United States Department of Agriculture
The United States Department of Agriculture known as the Agriculture Department, is the U. S. federal executive department responsible for developing and executing federal laws related to farming and food. It aims to meet the needs of farmers and ranchers, promote agricultural trade and production, work to assure food safety, protect natural resources, foster rural communities and end hunger in the United States and internationally. 80% of the USDA's $141 billion budget goes to the Food and Nutrition Service program. The largest component of the FNS budget is the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, the cornerstone of USDA's nutrition assistance; the current Secretary of Agriculture is Sonny Perdue. Many of the programs concerned with the distribution of food and nutrition to people of America and providing nourishment as well as nutrition education to those in need are run and operated under the USDA Food and Nutrition Service. Activities in this program include the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, which provides healthy food to over 40 million low-income and homeless people each month.
USDA is a member of the United States Interagency Council on Homelessness, where it is committed to working with other agencies to ensure these mainstream benefits are accessed by those experiencing homelessness. The USDA is concerned with assisting farmers and food producers with the sale of crops and food on both the domestic and world markets, it plays a role in overseas aid programs by providing surplus foods to developing countries. This aid can go through USAID, foreign governments, international bodies such as World Food Program, or approved nonprofits; the Agricultural Act of 1949, section 416 and Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 1954 known as Food for Peace, provides the legal basis of such actions. The USDA is a partner of the World Cocoa Foundation. Early in its history, the economy of the United States was agrarian. Officials in the federal government had long sought new and improved varieties of seeds and animals for import into the United States. In 1837 Henry Leavitt Ellsworth, a Yale-educated attorney interested in improving agriculture, became Commissioner of Patents, a position within the Department of State.
He began collecting and distributing new varieties of seeds and plants through members of the Congress and agricultural societies. In 1839, Congress established the Agricultural Division within the Patent Office and allotted $1,000 for "the collection of agricultural statistics and other agricultural purposes." Ellsworth's interest in aiding agriculture was evident in his annual reports that called for a public depository to preserve and distribute the new seeds and plants, a clerk to collect agricultural statistics, statewide reports about crops in different regions, the application of chemistry to agriculture. Ellsworth was called the "Father of the Department of Agriculture."In 1849, the Patent Office was transferred to the newly created Department of the Interior. In the ensuing years, agitation for a separate bureau of agriculture within the department or a separate department devoted to agriculture kept recurring. On May 15, 1862, Abraham Lincoln established the independent Department of Agriculture to be headed by a commissioner without Cabinet status, the agriculturalist Isaac Newton was appointed to be the first such commissioner.
Lincoln called it the "people's department." In 1868, the Department moved into the new Department of Agriculture Building in Washington, D. C. designed by famed DC architect Adolf Cluss. Located on Reservation No.2 on the National Mall between 12th Street and 14th SW, the Department had offices for its staff and the entire width of the Mall up to B Street NW to plant and experiment with plants. In the 1880s, varied advocacy groups were lobbying for Cabinet representation. Business interests sought a Department of Commerce and Industry, farmers tried to raise the Department of Agriculture to Cabinet rank. In 1887, the House of Representatives and Senate passed bills giving Cabinet status to the Department of Agriculture and Labor, but the bill was defeated in conference committee after farm interests objected to the addition of labor. On February 9, 1889, President Grover Cleveland signed a bill into law elevating the Department of Agriculture to Cabinet level. In 1887, the Hatch Act provided for the federal funding of agricultural experiment stations in each state.
The Smith-Lever Act of 1914 funded cooperative extension services in each state to teach agriculture, home economics, other subjects to the public. With these and similar provisions, the USDA reached out to every county of every state. During the Great Depression, farming remained a common way of life for millions of Americans; the Department of Agriculture's Bureau of Home Economics, established in 1923, published shopping advice and recipes to stretch family budgets and make food go farther. USDA helped ensure that food continued to be produced and distributed to those who needed it, assisted with loans for small landowners, contributed to the education of the rural youth, it was revealed on August 27th, 2018 that the U. S. Department of Agriculture would be providing U. S. farmers with a farm aid package, which will total $4.7 billion in direct payments to American farmers. This package is meant to offset the losses farmers are expected to incur from retaliatory tariffs placed on American exports during the Trump tariffs.
