The short-eared owl is a species of typical owl. Owls belonging to genus Asio are known as the eared owls, as they have tufts of feathers resembling mammalian ears; these "ear" tufts may not be visible. Asio flammeus will display its tufts when in a defensive pose, although its short tufts are not visible; the short-eared owl is found in open country and grasslands. The scientific name is from Latin; the genus name Asio is a type of eared owl, flammeus means "flame-coloured". The short-eared owl is a medium-sized owl measuring 34–43 cm in length and weighing 206–475 g, it has large eyes, a big head, a short neck, broad wings. Its bill is short, strong and black, its plumage is mottled tawny to brown with a barred tail and wings. The upper breast is streaked, its flight is characteristically floppy due to its irregular wingbeats. The short-eared owl may be described as "moth or bat-like" in flight. Wingspans range from 85 to 110 cm. Females are larger than males; the yellow-orange eyes of A. flammeus are exaggerated by black rings encircling each eye, giving the appearance of them wearing mascara, large, whitish disks of plumage surrounding the eyes like a mask.
Over much of its range, short-eared owls occurs with the similar-looking long-eared owl. At rest, the ear-tufts of long-eared owl serve to distinguish the two; the iris-colour differs: yellow in short-eared, orange in long-eared, the black surrounding the eyes is vertical on long-eared, horizontal on short-eared. Overall the short-eared tends to be sandier bird than the long-eared. There are a number of other ways in which the two species the differ which are best seen when they are flying: a) short-eared has a broad white band along the rear edge of the wing, not shown by long-eared; the short-eared owl differs structurally from the long-eared, having longer, slimmer wings: the long-eared owl has wings shaped more like those of a tawny owl. The long-eared owl has different habitat preferences from the short-eared, most being found concealed in areas with dense wooded thickets; the short-eared owl is most seen flying about in early morning or late day as it hunts over open habitats. As of 2009, there are ten recognized subspecies of the short-eared owl: A. f. bogotensis – Chapman, 1915: found in Colombia and northwestern Peru A. f. domingensis –: found on Hispaniola A. f. flammeus –: nominate, found in North America, northern Africa and northern Asia A. f. galapagoensis –: Galápagos Islands A. f. pallidicaudus – Friedmann, 1949: found in Venezuela and Suriname A. f. ponapensis – Mayr, 1933: found on east Caroline Island A. f. portoricensis – Ridgway, 1882: found in Puerto Rico A. f. sandwichensis –: Pueo or Hawaiian short-eared owl - found in the Hawaiian Islands A. f. sanfordi – Bangs, 1919: found on the Falkland Islands A. f. suinda –: found from southern Peru and southern Brazil to Tierra del FuegoSome authorities recognize a further subspecies: A. f. cubensis – Garrido, 2007: found in Cuba The short-eared owl occurs on all continents except Antarctica and Australia.
A. flammeus breeds in Europe, Asia and South America, the Caribbean and the Galápagos Islands. It is migratory, moving south in winter from the northern parts of its range; the short-eared owl is known to relocate to areas of higher rodent populations. It will wander nomadically in search of better food supplies during years when vole populations are low. Sexual maturity is attained at one year. Breeding season in the northern hemisphere lasts from March to June. During this time these owls may gather in flocks. During breeding season, the males make great spectacles of themselves in flight to attract females; the male swoops down over the nest flapping its wings in a courtship display. These owls are monogamous; the short-eared owl nests on the ground in prairie, savanna, or meadow habitats. Nests are concealed by low vegetation, may be lined by weeds, grass, or feathers. 4 to 7 white eggs are found in a typical clutch, but clutch size can reach up to a dozen eggs in years when voles are abundant.
There is one brood per year. The eggs are incubated by the female for 21–37 days. Offspring fledge at a little over four weeks; this owl is known to lure predators away from its nest by appearing to have a crippled wing. Hunting occurs at night, but this owl is known to be diurnal and crepuscular as well, its daylight hunting seems to coincide with the high-activity periods of its preferred prey. It tends to fly only feet above the ground in open fields and grasslands until swooping down upon its prey feet-first. Several owls may hunt over the same open area, its food consists of rodents voles, but it will
Quercus ilicifolia known as bear oak or scrub oak, is a small shrubby oak native to the eastern United States and southeastern Canada. Its range extends in the United States from Maine to North Carolina, with reports of a few populations north of the international frontier in Ontario; the name ilicifolia means "holly-leaved." Quercus ilicifolia is a deciduous tree or shrub growing reaching a height of 6 meters but much smaller. It can form a dense thicket; the plant grows from a large taproot. The taproot lives a long time; the alternately arranged. The species is monoecious, with plants bearing both male catkins and solitary or clustered female flowers; the egg-shaped acorn is 1 to 2 centimeters long with a saucer-shaped cap. The plant reproduces sexually by seed and vegetatively by sprouting new stems. Quercus ilicifolia is a dominant plant species in a number of regions and habitat types. In Maine it can be found in deciduous forests alongside red maple, gray birch, quaking aspen. In Massachusetts it codominates with black huckleberry on the shrublands of Nantucket and Martha's Vineyard.
