indicating details of individuals resident there. An important aspect of census enumerations is determining which individuals can be counted from which cannot be counted. Broadly, three definitions can be used: de facto residence; this is important to consider individuals who have temporary addresses. Every person should be identified uniquely as resident in one place but where they happen to be on Census Day, their de facto residence, may not be the best place to count them. Where an individual uses services may be more useful and this is at their usual, or de jure, residence. An individual may be represented at a permanent address a family home for students or long term migrants, it is necessary to have a precise definition of residence to decide whether visitors to a country should be included in the population count. This is becoming more important as students travel abroad for education for a period of several years. Other groups causing problems of enumeration are new born babies, people away on holiday, people moving home around census day, people without a fixed address.
People having second homes because of working in another part of the country or retaining a holiday cottage are dif
Interstate 87 (New York)
Interstate 87 is a 333.49-mile-long Interstate Highway located within the U. S. state of New York, is most of the main highway between New York City and Montreal. The highway begins in the Bronx borough of New York City, just north of the Triborough Bridge. From there, the route runs northward through the Hudson Valley, the Capital District, the easternmost part of the North Country to the Canadian border in the Town of Champlain. At its north end, I-87 continues into Quebec as Autoroute 15. I-87 connects with several regionally important roads: I-95 in New York City, New York State Route 17 near Harriman, I-84 near Newburgh, I-90 in Albany; the route is the longest intrastate Interstate Highway in the Interstate Highway System. The highway is not contiguous with I-87 in North Carolina. I-87 was assigned in 1957 as part of the establishment of the Interstate Highway System; the portion of I-87 south of Albany follows two freeways that predate the Interstate Highway designation, the Major Deegan Expressway in New York City and the New York State Thruway from the New York City line to Albany.
North of Albany, I-87 follows the Adirondack Northway, a highway built in stages between 1957 and 1967. Early proposals for I-87 called for the route to take a more easterly course through the Hudson Valley and extreme southwestern Connecticut between New York City and Newburgh; these plans were scrapped in 1970 when I-87 was realigned onto the Thruway between Westchester County and Newburgh. I-87 makes up most of the major strategic corridor between New York City, the largest metropolitan area in the U. S. and Montreal, the second largest metropolitan area in Canada. The New York State Department of Transportation considers the route important for commerce, as it connects with numerous highways in the region and serves 80 million people along the Mid-Atlantic States, New England, Quebec. Motorists can connect to multiple highways on I-87 to travel farther south along I-95 through the mid-Atlantic states, or through numerous other highways to travel farther east into New England; the highest ridership on the highway is between the Bruckner Expressway and the George Washington Bridge in New York City.
The remainder of the route in New York City and it’s suburbs has high ridership over the Tappan Zee Bridge as it goes over the Hudson River. Upstate, the highest ridership is in Albany and Saratoga, as those are the most populated areas in the north; the lowest ridership is the section of the Thruway between Newburgh and the Berkshire Connector, followed by the Northway through the northern parts of Adirondack Park. I-87 begins in the Bronx at the northern approach to the Triborough Bridge, where it connects to the Bruckner Expressway at a directional T interchange; the route heads west from the interchange, paralleling loosely with the Harlem River through Mott Haven. After 1 mile, the highway makes a turn to the north, mirroring a change in the nearby river's course, it passes by Yankee Stadium on its way to Highbridge, where the Deegan connects to the Cross Bronx Expressway at the eastern approach to the Alexander Hamilton Bridge. The Deegan remains in close proximity to the Harlem River until the waterway turns westward at Kingsbridge to form the northern edge of Manhattan.
North of Kingsbridge, I-87 follows a northeastern alignment, passing through the center of Van Cortlandt Park as it connects to Mosholu Parkway and Jerome Avenue. Mosholu Parkway links I-87 to the Henry Hudson and Saw Mill River parkways, which run parallel to the Major Deegan Expressway through the western Bronx and Manhattan. Past Jerome Avenue, the freeway gains a pair of service roads and heads north to the New York City–Yonkers border. At the New York City–Yonkers border, I-87 changes to the New York State Thruway as the mainline proceeds northward through Yonkers and southern Westchester County, it connects with Central Park Avenue at the first of 12 exits within the county. The first few exits serve various local streets, with exit 2 providing access to Yonkers Raceway and exit 3 serving the Cross County Shopping Center. At exit 4, I-87 connects to the Cross County Parkway, an east–west parkway providing access to the Saw Mill River, Bronx River, Hutchinson River parkways; the north-south parkways and I-95 run parallel to the Thruway through Southern Westchester.