The Department of Agriculture was authorized a budget for Fiscal Year 2015 of $139.7 billion. The budget authorization is broken down as follows: Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service Animal Damage Control (
The tropics are the region of the Earth surrounding the Equator. They are delimited in latitude by The Tropic of Cancer in the Northern Hemisphere at 23°26′12.4″ N and the Tropic of Capricorn in the Southern Hemisphere at 23°26′12.4″ S. The tropics are referred to as the tropical zone and the torrid zone; the tropics include all the areas on the Earth where the Sun contacts a point directly overhead at least once during the solar year - thus the latitude of the tropics is equal to the angle of the Earth's axial tilt. The tropics are distinguished from the other climatic and biomatic regions of Earth, which are the middle latitudes and the polar regions on either side of the equatorial zone; the tropics contain 36 % of the Earth's landmass. As of 2014, the region is home to 40% of the world population, this figure is projected to reach 50% by the late 2030s. "Tropical" is sometimes used in a general sense for a tropical climate to mean warm to hot and moist year-round with the sense of lush vegetation.
Many tropical areas have a wet season. The wet season, rainy season or green season is the time of year, ranging from one or more months, when most of the average annual rainfall in a region falls. Areas with wet seasons are disseminated across portions of the subtropics. Under the Köppen climate classification, for tropical climates, a wet-season month is defined as a month where average precipitation is 60 millimetres or more. Tropical rainforests technically do not have dry or wet seasons, since their rainfall is distributed through the year; some areas with pronounced rainy seasons see a break in rainfall during mid-season when the intertropical convergence zone or monsoon trough moves poleward of their location during the middle of the warm season. When the wet season occurs during the warm season, or summer, precipitation falls during the late afternoon and early evening hours; the wet season is a time when air quality improves, freshwater quality improves and vegetation grows leading to crop yields late in the season.
Floods cause rivers to overflow their banks, some animals to retreat to higher ground. Soil nutrients erosion increases; the incidence of malaria increases in areas. Animals have survival strategies for the wetter regime; the previous dry season leads to food shortages into the wet season, as the crops have yet to mature. However, regions within the tropics may well not have a tropical climate. Under the Köppen climate classification, much of the area within the geographical tropics is classed not as "tropical" but as "dry", including the Sahara Desert, the Atacama Desert and Australian Outback. There are alpine tundra and snow-capped peaks, including Mauna Kea, Mount Kilimanjaro, the Andes as far south as the northernmost parts of Chile and Argentina. Tropical plants and animals are those species native to the tropics. Tropical ecosystems may consist of tropical rainforests, seasonal tropical forests, dry forests, spiny forests and other habitat types. There are significant areas of biodiversity, species endemism present in rainforests and seasonal forests.
Some examples of important biodiversity and high endemism ecosystems are El Yunque National Forest in Puerto Rico, Costa Rican and Nicaraguan rainforests, Amazon Rainforest territories of several South American countries, Madagascar dry deciduous forests, the Waterberg Biosphere of South Africa, eastern Madagascar rainforests. The soils of tropical forests are low in nutrient content, making them quite vulnerable to slash-and-burn deforestation techniques, which are sometimes an element of shifting cultivation agricultural systems. In biogeography, the tropics are divided into Neotropics. Together, they are sometimes referred to as the Pantropic; the Neotropical region should not be confused with the ecozone of the same name. "Tropicality" refers to the geographic imagery that many people outside the tropics have of that region. The idea of tropicality gained renewed interest in modern geographical discourse when French geographer Pierre Gourou published Les Pays Tropicaux, in the late 1940s.