On Cape Cod it occurs with pitch broom crowberry. It can pine barrens habitat on Long Island, it occurs in fire barrens on granite and gneiss further north in Canada. This oak is adapted to disturbance such as wildfire. Hence, it does not tolerate shade and it requires disturbance to clear remove other plant species so it can receive sunlight, it sprouts prolifically. Quercus ilicifolia provides shelter for many animal species. Bears consume the acorns when preparing for hibernation. White-tailed deer eat the stems and foliage. Many types of squirrels cache the acorns. Many birds depend on them. A large number of insect species live on the oak; this oak species is the main food plant for 29% of the rare or endangered Lepidopterans in southern New England and southeastern New York. Quercus ilicifolia has been used in revegetation projects on the Fresh Kills Landfill on Staten Island. Quercus ilicifolia is known to rocky summits in the Piedmont of North Carolina where it is listed as a State Endangered Plant.
United States department of Agriculture Plants Database: Quercus ilicifolia
An outwash plain called a sandur, sandr or sandar, is a plain formed of glacial sediments deposited by meltwater outwash at the terminus of a glacier. As it flows, the glacier carries the debris along; the meltwater at the snout of the glacier deposits its load of sediment over the outwash plain, with larger boulders being deposited near the terminal moraine, smaller particles travelling further before being deposited. Sandurs are common in Iceland where geothermal activity accelerates the melting of ice flows and the deposition of sediment by meltwater. Sandurs are found in glaciated areas, such as Svalbard, Kerguelen Islands, Iceland. Glaciers and icecaps contain large amounts of silt and sediment, picked up as they erode the underlying rocks when they move downhill, at the snout of the glacier, meltwater can carry this sediment away from the glacier and deposit it on a broad plain; the material in the outwash plain is size-sorted by the water runoff of the melting glacier with the finest materials, like silt, being the most distantly re-deposited, whereas larger boulders are the closest to the original terminus of the glacier.
An outwash plain might contain surficial braided stream complexes. They may contain kettle lakes, locations where blocks of ice have melted, leaving a depression that fills with water; the flow pattern of glacial rivers across sandar is diffuse and unchannelized, but in situations where the glacial snout has retreated from the terminal moraine, the flow is more channelized. Sandurs are most common in Iceland, where geothermal activity beneath ice caps speeds up the deposition of sediment by meltwater; as well as regular geothermal activity, volcanic activity gives rise to large glacial bursts several times a century, which carry down large volumes of sediment. The Gaspé Peninsula that makes up the essential part of southern Quebec contains several example of paleo-sandar, dating from the Pleistocene ice melt. One of the sandurs from which the general name is derived is Skeiðarársandur, a broad sandy wasteland along Iceland's south-eastern coast, between the Vatnajökull icecap and the sea. Volcanic eruptions under the icecap have given rise to many large glacial bursts, most in 1996, when the Ring Road was washed away.
This road, which encircles Iceland and was completed in 1974, has since been repaired. The 1996 jökulhlaup was caused by the eruption of the Grímsvötn volcano, with peak flow estimated to be 50,000 m3/s compared to the normal summer peak flow of 200 to 400 m3/s. Net deposition of sediment was estimated to be 12,800,000 m3; the main braided channels of Skeiðarársandur are the Gígjukvísl and Skeiðará rivers, which incurred net gains of 29 and 24 cm during the 1996 jökulhlaup. In the Gígjukvísl there was massive sediment deposition of up to 12 m, which occurred closest to the terminus of the glacier; the erosional patterns of Skeiðarársandur can be seen by looking at the centimetre-scale elevation differences measured with repeat-pass laser altimetry flown in 1996, 1997, 2001. Of the overall deposition during the 1996 jökulhlaup, nearly half of the net gain had been eroded 4 years after the flood; these two rivers on the sandur display drastically different erosional patterns. The difference in sediment erosion can be attributed to the 2 km wide trench near the terminus where the Gígjukvísl flows, in contrast with the Skeiðará, which has braided flows directly onto the outwash plain.