The Bronx River parkway leaves to the northeast midway through Yonkers, while the Saw Mill and Sprain Brook parkways follow the Thruway out of the city. All three highways take parallel tracks to Elmsford, where I-87 directly intersects the Saw Mill River Parkway at exit 7A. Not far to the north is exit 8, a semi-directional T interchange with I-287. I-287 joins the Thruway here, following I-87 west across the Hudson River into Rockland County on the Tappan Zee Bridge. I-87 and I-287 remain overlapped for 15 miles through the densely populated southern portion of Rockland County, meeting the Palisades Interstate Parkway and the Garden State Parkway Connector, with the latter providing access to the Garden State Parkway in New Jersey; the Thruway continues westward to Suffern, where I-87 and I-287 split at a large semi-directional T interchange only about a half mile from the New Jersey border. At this point, I-287 heads south into New Jersey while I-87 and the Thruway turn northward into the valley of the Ramapo River.
The Thruway continues north as a six lane tollway through the river valley toward Harriman, where it encounters the Woodbury toll barrier, the southeastern end of the mainline's major closed ticket system. The b
Bronxville, New York
Bronxville is a village in Westchester County, New York, located about 15 miles north of midtown Manhattan. It is part of the town of Eastchester; the village comprises 1 square mile of land in its entirety 20% of the town of Eastchester. As of the 2010 U. S. census, Bronxville had a population of 6,323. In 2016, Bronxville was rated by CNBC as the most expensive suburb of any of America's ten largest cities, with a median home value of $2.33 million. It was ranked eighth in Bloomberg's "America's 100 Richest Places" in 2017 and 2018; the region that includes the contemporary village of Bronxville was deeded to British colonists in 1666. However, it was not until the early 18th century; the two founding inhabitants were the Morgan families. The Underhills built a sawmill and a gristmill, the first factory in the area, on the Bronx River. There, they constructed a wooden bridge, which gave rise to the area being known as "Underhill's Crossing". Millionaire real-estate and pharmaceutical mogul William Van Duzer Lawrence sparked the development of Bronxville as an affluent suburb of New York City with magnificent homes in a rustic setting.
The area, once known as Underhill's Crossing, became "Bronxville" when the village was formally established. The population grew in the second half of the 19th century, when railroads allowed commuters from Westchester County to work in New York City. Lawrence's influence can be seen throughout the community, including the historic Lawrence Park neighborhood, the Houlihan Lawrence Real Estate Corporation, Lawrence Hospital. John F. Kennedy, the President of the United States resided here for a time; the village was home to an arts colony in the early 20th century, when many noteworthy houses were built by prominent and casual architects. After the Bronx River Parkway was completed in 1925, the village expanded with the construction of several apartment buildings and townhouses, many of them built by the Lawrence family; as of 1959, the family continued to manage 97 % of the rental market. In both rentals and ownership, the village discouraged and prohibited Jewish residency, earning the name "Holy Square Mile".
James W. Loewen includes it in his book Sundown Towns, quoting the Anti-Defamation League's 1959 comment: The Incorporated Village of Bronxville in Westchester County has earned a reputation for admitting to its precincts as home-owners or -renters only those who profess to be Christian. According to informed observers, this mile-square village, with a population of 6500, does not have any known Jewish families residing within its boundaries.… Even in the apartment buildings located in Bronxville there are no known Jewish tenants. The Gramatan Hotel on Sunset Hill was a residence hotel in the late 19th century and early 20th century. Gramatan was the name of the chief of the local Siwanoy Indian tribe, centered in the Gramatan Rock area above Bronxville Station. Chief Gramatan sold the land to the settlers; the hotel was demolished in 1970, a complex of townhouses was built on the site in 1980. Elizabeth Clift Bacon, General George Armstrong Custer's widow, lived in Bronxville, her house still stands to this day.