Tropicality encompasses at least two contradictory imageries. One is that the tropics represent a Garden of a heaven on Earth; the latter view was discussed in Western literature—more so than the first. Evidence suggests that over time the more primitive view of the tropics in popular literature has been supplanted by more nuanced interpretations that reflect historical changes in values associated with tropical culture and ecology, although some primitive associations are persistent. Western scholars theorized about the reasons that tropical areas were deemed "inferior" to regions in the Northern Hemisphere. A popular explanation focused on the differences in climate—tropical regions have much warmer weather than northern regions; this theme led some scholars, including Gourou, to argue that warmer climates correlate to primitive indigenous populations lacking control over nature, compared to northern popul
A pest is any animal or plant detrimental to humans or human concerns, including crops and forestry. The term is used of organisms that cause a nuisance, such as in the home. An older usage is of a deadly epidemic disease plague. In its broadest sense, a pest is a competitor of humanity. A pest is any living organism, whether animal, plant or fungus, invasive or troublesome to plants or animals, human or human concerns, livestock, or human structures, it is a loose concept, as an organism can be a pest in one setting but beneficial, domesticated or acceptable in another. Animals are called pests when they cause damage to agriculture by feeding on crops or parasitising livestock, such as codling moth on apples, or boll weevil on cotton. An animal could be a pest when it causes damage to a wild ecosystem or carries germs within human habitats. Examples of these include those organisms which vector human disease, such as rats and fleas which carry the plague disease, mosquitoes which vector malaria, ticks which carry Lyme disease.
A species can be a pest in one setting but domesticated in another. Many weeds are seen as useful under certain conditions, for instance Patterson's curse is valued as food for honeybees and as a wildflower though it can poison livestock; the term "plant pest" has a specific definition in terms of the International Plant Protection Convention and phytosanitary measures worldwide. A pest is any species, strain or biotype of plant, animal, or pathogenic agent injurious to plants or plant products. Plants may be considered pests themselves if an invasive species; the animal groups of greatest importance as pests are insects, mites and gastropods. Plant pests can be classed as monophagous and polyphagous according to how many hosts they have. Alternatively, they can be divided by feeding type, whether chewing. Another approach is to class them by population presence as * key pests, occasional pests, potential pests. In terms of population biology, there are population growth rate pests. Pigeons and seagulls eat human food and carry disease Many birds, such as crows, eat crops Canada goose.
Woodpeckers peck at rooftops and nest in them. They cause structural damage to houses; the common myna was declared by IUCN Species Survival Commission as one of the world's most invasive species and one of only three birds in the top 100 species that pose an impact to biodiversity and human interests. In particular, the species poses a serious threat to the ecosystems of Australia where it was named "The Most Important Pest/Problem". Cane toads have had serious negative effects on many ecosystems to which they have been introduced in Australia; the toad's skin is toxic, killing many domestic animals that attempt to eat it. Mice and other small rodents damage crops and stored produce. Rabbits decimate native plant populations in Australia. Foxes, opossums and bears eat waste. Red foxes introduced to Australia, have been implicated in the extinction of several of the country's native mammals. Beavers destroy trees. Gophers and moles destroy lawns. Feral cats and feral dogs carry disease. Feral cats, which did not exist in Australia prior to European settlement, have been implicated in the decline and extinction of many native species.
White-tailed deer are now seen as pests in many suburban and exurban areas of the US, though not in more rural areas. Coyotes and lions prey upon livestock. Vampire bats drink blood of livestock. Eastern grey squirrels cause damage to homes to rooflines and attic spaces, they can inhabit spaces between walls. They are seen as pests in Ireland because of the decline of red squirrel populations. Wild boars damage crops, spread disease, prey upon livestock. Examples of agricultural and horticultural insect pests include: aphids and other Hemipteran pests, Lepidopteran and Coleopteran larvae, spider mites and crickets. Ants, cockroaches and wasps Termites and wood ants cause structural damage Bookworms, carpet beetles and clothes moths cause non-structural damage Gypsy moths attack hardwood trees Chiggers cause skin irritation Sarcoptes scabiei causes scabies Ticks and mites cause irritation and can spread disease Lice and bed bugs can all cause skin irritation Mosquitoes, tsetse flies and kissing bugs cause irritation and carry disease Root-knot nematode Soybean cyst nematode Potato cyst nematode These include slugs and land snail pests: Some slugs are pests in agriculture and gardens.
