Lesley-Anne Down is an English actress, former model, singer. She achieved fame as Georgina Worsley in the ITV drama series Upstairs, Downstairs, she received further recognition for her performances in the films The Pink Panther Strikes Again, A Little Night Music, The First Great Train Robbery, Hanover Street, Rough Cut and Nomads. She is known as Madeline Fabray in the miniseries North and South, for which she was nominated for a Golden Globe Award in 1986. In 1990, Down played the role Stephanie Rogers in the CBS drama series Dallas. During 1997–99, she played Olivia Richards in the NBC series Sunset Beach. From April 2003 to February 2012, she portrayed Jackie Marone in the CBS soap opera The Bold and the Beautiful. Down was raised in Wandsworth, South West London, England, she began acting and modelling, in her teenaged years won several beauty pageants. She was voted Britain's most beautiful teenager at the age of 15, she made her feature film debut in 1969 in a supporting role in the British drama The Smashing Bird I Used to Know.
She had roles in several other British films, such as All the Right Noises and Countess Dracula, guest-starred in the television series Six Dates with Barker, Out of the Unknown, Public Eye. In 1973, Down was cast as Georgina Worsley, Marchioness of Stockbridge, on the Emmy Award-winning British drama series, Downstairs; this role was her career breakthrough, after the show ended in 1975, she moved to Hollywood and began her film career. She starred in the 1976 movie The Pink Panther Strikes Again, was cast opposite Elizabeth Taylor on the film adaptation of A Little Night Music. Down worked as leading lady in film, starred opposite Kirk Douglas, Laurence Olivier, Sean Connery, Anthony Hopkins, Donald Sutherland in various films, her major roles were in The Betsy, The First Great Train Robbery, Hanover Street, Rough Cut, her box-office bomb Sphinx. Down has appeared on a musical version of Great Expectations. Down has played number of leading roles in made-for-television miniseries, she starred in 1978 British drama The One and Only Phyllis Dixey as Phyllis Dixey.
She played the role of Esméralda in a British-American TV movie The Hunchback of Notre Dame in 1982 opposite Anthony Hopkins, starred in Murder Is Easy and Ladykillers. In 1985, she starred in Arch of Triumph with Donald Pleasence, she starred in the ABC miniseries The Last Days of Pompeii in 1984, in North and South in 1985. For her role as Madeline Fabray LaMotte in North and South, she was nominated for Golden Globe Award in 1986, she starred in North and South, Book II, Heaven & Hell: North & South, Book III. She turned down the roles on The Thorn Birds. In 1990, Down was cast as series regular for a limited run in the CBS primetime soap opera Dallas as Stephanie Rogers, she earned a quarter of a million dollars' salary for a 10-week shoot. In the 1990s, Down starred in several small feature and television films, played guest roles on television series such as The Nanny and Diagnosis: Murder, she starred in the 1994 film Death Wish V: The Face of Death, opposite Charles Bronson, appeared with him in the 1995 TV movie Family of Cops.
In 1996, Aaron Spelling cast her as Olivia Blake on the NBC soap opera Sunset Beach. The series aired from January 1997 to December 1999. After the soap was cancelled, Down starred in Lifetime movies You Belong to Me. In 2003, Down was cast in another soap as Jackie Marone on CBS's the Beautiful. In January 2012, Down confirmed. Down appeared in the films The King's Guard with Eric Roberts and Ron Perlman, The Meeksville Ghost, 13th Child, Today You Die, Seven Days of Grace, on which she was a writer. In 2011, Down appeared in Victor Salva's thriller film Rosewood Lane with Rose McGowan, Ray Wise, Lauren Vélez, she starred alongside Kirsten Vangsness in the comedy film Kill Me, played mother of leads in Dark House, I Am Watching You and Justice. After ending a 10-year relationship with actor-writer Bruce Robinson, Down married Enrique Gabriel in 1980, but ended their marriage after a year and a half. Down's second marriage was to film director William Friedkin from 1982 to 1985, with whom she had one son, Jack.