The Gígjukvísl river is where some of the highest level of sediment deposit occurred and where the largest erosion happened afterward. This indicates that these massive jökulhlaup deposits may have a large geomorphic impact in the short term, but the net change on the surface relief could be minimal after a couple years to a decade; the observed change of Skeiðarársandur from a diffuse to a channelized distributary system where it has the most observed sediment deposit has a significant impact on the development of the fluvial succession in the proximal zone. However, in order to have sustained active accretion across the entire sandur there needs to be a diffuse, multipoint distribution system; the system of accumulation on Skeiðarársandur, a product of glacier retreat, can be seen as multiple regions of differing channel patterns that distribute sediment across the plain in dynamic configurations. Kankakee Outwash Plain Terminal moraine Church, Michael A. Baffin Island sandurs: a study of arctic fluvial processes.
Garvin J. B. Topographic Dynamics of Kerguelen Island: A Preliminary SRTM Analysis, American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting 2001 Gomez B. Russell A. J. Finnegan D. C. Smith L. C. Knudsen O. Sediment Distribution on Skeidararsandur, Southeast Iceland, American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting 2001 Hardardottir J. Snorrason A. Zophoniasson S. Jonsson P. Sigurdsson O. Elefsen S. O. Glacial Outburst Floods in Iceland, EGS - AGU - EUG Joint Assembly, Abstracts from the meeting held in Nice, France, 6–11 April 2003 Magilligan F. J. Gomez B. Mertes L. A. K. Smith, L. C. Smith N. D. Finnegan D. Garvin J. B. Geomorphic effectiveness, sandur development, the pattern of landscape response during jökulhlaups: Skeiðarársandur, southeastern Iceland, Geomorphology 44 95–113 Hétu, B. La déglaciation de la région de Rimouski, Bas-Saint-Laurent: Indices d'une récurrence glaciaire dans la mer de Goldthwait entre 12400 et 12000 BP, Géographie physique et Quaternaire, 1998, vol. 52, n.3, p. 325-347 Smith L. C
Photovoltaic solar panels absorb sunlight as a source of energy to generate electricity. A photovoltaic module is a packaged, connected assembly of 6x10 photovoltaic solar cells. Photovoltaic modules constitute the photovoltaic array of a photovoltaic system that generates and supplies solar electricity in commercial and residential applications; the most common application of solar energy collection outside agriculture is solar water heating systems. Photovoltaic modules use light energy from the Sun to generate electricity through the photovoltaic effect; the majority of modules use wafer-based crystalline silicon cells or thin-film cells. The structural member of a module can either be the back layer. Cells must be protected from mechanical damage and moisture. Most modules are rigid, but semi-flexible ones based on thin-film cells are available; the cells must be connected electrically in one to another. A PV junction box is attached to the back of the solar panel and it is its output interface.
Externally, most of photovoltaic modules use MC4 connectors type to facilitate easy weatherproof connections to the rest of the system. USB power interface can be used. Module electrical connections are made in series to achieve a desired output voltage or in parallel to provide a desired current capability; the conducting wires that take the current off the modules may contain silver, copper or other non-magnetic conductive transition metals. Bypass diodes may be incorporated or used externally, in case of partial module shading, to maximize the output of module sections still illuminated; some special solar PV modules include concentrators in which light is focused by lenses or mirrors onto smaller cells. This enables the use of cells with a high cost per unit area in a cost-effective way. Solar panels use metal frames consisting of racking components, reflector shapes, troughs to better support the panel structure. In 1839, the ability of some materials to create an electrical charge from light exposure was first observed by Alexandre-Edmond Becquerel.
Though the premiere solar panels were too inefficient for simple electric devices they were used as an instrument to measure light. The observation by Becquerel was not replicated again until 1873, when Willoughby Smith discovered that the charge could be caused by light hitting selenium. After this discovery, William Grylls Adams and Richard Evans Day published "The action of light on selenium" in 1876, describing the experiment they used to replicate Smith's results. In 1881, Charles Fritts created the first commercial solar panel, reported by Fritts as "continuous, constant and of considerable force not only by exposure to sunlight but to dim, diffused daylight." However, these solar panels were inefficient compared to coal-fired power plants. In 1939, Russell Ohl created the solar cell design, used in many modern solar panels, he patented his design in 1941. In 1954, this design was first used by Bell Labs to create the first commercially viable silicon solar cell; each module is rated by its DC output power under standard test conditions, ranges from 100 to 365 Watts.