Deroceras reticulatum is a worldwide slug pest. Local importance slug pests include: Deroceras spp. Milax spp. Tandonia sp. Limax spp. Arion spp. and some species of Veronicellidae: Veronicella sloanei. Helix aspersa damages citrus fruits in California, Cernuella virgata, Theba pisana and Cochlicella spp. decrease quality of grains when harvested with the product in South Australia. Achatina fulica damages vegetables and ornamental plants in the Pacific region. Succinea costaricana damages ornamental plants in Costa Rica. Ovachlamys fulgens damages ornamental orchids in Costa Rica. Other pest species include Amphibulima patula dominicensis, Zachrysi
Polyscias fruticosa, or Ming aralia, is a perennial dicot evergreen shrub or dwarf tree native to India. The plant grows slowly but can reach up to 1 to 2 meters in height; the leaves are of a dark green pigment, glossy in texture, are tripinnate and appear divided. Individual leaves are about 10 cm long; the Ming aralia is cultivated in several countries of Southeast Asia and the tropical islands of the Pacific region. It was located in Polynesia and thrives in environments of medium humidity, with temperatures varying from 16–29 °C; the name Polyscias means many-shaded, in reference to the foliage found on these plants. Their stalks carry compound leaves with up to seven opposite leaflets. In several species the leaves are lobed. There are about six species of the genus Polyscias that are cultivated; the genus contains a variety of tropical plants which include about 80 species from the Pacific islands and Southeast Asia. The family Araliaceae, to which the genus Polyscias including Ming aralia belongs, gives rise to a multitude of trees or shrubs that contain gum and resin ducts.
As a whole, the family contains plants that have leaves of alternate, palmately or pinnately compound or simple, with stipules. The inflorescences are umbellate, arranges in compound umbels, panicles or races, they possess flowers of smaller size than the dioecious which are unisexual. This family includes a multitude of popular house plants, including English ivy, as well as the herb ginseng. Araliaceae is known as the ginseng family, where the traits of the Ming Aralia spice and medical herb originate. Plants of this family can be found throughout the Neotropics, for the greater part in mountainous regions and much less in the lowlands. In Asian countries, the leaves of the Polyscias fruticosa are used as a tonic, anti-inflammatory, an antibacterial ointment, they have been proven to be an aid in digestion. The root is used as a diuretic, anti-dysentery, is employed for neuralgia and rheumatic pains. Along with medicinal purposes, Polyscias fruticosa is used as an ornamental plant and a spice.
In experiments with rodents, root extract of Polyscias fruticosa has been demonstrated to extend life span. A recent study on this plant by Vo Duy Hunan and colleagues, has afforded to known oleanolic acid saponins from the leaves, polyacetylenes from the roots; this shows antifungal activities. The volatile leaf oils were studied and isolated to find eight new oleanolic acid saponins, named polysciosides A to H, three known saponins; when considering this plant for home aesthetics, one should keep in mind that Polyscias fruticosa needs full sun to partial shade or high interior lighting. When grown in the greenhouse, the soil mixture should consist of two parts peat moss to two parts loam to one part sand or perlite; the plant should be kept moist. The plants should be fertilized only three times during the growing season using a balanced fertilizer diluted to half the strength recommended on the label. Since the plants are slow growers little pruning is needed to keep the desired form. However, unlike plants that branch sideways, the Ming aralia grows vertically.