St. Joseph's Catholic Church, located in the downtown area, was attended by the Kennedys when they were residents from 1929 to about 1938 before moving to London. In 1958 future-senator Ted Kennedy married Joan Bennett in St. Joseph's Church. In 1960, the Village voted 5:1 for Nixon over Kennedy; the US Post Office–Bronxville was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1988. Other sites on the National Register are the Bronxville Women's Club, Lawrence Park Historic District, Masterton-Dusenberry House; as of the 2000 census, there were 6,543 people, 2,312 households and 1,660 families residing in the village. The population density was 6,869.3 per square mile. There were 2,387 housing units, at an average density of 2,506.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 91.88% White, 1.15% African American, 0.05% Native American, 4.83% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 0.73% from other races, 1.30% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latinos of any race were 2.93% of the population.
There were 2,312 households, of which 40.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 64.4% were married couples living together, 6.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.2% were non-families. In the village, 24.3% of all households were made up of individuals, 11.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.71, the average family size was 3.27. Age distribution was 29.1% under the age of 18, 7.3% from 18 to 24, 25.9% from 25 to 44, 25.6% from 45 to 64, 12.2% 65 or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 86.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 82.1 males. The median household income was $203,931, the average household income was $334,848, the median family income was $256,883—making it one of the wealthiest and most affluent places with more than 1,000 households, or a population greater than 1,000, in the United States. Median income is ranked 16th highest in the country. Males had a median income of $100,000, versus $61,184 for females.
The per capita income for the village was $116,018. About 1.7% of families and 2.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 1.6% of those under age 18 and 2.9% of those age 65 or over. In 2016, Forbes named it one of the ten most expensive suburbs of America's major cities. Bronxville's 10708 ZIP Code covers the village of Bronxville proper, plus Chester Heights and other sections of Eastchester, parts of Tuckahoe, Lawrence Park West, Cedar Knolls, Armour Villa
Marble is a metamorphic rock composed of recrystallized carbonate minerals, most calcite or dolomite. Marble is not foliated, although there are exceptions. In geology, the term "marble" refers to metamorphosed limestone, but its use in stonemasonry more broadly encompasses unmetamorphosed limestone. Marble is used for sculpture and as a building material; the word "marble" derives from the Ancient Greek μάρμαρον, from μάρμαρος, "crystalline rock, shining stone" from the verb μαρμαίρω, "to flash, gleam". This stem is the ancestor of the English word "marmoreal", meaning "marble-like." While the English term "marble" resembles the French marbre, most other European languages, more resemble the original Ancient Greek. Marble is a rock resulting from metamorphism of sedimentary carbonate rocks, most limestone or dolomite rock. Metamorphism causes variable recrystallization of the original carbonate mineral grains; the resulting marble rock is composed of an interlocking mosaic of carbonate crystals.
Primary sedimentary textures and structures of the original carbonate rock have been modified or destroyed. Pure white marble is the result of metamorphism of a pure limestone or dolomite protolith; the characteristic swirls and veins of many colored marble varieties are due to various mineral impurities such as clay, sand, iron oxides, or chert which were present as grains or layers in the limestone. Green coloration is due to serpentine resulting from magnesium-rich limestone or dolostone with silica impurities; these various impurities have been mobilized and recrystallized by the intense pressure and heat of the metamorphism. Examples of notable marble varieties and locations: White marble has been prized for its use in sculptures since classical times; this preference has to do with its softness, which made it easier to carve, relative isotropy and homogeneity, a relative resistance to shattering. The low index of refraction of calcite allows light to penetrate several millimeters into the stone before being scattered out, resulting in the characteristic waxy look which gives "life" to marble sculptures of any kind, why many sculptors preferred and still prefer marble for sculpting.