The efficiency of a module determines the area of a module given the same rated output – an 8% efficient 230 W module will have twice the area of a 16% efficient 230 W module. There are a few commercially available solar modules that exceed efficiency of 24% Depending on construction, photovoltaic modules can produce electricity from a range of frequencies of light, but cannot cover the entire solar range. Hence, much of the incident sunlight energy is wasted by solar modules, they can give far higher efficiencies if illuminated with monochromatic light. Therefore, another design concept is to split the light into six to eight different wavelength ranges that will produce a different color of light, direct the beams onto different cells tuned to those ranges; this has been projected to be capable of raising efficiency by 50%. A single solar module can produce only a limited amount of power. A photovoltaic system includes an array of photovoltaic modules, an inverter, a battery pack for storage, interconnection wiring, optionally a solar tracking mechanism.
Scientists from Spectrolab, a subsidiary of Boeing, have reported development of multi-junction solar cells with an efficiency of more than 40%, a new world record for solar photovoltaic cells. The Spectrolab scientists predict that concentrator solar cells could achieve efficiencies of more than 45% or 50% in the future, with theoretical efficiencies being about 58% in cells with more than three junctions; the best achieved sunlight conversion rate is around 21.5% in new commercial products lower than the efficiencies of their cells in isolation. The most efficient mass-produced solar modules have power density values of up to 175 W/m2. Research by Imperial College, London has shown that the efficiency of a solar panel can be improved by studying the light-receiving semiconductor surface with aluminum nanocylinders similar to the ridges on Lego blocks; the scattered light travels along a longer path in the semiconductor which means that more photons can be absorbed and converted into current.
Although these nanocylinders have been used the light scattering occurred in the near infrared region and visible light was absorbed strongly. Aluminum was found to have absorbed the ultraviolet part of the spectrum, while the visible and near infrared parts o
Solidago sempervirens, the seaside goldenrod or salt-marsh goldenrod, is a plant species in the genus Solidago of the Asteraceae family. It is native to parts of the Caribbean, it is an introduced species in the Azores. Solidago sempervirens is a herbaceous perennial that reaches heights of 4 -- 6 feet, it is unusual in the genus in having toothless, hair-less leaves, thicker than those of most other Solidago species. Flower heads are found in a large paniculiform inflorescence at the top of the plant with branches that bend backwards towards the base; this species blooms in late summer and well into the fall in the season than most of its relatives. Its fruits are wind-dispersed achenes, they are yellow and have sprouts of buds at the end of the short branches. In nature, S. sempervirens is a plant of the seashore, is accordingly found along coasts of the Atlantic Ocean, the Caribbean, the Gulf of Mexico from Central America north as far as Newfoundland. It grows on sand dunes, salt marshes, the banks of estuaries.
It is found inland along the St. Lawrence Seaway and the Great Lakes, has expanded its range further inland along roadsides over the past 30 years, it is tolerant of both saline soils and salt spray, is found growing on coastal dunes and in salt marshes. VarietiesSolidago sempervirens var. mexicana Fernald - from Massachusetts south to Central America and the West Indies Solidago sempervirens var. sempervirens - from Newfoundland south to Virginia. It is cultivated as an ornamental, preferring sunny locations with sandy soil, with little competition from other species. "Solidago sempervirens". Germplasm Resources Information Network. Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture
Bakers Island is a small, private residential island in Massachusetts Bay, in Salem, Massachusetts. It is located southeast of Great Misery Island & Little Misery Island, northeast of North Gooseberry Island and South Gooseberry Island, far northeast of Children's Island, it is the outermost island on the main shipping channel into Salem Harbor. Bakers Island Light, located on the island's northern side, is used for navigation; the island is pear-shaped. Most of its coast is rocky ledges, except for its western coast. There are three small landlocked ponds located near one another at the center. Vegetation on the island is trees and scrub. There is a private pier on the west side. Most of the buildings are concentrated in the southern portions of the island; the 55-acre island was known as Bakers Island as early as the 1630s. Owned by the Massachusetts Bay Colony, it was granted to the town of Salem in 1660. John Turner was the first private owner of the island; the island once housed a hotel, but is now entirely cottages, most of them individually named.