Trimming is useful in keeping the desired height as well as shape. The tips are trimmed in order to encourage more rapid thickening of the trunk; the joints set produce a thick growth of branches and a dense covering of leaves, an ideal look for this particular plant. The stems weave forth, creating a complex interlocking arrangement; as the plant ages, the lower branches die off, leaving a corky surface, gnarled where the branches had been. This appearance is what attracts many people to adopting these plants for decoration of their homes and offices. Maas, Paul J. M. and Lubbert Y. Th. Westra. Neotropical Plant Families. 1st ed. Koenigstein, Germany: Koeltz Scientific Books, 1993. Print. Martorell, Luis F. and Liogier. Henri Alain. 1st ed. Rio Piedras, Puerto Rico: Editorial de la Universidad de Puerto Rico, 1982. Print. Huana, Vo Duy, Satoshi Yamamuraa, Kazuhiro Ohtania, Ryoji Kasaia, Kazuo Yamasaki, Nguyen Thoi Nham, Hoang Minh Chau. "Oleanane Saponins from Polyscias Fruticosa." Pergamon 47. 3.24 Jun 1997 451-457.
Web.30 Apr 2009. Lemke, Cal. "Polyscias fruticosa, Ming Aralia." Plant of the Week. 1 April 2004. University of Oklahoma Department of Botany & Microbiology. 4 May 2009 <http://www.plantoftheweek.org/week253.shtml>. Elbert, George. "Polyscias. Rhapis Gardens. 1988. New York Botanical Garden. 4 May 2009 <http://www.rhapisgardens.com/ming-aralias/>
The Acari are a taxon of arachnids that contains mites and ticks. The diversity of the Acari is extraordinary and their fossil history goes back to at least the early Devonian period. Acarologists have proposed a complex set of taxonomic ranks to classify mites. In most modern treatments, the Acari are considered a subclass of the Arachnida and are composed of two or three superorders or orders: Acariformes and Opilioacariformes; the monophyly of the Acari is open to debate, the relationships of the acarines to other arachnids is not at all clear. In older treatments, the subgroups of the Acarina were placed at order rank, but as their own subdivisions have become better understood, treating them at the superorder rank is more usual. Most acarines are minute to small. Over 50,000 species have been described and an estimated million or more species may exist; the study of mites and ticks is called acarology, the leading scientific journals for acarology include Acarologia and Applied Acarology and the International Journal of Acarology.
Mites are arachnids, as such, evolved from a segmented body with the segments organised into two tagmata: a prosoma and an opisthosoma. However, only the faintest traces of primary segmentation remain in mites; this anterior body region is called the capitulum or gnathosoma, according to some works, is found in the Ricinulei. The remainder of the body is unique to mites. Most adult mites have four pairs of legs, like other arachnids. For example, gall mites like Phyllocoptes variabilis have a worm-like body with only two pairs of legs. Larval and prelarval stages have a maximum of three pairs of legs. Members of the Nematalycidae within the Endeostigmata, which live between sand grains, have worm-like and elongated bodies with reduced legs; the mouth parts of mites may be adapted for biting, sawing, or sucking. They breathe through tracheae, stigmata and the skin itself. Species hunting for other mites have acute senses, but many mites are eyeless; the central eyes of arachnids are always missing.
Thus, any eye number from none to five may occur. Acarine ontogeny consists of an egg, a prelarval stage, a larval stage, a series of nymphal stages. Any or all of these stages except the adult may be suppressed or occur only within the body of a previous stage. Larvae have a maximum of three pairs of legs. A maximum of three nymphal stages are present and they are referred to in sequence as the protonymph and tritonymph; the females of some Tarsonemidae bear sexually mature young. If any nymphal stages are absent authors may disagree on which stages are present. Only the Oribatida pass through all developmental stages. Acarines are diverse, they live in every habitat, include aquatic and terrestrial species. They detritus. Many are parasitic, they affect both vertebrates and invertebrates. Most parasitic forms are external parasites, while the free-living forms are predatory and may be used to control undesirable arthropods. Others are detritivores that help to break down forest litter and dead organic matter, such as skin cells.