Construction marble is a stone, composed of calcite, dolomite or serpentine, capable of taking a polish. More in construction the dimension stone trade, the term "marble" is used for any crystalline calcitic rock useful as building stone. For example, Tennessee marble is a dense granular fossiliferous gray to pink to maroon Ordovician limestone, that geologists call the Holston Formation. Ashgabat, the capital city of Turkmenistan, was recorded in the 2013 Guinness Book of Records as having the world's highest concentration of white marble buildings. According to the United States Geological Survey, U. S. domestic marble production in 2006 was 46,400 tons valued at about $18.1 million, compared to 72,300 tons valued at $18.9 million in 2005. Crushed marble production in 2006 was 11.8 million tons valued at $116 million, of which 6.5 million tons was finely ground calcium carbonate and the rest was construction aggregate. For comparison, 2005 crushed marble production was 7.76 million tons valued at $58.7 million, of which 4.8 million tons was finely ground calcium carbonate and the rest was construction aggregate.
U. S. dimension marble demand is about 1.3 million tons. The DSAN World Demand for Marble Index has shown a growth of 12% annually for the 2000–2006 period, compared to 10.5% annually for the 2000–2005 period. The largest dimension marble application is tile. In 1998, marble production was dominated by 4 countries that accounted for half of world production of marble and decorative stone. Italy and China were the world leaders, each representing 16% of world production, while Spain and India produced 9% and 8%, respectively. Italy is the world leader in marble export, with 20% share in global marble production, followed by China with 16%, India with 10%, Spain with 6%, Portugal with 5%. Dust produced by cutting marble could cause lung disease but more research needs to be carried out on whether dust filters and other safety products reduce this risk; the Occupational Safety and Health Administration has set the legal limit for marble exposure in the workplace as 15 mg/m3 total exposure and 5 mg/m3 respiratory exposure over an 8-hour workday.
The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health has set a recommended exposure limit of 10 mg/m3 total exposure and 5 mg/m3 respiratory exposure over an 8-hour workday. Acids damage marble, because the calcium carbonate in marble reacts with them, releasing carbon dioxide: CaCO3 + 2H+ → Ca2+ + CO2 + H2O Thus, vinegar or other acidic solutions should never be used on marble. Outdoor marble statues, gravestones, or other marble structures are damaged by acid rain; the haloalkaliphilic methylotrophic bacterium Methylophaga murata was isolated from deteriorating marble in the Kremlin. Bacterial and fungal degradation was detected in four samples of marble from Milan cathedral; as the favorite medium for Greek and Roman sculptors and architects, marble has become a cultural symbol of tradition and refined taste. Its varied and colorful patterns make i
The Metro-North Commuter Railroad, trading as MTA Metro-North Railroad or Metro-North, is a suburban commuter rail service run by the Metropolitan Transportation Authority, a public authority of the U. S. state of New York. Metro-North runs service between New York City and its northern suburbs in New York and Connecticut, including Port Jervis, Spring Valley, White Plains, Wassaic in New York and Stamford, New Canaan, Danbury and New Haven in Connecticut. Metro-North provides local rail service within the New York City boroughs of Manhattan and the Bronx. Metro-North is the descendant of commuter rail services dating back as early as 1832. By the 1960s, they had all been acquired by the New York Central Railroad, which became part of Penn Central in 1968. MTA acquired all three lines by 1972. Penn Central spun off its commuter operations to Conrail in 1976; the system took its current form in 1983, when MTA took over Conrail's commuter operations in the northern portion of the New York metropolitan area and merged them into Metro-North.
There are 124 stations on Metro-North Railroad's five active lines, which operate on more than 787 miles of track, with the passenger railroad system totaling 385 miles of route. With an average weekday ridership of 298,300 in 2017, it is the third busiest commuter railroad in North America in terms of annual ridership, behind Long Island Rail Road and NJ Transit; as of 2018, Metro-North's budgetary burden for expenditures was $1.3 billion, which it supports through the collection of taxes and fees. The MTA has jurisdiction, through Metro-North, over railroad lines on the western and eastern portions of the Hudson River in New York. Service on the western side of the Hudson is operated by New Jersey Transit under contract with the MTA. Three lines provide passenger service on the east side of the Hudson River to Grand Central Terminal in Manhattan: the Hudson and New Haven Lines; the Beacon Line is not in service. The Hudson and Harlem Lines terminate in New York, respectively; the New Haven Line is operated through a partnership between Metro-North and the State of Connecticut.