She met her third husband, cinematographer Don E. Fauntleroy, during filming of the television miniseries North and South in 1985, they began a relationship, which ended Down's marriage to Friedkin and Fauntleroy's marriage to Susan Ducat. The resulting legal and custody proceedings interrupted the careers of both Down and Fauntleroy for two years and cost Down and Friedkin US$1 million each. Down and Fauntleroy have a son, George-Edward. Down has spoken on several occasions about dealing with sexual predators in the film industry. In 2002, she spoke of finding fame in the late 1960s: "The casting couch was in full swing, people expected it... My teenage years were pretty intense, a lot of pressure and a lot of horrible old men out there". In a 1977 interview, she had said: "I was promised lots of lovely big film parts by American producers if I went to bed with them. Believe me, the casting couch is no myth". In 2015, Down discussed her experiences of sexual harassment in the 1970s by an unnamed legendary Hollywood actor and by producer Sam Spiegel, saying that she "never enjoyed" her acting career: "Partly, because of all the lecherous men, studio executives and direct
Machine Gun Corps
The Machine Gun Corps was a corps of the British Army, formed in October 1915 in response to the need for more effective use of machine guns on the Western Front in the First World War. The Heavy Branch of the MGC was the first to use tanks in combat and was subsequently turned into the Tank Corps called the Royal Tank Regiment; the MGC remained in existence after the war until it was disbanded in 1922. At the outbreak of the First World War in August 1914, the tactical potential of machine guns was not appreciated by the British Armed Forces; the prevalent attitude of senior ranks at the outbreak of the Great War can be summed up by the opinion of an officer that a single battery of machine guns per army corps was a sufficient level of issue. Despite the evidence of fighting in Manchuria the army therefore went to war with each infantry battalion and cavalry regiment containing a machine gun section of just two guns; these organic units were supplemented in November 1914 by the formation of the Motor Machine Gun Service administered by the Royal Artillery, consisting of motor-cycle mounted machine gun batteries.
A machine gun school was opened in France. After a year of warfare on the Western Front it was self-evident that to be effective–in the opinion of former sceptics-that machine guns must be used in larger units and some commanders advocated crewing them with specially trained men who not only conversant with their weapons but who understood how they should be best deployed for maximum effect. To achieve this, the Machine Gun Corps was formed in October 1915 with Infantry and Motor branches, followed in 1916 by the Heavy Branch. A depot and training centre was established at Belton Park in Grantham, a base depôt at Camiers in France; the Infantry Branch was by far the largest and was formed by the transfer of battalion machine gun sections to the MGC. These sections were grouped into three per division. New companies were raised at Grantham. In 1917, a fourth company was added to each division. In February and March 1918, the four companies in each division were formed into a Machine Gun Battalion.
The Guards Division formed the Guards Machine Gun Regiment. The Cavalry Branch consisted of one per cavalry brigade; the Motor Branch was formed by absorbing the MMGS and the armoured car squadrons of the disbanded Royal Naval Armoured Car Service. It formed several types of units: motor cycle batteries, light armoured motor batteries and light car patrols; as well as motor cycles, other vehicles used included Ford Model T cars. The Heavy Section was formed in March 1916. Men of this branch crewed the first tanks in action at Flers, during the Battle of the Somme in September 1916. In July 1917, the Heavy Branch separated from the MGC to become the Tank Corps called the Royal Tank Regiment; the MGC saw action in all the main theatres of war, including France and Belgium, Mesopotamia, Salonika, East Africa and Italy. In its short history, the MGC gained an enviable record for heroism as a front line fighting force. Indeed, in the latter part of the war, as tactics changed to defence in depth, it served well in advance of the front line.