Others still may damage crops. The feather mites, are found on all species of birds, except for penguins, are specialized for life on their hosts, they may feed on uropygial oil, skin flakes, fungus and feathers, depending on the taxon to which they belong. Their lifestyles are affected by the microclimate. However, no evidence shows microclimate affecting mite diversity. Damage to crops is the most costly economic effect of mites by the spider mites and their relatives, earth mites, thread-footed mites and the gall and rust mites; the honey bee parasite Varroa destructor has caused or contributed to large-scale die-offs of commercial pollinating populations. Some parasitic forms affect humans and other mammals, causing damage by their feeding, can be vectors of diseases, such as scrub typhus, Lyme disease, Q fever, Colorado tick fever, tick-borne relapsing fever, babesiosis and tick-borne meningoencephalitis. A well-known effect of mites on humans is their role as allergens and the stimulation of asthma in people affected by respiratory disease.
The use of predatory mites in pest control and herbivorous
Scanning electron microscope
A scanning electron microscope is a type of electron microscope that produces images of a sample by scanning the surface with a focused beam of electrons. The electrons interact with atoms in the sample, producing various signals that contain information about the surface topography and composition of the sample; the electron beam is scanned in a raster scan pattern, the position of the beam is combined with the intensity of the detected signal to produce an image. In the most common SEM mode, secondary electrons emitted by atoms excited by the electron beam are detected using an Everhart-Thornley detector; the number of secondary electrons that can be detected, thus the signal intensity, among other things, on specimen topography. SEM can achieve resolution better than 1 nanometer. Specimens are observed in high vacuum in conventional SEM, or in low vacuum or wet conditions in variable pressure or environmental SEM, at a wide range of cryogenic or elevated temperatures with specialized instruments.
An account of the early history of SEM has been presented by McMullan. Although Max Knoll produced a photo with a 50 mm object-field-width showing channeling contrast by the use of an electron beam scanner, it was Manfred von Ardenne who in 1937 invented a true microscope with high magnification by scanning a small raster with a demagnified and finely focused electron beam. Ardenne applied the scanning principle not only to achieve magnification but to purposefully eliminate the chromatic aberration otherwise inherent in the electron microscope, he further discussed the various detection modes and theory of SEM, together with the construction of the first high magnification SEM. Further work was reported by Zworykin's group, followed by the Cambridge groups in the 1950s and early 1960s headed by Charles Oatley, all of which led to the marketing of the first commercial instrument by Cambridge Scientific Instrument Company as the "Stereoscan" in 1965, delivered to DuPont; the signals used by a scanning electron microscope to produce an image result from interactions of the electron beam with atoms at various depths within the sample.
Various types of signals are produced including secondary electrons, reflected or back-scattered electrons, characteristic X-rays and light, absorbed current and transmitted electrons. Secondary electron detectors are standard equipment in all SEMs, but it is rare for a single machine to have detectors for all other possible signals. In secondary electron imaging, the secondary electrons are emitted from close to the specimen surface. SEI can produce high-resolution images of a sample surface, revealing details less than 1 nm in size. Back-scattered electrons are beam electrons that are reflected from the sample by elastic scattering, they emerge from deeper locations within the specimen and the resolution of BSE images is less than SE images. However, BSE are used in analytical SEM, along with the spectra made from the characteristic X-rays, because the intensity of the BSE signal is related to the atomic number of the specimen. BSE images can provide information about the distribution, but not the identity, of different elements in the sample.
In samples predominantly composed of light elements, such as biological specimens, BSE imaging can image colloidal gold immuno-labels of 5 or 10 nm diameter, which would otherwise be difficult or impossible to detect in secondary electron images. Characteristic X-rays are emitted when the electron beam removes an inner shell electron from the sample, causing a higher-energy electron to fill the shell and release energy; the energy or wavelength of these characteristic X-rays can be measured by Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy or Wavelength-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and used to identify and measure the abundance of elements in the sample and map their distribution. Due to the narrow electron beam, SEM micrographs have a large depth of field yielding a characteristic three-dimensional appearance useful for understanding the surface structure of a sample; this is exemplified by the micrograph of pollen shown above. A wide range of magnifications is possible, from about 10 times to more than 500,000 times, about 250 times the magnification limit of the best light microscopes.