The Connecticut Department of Transportation owns the tracks and stations within Connecticut, finances and performs capital improvements. MTA handles capital improvements within New York State. MTA performs routine maintenance and provides police services for the entire line, its branches and stations. New cars and locomotives are purchased in a joint agreement between MTA and ConnDOT, with the agencies paying for 33.3% and 66.7% of costs respectively. ConnDOT pays more; the New Haven Line has three branches in Connecticut: the New Canaan Branch, Danbury Branch and Waterbury Branch. At New Haven, ConnDOT runs two connecting services, the Shore Line East connecting service continues east to New London, the Hartford Line service continues north to Hartford, Springfield, Massachusetts. Amtrak operates inter-city rail service along the New Hudson Lines; the New Haven Line is part of Amtrak's Northeast Corridor, high-speed Acela Express trains run from New Rochelle to New Haven Union Station. At New Haven, the New Haven Line connects to the Amtrak New Haven–Springfield Line.
The Hudson Line is part of the Empire Corridor, Yonkers, Croton-on-Hudson, Poughkeepsie stations are all served by Amtrak as well as Metro-North. Freight trains run on Metro-North; the Hudson Line connects with the Oak Point Link and is the main route for freight to and from the Bronx and Long Island. Freight railroads CSX, CP Rail, P&W, Housatonic Railroad have trackage rights on sections of the system. See Rail freight transportation in New York City and Long Island Metro-North provides service west of the Hudson River on trains from Hoboken Terminal, New Jersey, jointly run with New Jersey Transit under contract. There are two branches: the Pascack Valley Line; the Port Jervis Line is accessed from two New Jersey Transit lines, the Main Line and the Bergen County Line. The Port Jervis Line terminates in Port Jervis, New York, the Pascack Valley line in Spring Valley, New York, in Orange and Rockland Counties, respectively. Trackage on the Port Jervis Line north of the Suffern Yard is leased from the Norfolk Southern Railway by the MTA, but New Jersey Transit owns all of the Pascack Valley Line, including the portion in Rockland County, New York.
Most stops for the Port Jervis and Pascack Valley Lines are in New Jersey, so New Jersey Transit provides most of the rolling stock and all the staff. Metro-North equipment has been used on other New Jersey Transit lines on the Hoboken division. All stations west of the Hudson River in New York are owned and operated by Metro-North, except Suffern, owned and operated by New Jersey Transit. Most of the trackage east of the Hudson River and in New York State was under the control of the New York Central Railroad; the NYC operated three commuter lines, two of which ran into Grand Central Depot. Metro-North's Harlem Line was a combination of trackage from the New York and Harlem Railroad and the Boston and Albany Railroad, running from Manhattan to Chatham, New York in Columbia County. At Chatham, passengers could transfer to long distance trains on the Boston and Albany to Albany, Boston and Canada. On April 1, 1873, the New York and Harlem Railroad was leased by Cornelius Vanderbilt, who added the railroad to his complex empire of railroads, which we
Immaculate Conception Church (Tuckahoe, New York)
The Church of the Immaculate Conception is a Roman Catholic parish church of the Archdiocese of New York located in Tuckahoe, New York. Founded in 1853, the parish is dedicated to the Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary. Following a merger, the parish was reorganized as the parish of the Immaculate Conception and the Assumption of our Lady, including the respective two churches; the Church of the Immaculate Conception was created as a mission of the Church of the Blessed Sacrament in New Rochelle in 1853 under the pastorship of Fr. Thomas McLoughlin by order of the Archbishop of New York, John Hughes. Though not yet an official parish or mission, mass was said by Fr. Eugene Maguire from St. Raymond's Church in the Bronx in the colonial-era Marble House that lies across NYS Route 22. By virtue of its founding date, the Church of the Immaculate Conception is the oldest Catholic church in Eastchester and one of the oldest in Westchester County, as well as one of the oldest institutions of any kind in Eastchester.