It had a less enviable record for its casualty rate. Some 170,500 officers and men served in the MGC, with 62,049 becoming casualties, including 12,498 killed, earning it the nickname'the Suicide Club'. While the undeniable bravery and self-sacrifice of the corps stands testament to the men and their regimental esprit de corps it is a symptom of the fixed belief on the part of senior commanders that machine guns were confined to a marginal if useful role, that of an adjunct to massed rifle fire, ignoring the proven potential of this weapon in the indirect role By setting up the same weapons more used in the direct role the delivering of accurate and sustained fire at high elevation became less an art than a science that could reliably deliver plunging fire at twice the maximum effective range of hand-held weapons of identical calibre, but not so convincingly a belief to hold that the machine gunners were in effect hiding behind the front lines while uselessly firing into the air, making a show instead of dying beside riflemen whose weapons used identical ammunition.
This conviction may explain–from both sides–the persistence with which machine gunners were placed in exposed positions where their fire was only marginally effective but enemy troops could be seen to fall victim to it, the great personal bravery with which those same men fought when the same enemy concentrated their forces against the greater threat represented by an unsupported sandbag emplacement. As stated by Paul Cornish in Machine Guns and the Great War:'The theory behind this technique had long been understood... as early as 1908... the mathematical work required to provide a reliable basis for the conduct of such fire was carried out by a group of British enthusiasts at the Hythe musketry school... However, it was 1915 before such fire was carried out in the field...' Cornish goes on'To conduct such fire the proposed target would be located... the relative position of the machine gun relative to it would be determined with ruler and protractor.. Calculations would be made to determine the gun's potential cone of fire and the trajectory of its bullets.
A clinometer, combined with a graduated elevation dial fitted to the tripod would
A factory or manufacturing plant is an industrial site consisting of buildings and machinery, or more a complex having several buildings, where workers manufacture goods or operate machines processing one product into another. Factories arose with the introduction of machinery during the Industrial Revolution when the capital and space requirements became too great for cottage industry or workshops. Early factories that contained small amounts of machinery, such as one or two spinning mules, fewer than a dozen workers have been called "glorified workshops". Most modern factories have large warehouses or warehouse-like facilities that contain heavy equipment used for assembly line production. Large factories tend to be located with access to multiple modes of transportation, with some having rail and water loading and unloading facilities. Factories may either make discrete products or some type of material continuously produced such as chemicals and paper, or refined oil products. Factories manufacturing chemicals are called plants and may have most of their equipment – tanks, pressure vessels, chemical reactors and piping – outdoors and operated from control rooms.
Oil refineries have most of their equipment outdoors. Discrete products may be final consumer goods, or parts and sub-assemblies which are made into final products elsewhere. Factories may make them from raw materials. Continuous production industries use heat or electricity to transform streams of raw materials into finished products; the term mill referred to the milling of grain, which used natural resources such as water or wind power until those were displaced by steam power in the 19th century. Because many processes like spinning and weaving, iron rolling, paper manufacturing were powered by water, the term survives as in steel mill, paper mill, etc. Max Weber considered production during ancient times as never warranting classification as factories, with methods of production and the contemporary economic situation incomparable to modern or pre-modern developments of industry. In ancient times, the earliest production limited to the household, developed into a separate endeavour independent to the place of inhabitation with production at that time only beginning to be characteristic of industry, termed as "unfree shop industry", a situation caused under the reign of the Egyptian pharaoh, with slave employment and no differentiation of skills within the slave group comparable to modern definitions as division of labour.
According to translations of Demosthenes and Herodotus, Naucratis was a, or the only, factory in the entirety of ancient Egypt. A source of 1983, states the largest factory production in ancient times was of 120 slaves within 4th century BC Athens. An article within the New York Times article dated 13 October 2011 states: "In African Cave, Signs of an Ancient Paint Factory" –... discovered at Blombos Cave, a cave on the south coast of South Africa where 100,000-year-old tools and ingredients were found with which early modern humans mixed an ochre-based paint. Although The Cambridge Online Dictionary definition of factory states: a building or set of buildings where large amounts of goods are made using machines elsewhere:... the utilization of machines presupposes social cooperation and the division of labour The first machine is stated by one source to have been traps used to assist with the capturing of animals, corresponding to the machine as a mechanism operating independently or with little force by interaction from a human, with a capacity for use with operation the same on every occasion of functioning.