SEM samples have to be small enough to fit on the specimen stage, may need special preparation to increase their electrical conductivity and to stabilize them, so that they can withstand the high vacuum conditions and the high energy beam of electrons. Samples are mounted rigidly on a specimen holder or stub using a conductive adhesive. SEM is used extensively for defect analysis of semiconductor wafers, manufacturers make instruments that can examine any part of a 300 mm semiconductor wafer. Many instruments have chambers that can tilt an object of that size to 45° and provide continuous 360° rotation. Nonconductive specimens collect charge when scanned by the electron beam, in secondary electron imaging mode, this causes scanning faults and other image artifacts. For conventional imaging in the SEM, specimens must be electrically conductive, at least at the surface, electrically grounded to prevent the accumulation of electrostatic charge. Metal objects require little special preparation for SEM except for cleaning and conductively mounting to a specimen stub.
Non-conducting materials are coated with an ultrathin coating of electrically conducting material, deposited on the sample either by low-vacuum sputter coating or by high-vacuum evaporation. Conductive materials in current use for specimen coating include gold, gold/palladium alloy, platinum, i
Hydnocarpus is a genus of medium to large trees of Indochina, Indonesia and the Philippines, having alternate leaves, small dioecious racemose flowers, capsular fruits of which several are sources of chaulmoogra oil and hydnocarpus oil. Hydnocarpus anthelmintica is host to the Peacock mite Tuckerella filipina. Chaulmoogra oil, extracted from H. wightianus was an early treatment for leprosy. A number of species were in Taraktogenos. Hydnocarpus alcalae Hydnocarpus alpina Wight Hydnocarpus alpina Wight var. elongata Boerl. Hydnocarpus alpina Wight var. macrocarpa Boerl. Hydnocarpus annamensis Hydnocarpus annamicus Hydnocarpus anomalus Hydnocarpus anthelminticus Hydnocarpus beccarianus Hydnocarpus borneensis Hydnocarpus calophyllus Hydnocarpus calvipetalus Hydnocarpus castanea Hydnocarpus cauliflora Hydnocarpus clemensorum Hydnocarpus corymbosa Hydnocarpus crassifolius Hydnocarpus cucurbitina Hydnocarpus curtisii Hydnocarpus dawnensis Hydnocarpus elmeri Hydnocarpus filipes Hydnocarpus glaucescens Hydnocarpus gracilis Hydnocarpus grandiflorus Hydnocarpus hainanensis Hydnocarpus heteroclita Hydnocarpus humei Hydnocarpus ilicifolia Hydnocarpus inebrians Hydnocarpus kingii Hydnocarpus kuenstleri Hydnocarpus kurzii Hydnocarpus laevis Hydnocarpus lanceolata Hydnocarpus lasionema Hydnocarpus laurifolius Hydnocarpus macrocarpa Hydnocarpus merrillianus Hydnocarpus microcarpus Hydnocarpus moluocana Hydnocarpus nana Hydnocarpus obtusa Hydnocarpus octandra Hydnocarpus odoratus Hydnocarpus ovoidea Hydnocarpus palawanensis Hydnocarpus pentagynus Hydnocarpus pentandrus Hydnocarpus pinguis Hydnocarpus piscidia Hydnocarpus polyandra Hydnocarpus polypetalus Hydnocarpus punctifer Hydnocarpus quadrasii Hydnocarpus saigonensis Hydnocarpus scortechinii Hydnocarpus serrata Hydnocarpus setumpul Hydnocarpus sharmae Hydnocarpus stigmatophorus Hydnocarpus subfalcata Hydnocarpus subinteger Hydnocarpus sumatrana Hydnocarpus sumatrana Hydnocarpus tamiana Hydnocarpus tenuipetalus Hydnocarpus tomentosa Hydnocarpus unonifolia Hydnocarpus venenata Gaertn.
Hydnocarpus verrucosus Hydnocarpus wightianus Blume Hydnocarpus woodii Hydnocarpus wrayi Hydnocarpus yatesii Multilingual multiscript plant name database DiversityOfLife.org