With a growing Irish, Italian and Lithuanian population of Catholics in the Bronxville area of Eastchester, as well as the neighboring communities in Eastchester and Yonkers, Immaculate Conception's priest, Fr. John G. McCormack with the assistance of Fr. Joseph L. McCann and Fr. Martin Lydon, established a mission in 1905 that would become the Church of St. Joseph. Construction of a wooden church building began in Waverly Square and Archbishop Michael Corrigan deeded to the young parish the plot of land on which it sat in 1886, though it had been gifted to the Archdiocese of New York 32 years prior by a local Catholic quarryman. A belfry was subsequently added in 1885; the mission, dedicated in the honor of the Immaculate Conception was elevated to the rank of a parish in 1878 by Cardinal John McCloskey upon the visit and recommendation of the archdiocese's vicar general William Quinn. The parish's Fr. John Ambrose Keogh, was appointed that year; the parish was incorporated on April 5, 1886 as "The Church of the Immaculate Conception in the Village of Tuckahoe, County of Westchester, N.
Y." and lay trustees were appointed. With the appointment of Fr. John G. McCormick as paster, a new plot of land that would house the present-day French Gothic Revival church was purchased for $15,000, a price asked by the Catholic owners, lower than market value; the new building was designed by Thomas J. Duff and the cornerstone was laid on November 8, 1908 with a parade and ceremony attended by 5,000 locals. For lack of funds, many of whom worked in the Tuckahoe quarries, helped to build the church part-time; the church was completed in 1911 with its dimensions measuring 150 feet in length and 70 feet in width. The stone façade was constructed from locally quarried Tuckahoe marble. Stained glass windows were delivered from Munich and the pipe organ of the old wooden church was disassembled and moved to the new church, where it remains today; the first mass was celebrated August 20, 1911 and the building was consecrated the following year on May 18 by Msgr. Patrick J. Hayes. At the time of consecration, around 900 Catholics were parishioners of the church.
Over time, adjacent properties were acquired, on which the present-day school building and other facilities were constructed. This new church building was supplemented by the construction of the nearby Church of the Assumption as a national parish for the many new Italian immigrants. In 1912, the School of the Immaculate Conception was founded as a parochial elementary school in the no-longer-used wooden church building a mile away, by the following year was staffed by religious sisters. By 1914, the enrollment in the school had reached 75 students who were instructed by a lay teacher along with the sisters. A new School of the Immaculate Conception was built in its current location abutting the church, the former building was demolished; the Knights of Columbus established a Tuckahoe Council in 1920 and operate out of the Immaculate Conception parish. In 2014, the Archbishop of New York, Cardinal Timothy Dolan, announced that the nearby parish of the Church of the Assumption would be merged with the Church of the Immaculate Conception as part of larger archdiocese-wide mergers.
Fr. Genarro Gentile was assigned to Immaculate Conception from 1984 to 1987, was laicized in 2005 for sexual abuse of children while at a different parish. Official website
Hutchinson River Parkway
The Hutchinson River Parkway is a north–south parkway in southern New York in the United States. It extends for 18.78 miles from the massive Bruckner Interchange in the Throggs Neck section of the Bronx to the New York–Connecticut state line at Rye Brook. The parkway continues south from the Bruckner Interchange as the Whitestone Expressway and north into Greenwich, Connecticut, as the Merritt Parkway; the roadway is named for the Hutchinson River, a short 10 mile -long stream in southern Westchester County that the road follows alongside. The river, in turn, was named for English colonial religious leader Anne Hutchinson. Construction of the parkway began in 1924 and was completed in 1941; the section of the parkway between Eastern Boulevard in the Bronx and U. S. Route 1 in Pelham Manor was designated as New York State Route 1X from 1941 to 1946. NY 1A was subsequently realigned to follow the Hutch between Eastern Boulevard and US 1; the NY 1A designation was removed around 1962. The road is designated as NY 908A within the Bronx and is maintained by the New York City Department of Transportation.