The wheel was invented c. 3000 BC, the spoked wheel c. 2000 BC. The Iron Age began 1200–1000 BC. However, other sources define machinery as a means of production. Archaeology provides a date for the earliest city as 5000 BC as Tell Brak, therefore a date for cooperation and factors of demand, by an increased community size and population to make something like factory level production a conceivable necessity. According to one text the water-mill was first made in 555 A. D. by Belisarius, although according to another they were known to Pliny the Elder and Vitruvius in the first century B. C. By the time of the 4th century A. D. mills with a capacity to grind 3 tonnes of cereal an hour, a rate sufficient to meet the needs of 80,000 persons, were in use by the Roman Empire. The Venice Arsenal provides one of the first examples of a factory in the modern sense of the word. Founded in 1104 in Venice, Republic of Venice, several hundred years before the Industrial Revolution, it mass-produced ships on assembly lines using manufactured parts.
The Venice Arsenal produced nearly one ship every day and, at its height, employed 16,000 people. One of the earliest factories was John Lombe's water-powered silk mill at Derby, operational by 1721. By 1746, an integrated brass mill was working at Warmley near Bristol. Raw material went in at one end, was smelted into brass and was turned into pans, pins and other goods. Housing was provided for workers on site. Josiah Wedgwood in Staffordshire and Matthew Boulton at his Soho Manufactory were other prominent early industrialists, who employed the factory system; the factory system began widespread use somewhat when cotton spinning was mechanized. Richard Arkwright is the person credited with inventing the prototype of the modern factory. After he patented his water frame in 1769, he established Cromford Mill, in Derbyshire, England expanding the village of Cromford to accommodate the migrant workers new to the area; the factory system was a new way of organizing labour made necessary by the developm
Hazel Bellamy, is a fictional character in the British television series, Downstairs. She was portrayed by Meg Wynn Owen. On 15 April 1912 Richard hires Hazel Forrest to type the biography of his father-in-law, the old Earl of Southwold, which he is writing, she is a middle class young woman, earning a living as a secretary for ten years, against her parents' wishes. This character gives the viewer a rare view of the interior of her parents' middle class home, one of the few locations other than the Bellamys' home. James is attracted to her; the class divide between James and Hazel causes early conflicts with Hazel's parents, the Bellamys' staff and in the marriage. After about seven months of courting, James proposes in November, she does not tell him. Hazel's sad past is now the Forrest's family secret; this leads Arthur Forrest, to visit James and reveal the family secret. He explains that Hazel was married to a drunkard, Patrick O'Connor, who beat her, they divorced and Hazel moved back in with her parents.
Mr. Forrest wants his daughter to be happy, while the prickly Mrs. Forrest is sure the Bellamys would never accept Hazel as a divorced woman. James asks Hazel again, after talking, during which he informs Hazel that his own sister Elizabeth divorced and remarried, she accepts his second proposal, they marry in late 1912 or early 1913, honeymoon in Paris. James and Hazel Bellamy are going for a weekend hunting party to Somerby Park in 1913, the country house of James' school-friend Lord "Bunny" Newbury; the other guests encourage her to surprise James and join the hunt, something she has never done before. Diana Newberry, a childhood friend and love interest of James Bellamy, is jealous and contemptuous of James' middle class wife. Diana secretly gives Hazel a spirited mount; the horse runs away with Hazel. She is nearly killed, she and James argue, as he feels humiliated. This, in addition to Major Cochrane-Danby claiming that James and Diana are sleeping together, leads Hazel to flee Somerby with Rose.