The island has a store, fire house, the Sherman C. Burnham meeting hall; the Essex National Heritage Commission owns 11 acres of land at the north end of the island where Bakers Island Light and its accompanying buildings sit. The island had twin lights on a single house, first lit on January 3, 1798. Two towers were built in 1816 and 1820; the shorter tower was demolished in 1926. Wise, DeWitt E. "Now, Then: Baker's Island," Baker's Island Association. Unauthored, "The Baker's Island Chronicle 1964-1988," Baker's Island Association
Massachusetts the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous state in the New England region of the northeastern United States. It borders on the Atlantic Ocean to the east, the states of Connecticut and Rhode Island to the south, New Hampshire and Vermont to the north, New York to the west; the state is named after the Massachusett tribe, which once inhabited the east side of the area, is one of the original thirteen states. The capital of Massachusetts is Boston, the most populous city in New England. Over 80% of Massachusetts's population lives in the Greater Boston metropolitan area, a region influential upon American history and industry. Dependent on agriculture and trade, Massachusetts was transformed into a manufacturing center during the Industrial Revolution. During the 20th century, Massachusetts's economy shifted from manufacturing to services. Modern Massachusetts is a global leader in biotechnology, higher education and maritime trade. Plymouth was the site of the second colony in New England after Popham Colony in 1607 in what is now Maine.
Plymouth was founded in 1620 by passengers of the Mayflower. In 1692, the town of Salem and surrounding areas experienced one of America's most infamous cases of mass hysteria, the Salem witch trials. In 1777, General Henry Knox founded the Springfield Armory, which during the Industrial Revolution catalyzed numerous important technological advances, including interchangeable parts. In 1786, Shays' Rebellion, a populist revolt led by disaffected American Revolutionary War veterans, influenced the United States Constitutional Convention. In the 18th century, the Protestant First Great Awakening, which swept the Atlantic World, originated from the pulpit of Northampton preacher Jonathan Edwards. In the late 18th century, Boston became known as the "Cradle of Liberty" for the agitation there that led to the American Revolution; the entire Commonwealth of Massachusetts has played a powerful commercial and cultural role in the history of the United States. Before the American Civil War, Massachusetts was a center for the abolitionist and transcendentalist movements.
In the late 19th century, the sports of basketball and volleyball were invented in the western Massachusetts cities of Springfield and Holyoke, respectively. In 2004, Massachusetts became the first U. S. state to recognize same-sex marriage as a result of the decision in Goodridge v. Department of Public Health by the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court. Many prominent American political dynasties have hailed from the state, including the Adams and Kennedy families. Harvard University in Cambridge is the oldest institution of higher learning in the United States, with the largest financial endowment of any university, Harvard Law School has educated a contemporaneous majority of Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States. Kendall Square in Cambridge has been called "the most innovative square mile on the planet", in reference to the high concentration of entrepreneurial start-ups and quality of innovation which have emerged in the vicinity of the square since 2010. Both Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge, have been ranked among the most regarded academic institutions in the world.
Massachusetts' public-school students place among the top tier in the world in academic performance, the state has been ranked as one of the top states in the United States for citizens to live in, as well as one of the most expensive. The Massachusetts Bay Colony was named after the indigenous population, the Massachusett derived from a Wôpanâak word muswach8sut, segmented as mus "big" + wach8 "mountain" + -s "diminutive" + -ut "locative", it has been translated as "near the great hill", "by the blue hills", "at the little big hill", or "at the range of hills", referring to the Blue Hills, or in particular the Great Blue Hill, located on the boundary of Milton and Canton. Alternatively, Massachusett has been represented as Moswetuset—from the name of the Moswetuset Hummock in Quincy, where Plymouth Colony commander Myles Standish, hired English military officer, Squanto, part of the now disappeared Patuxet band of the Wampanoag peoples, met Chief Chickatawbut in 1621; the official name of the state is the "Commonwealth of Massachusetts".
While this designation is part of the state's official name, it has no practical implications. Massachusetts has powers within the United States as other states, it may have been chosen by John Adams for the second draft of the Massachusetts Constitution because unlike the word "state", "commonwealth" at the time had the connotation of a republic, in contrast to the monarchy the former American colonies were fighting against. Massachusetts was inhabited by tribes of the Algonquian language family such as the Wampanoag, Nipmuc, Pocomtuc and Massachusett. While cultivation of crops like squash and corn supplemented their diets, these tribes were dependent on hunting and fishing for most of their food. Villages consisted of lodges called wigwams as well as longhouses, tribes were led by male or female elders known as sachems. In the early 1600s, after contact had been made with Europeans, large numbers of the indigenous peoples in the northeast of what is now the United States were killed by virgin soil epidemics such as smallpox, measles and leptospirosis.
Between 1617 and 1619, smallpox killed ap