In Westchester County, the road is designated as NY 907W and is maintained by the New York State Department of Transportation. Both designations are unsigned reference routes. Like the Bronx River Parkway, the reference route designation of the parkway in Westchester County violates the numbering scheme used by the NYSDOT; the second digit of a reference route designation indicates its region. While other reference routes in the county carry a second digit of "8", as Westchester County is located in region 8, the "0" in 907W is indicative of regions 10 and 11, containing Long Island and New York City, respectively; the Hutchinson River Parkway begins at the large Bruckner Interchange in the Throggs Neck section of the Bronx. This interchange consists of junctions with the Cross Bronx Expressway, the Whitestone Expressway, the Bruckner Expressway; the Hutchinson River Parkway proceeds north as a continuation of I-678, entering exit 1, a small 1-lane ramp to Bruckner Boulevard near Saint Raymond's Cemetery.
Just to the north of exit 1 gas stations appear on each side of the road, which turns northeast and into exit 2, a connection to East Tremont Avenue. After exit 2, the parkway crosses under the IRT Pelham Line just west of Middletown Road subway station, crossing into the Pelham Bay section of the Bronx. Just after crossing into Pelham Bay, the parkway enters exit 3E–W, an interchange with the Pelham Parkway in a small section of Pelham Bay Park. After crossing over Amtrak's Northeast Corridor, the parkway crosses out of Pelham Bay Park and into exit 4S–N, a junction with I-95 and the New England Thruway. Crossing over Bartow Avenue and the Hutchinson River, the parkway crosses into the main section of Pelham Bay Park, where exit 5 forks off towards the center of the park; the now six-lane parkway crosses north through Pelham Bay Park, entering exit 6, another junction with the New England Thruway. When the Hutchinson River Parkway leaves Pelham Bay Park, the right-of-way leaves the Bronx and enters Westchester County.
Now in the village of Pelham Manor, the parkway enters exit 7, an interchange with US 1. Southbound, an exit 8 is present, a ramp to Sandford Boulevard in Pelham Manor. Proceeding northbound, exit 9 connects to Colonial Avenue, the continuation of Sandford Boulevard after the Hutchinson River Parkway in the adjacent village of Pelham; the parkway winds north through Pelham, entering exit 10 on the southbound lanes, a connection to East 3rd Street. Winding northeast, the parkway crosses under the Metro-North Railroad New Haven Line just west of Pelham station. Just after the line, the Hutchinson River Parkway crosses into exit 12, a bi-directional junction with Lincoln Avenue in Pelham. Soon the parkway leaves Pelham for Mount Vernon. In Mount Vernon, the Hutchinson River Parkway enters exit 13, a connection to the Cross County Parkway; the parkway winds northeast into exit 14, a junction with New Rochelle Road, bending northwest through Nature Study Woods Park. The parkway bends north into New Rochelle.
Just after crossing into New Rochelle, the Cross County Parkway merges into the northbound lanes. Crossing through Twin Lakes Park, the parkway enters exit 16, a junction with the northern end of Webster Avenue. Passing around Reservoir 3, the Hutchinson River Parkway crosses into Eastchester and soon back into New Rochelle near exit 18, which connects to North Avenue. To the north, exit 18E and exit 18W going southbound junctions with Mill Road in Eastchester, the continuation of North Avenue. After exits 18E and 18W, the parkway passes south of exit 19, Wilmot Road; the Hutchinson River Parkway proceeds northeast as a four-lane arterial through New Rochelle. The parkway crosses under NY 125, accessible southbound via exit 20. Proceeding northbound, exit 21 services Hutchinson Avenue, which connects to NY 125 and Quaker Ridge Country Club. Now in the Quaker Ridge section of Scarsdale, the Hutchinson River Parkway crosses into exit 22, Mamaroneck Avenue near Saxon Woods County Park; the parkway runs along the southern end of the park.
Exit 23S–N services another Mamaroneck Avenue as it crosses over the West Branch of the Mamaroneck River. Leaving the park, the Hutchinson River Parkway enters White Plains, crossing past a median rest area; the parkway continues northeast, entering a diamond interchange with NY 127 in Harrison. Passing Maple Moor Golf Course, the Hutchinson River Parkway enters exit