James follows her back to London and they soon make up. The tea party, arranged by Hazel and Lady Prudence in Home Fires takes place in the Morning Room of 165 Eaton Place, only three officers are there, along with Lady Berkhamstead and Mrs Vowles. Hazel befriends a shy, young airman called Jack Dyson, like her, has risen from the middle class, they soon start going out with each other. They go boating, go dancing, where they kiss passionately; the day before he goes back to the Front, Dyson goes to Eaton Place to say goodbye, but Hazel is out at the canteen. He writes her a note, calling her his "only girl in the World". In the episode The Glorious Dead Rose gets a letter from Captain Peter Graham, Gregory's company commander telling her that her fiancé has been killed. Hazel comforts Rose and tells her that she know what she is feeling, because she read in the newspaper that Lt. Jack Dyson MC had been killed in an aerial battle: "One grief-stricken woman urges another to be strong and to seek comfort in prayer.
Hazel tells Rose – and herself – that time will help accommodate bereavement and loss."James Bellamy comes home on leave. When he opens a drawer he sees the letters from Jack Dyson and photo of him, but he closes the drawer and says nothing, it is November 1918 and James and Hazel argue. It is implied that James strikes her, Hazel runs out crying; when Rose comforts her on the stairs, she realises. Dr Foley arrives, examines her and tells Hazel that she has caught the Spanish flu, a pandemic, she and James make up. Rose is upset by her death; the funeral is held on 11 November, the day. Hazel's parents go to the funeral, her mother is cold. List of Upstairs, Downstairs characters
For the fictional television character, see David Langton David Muir Langton was a British actor, best remembered for playing Richard Bellamy in the period drama Upstairs, Downstairs. David Langton was born Basil Muir Langton-Dodds to a middle-class family in Motherwell, Lanarkshire in 1912, his father was a wine merchant and Langton's family moved to England when he was four years old. He attended a prep school in Bath and left education at the age of 16. Langton's father had always encouraged him to go into acting and got him his first job touring with a small Shakespearean company. At 19 years old, Langton left the theatre and went to live on Yell, a remote island in Shetland, became a sheep farmer while attempting to become a writer. However, he admitted this was a "disaster", when he went back to the mainland when his mother was ill, he realised he did not want to return. In 1938, Langton returned to working full-time in theatre, it was at this time that he changed his name to David Langton, as there was an actor called Basil Langton, his legal name was David Muir Langton.
However, in 1939 the war broke out and Langton soon enlisted. He first served in the Royal Artillery ending up a sergeant and was commissioned in the Northumberland Hussars and ended up a major. Langton served in France and Belgium, he married his first wife, Rosemary, in 1940. When the war ended, they realised that the marriage had been a mistake, but stayed together for the sake of their three sons, Simon and Robin; the eldest, Simon, a director, would work with his father on the set of Upstairs, Downstairs. Langton divorced in 1966. Within four days of leaving the Army following the end of the war, Langton was cast in a play called Fifty Fifty and in 1950, following some periods of unemployment, he got a part in Seagulls Over Sorrento. Following the death of his father, Langton went missing and was discovered in New York City, where he was en route to see his brother Donald in Canada, he explained that he needed a break, soon returned to Seagulls Over Sorrento, which finished its run in 1953.
Following Seagulls Over Sorrento, he acted in many plays, including Agatha Christie's Rule of Three and The Devil's Disciple, where he met and formed a friendship with Tyrone Power. David Langton had started his television career in the 1950s and went on in the 1960s to appear in The Troubleshooters, Out of the Unknown, The Avengers, The Champions, Dr. Finlay's Casebook and Special Branch, he appeared in films such as The Trials of Oscar Wilde, A Hard Day's Night and The Liquidator. In 1968 director Douglas Camfield chose Langton to portray Colonel Lethbridge-Stewart in the Doctor Who serial "The Web of Fear", but Langton dropped out to perform in a TV play before production began, so Camfield gave the part to Nicholas Courtney, cast in different role; as played by Courtney, the character of Lethbridge-Stewart returned to Doctor Who the next year and became one of its most recognisable supporting characters, appearing in Doctor Who irregularly until 1989 and making a final appearance in spin-off The Sarah Jane Adventures in 2008.
Langton achieved international fame in 1971 playing family patriarch Richard Bellamy in the popular historical serial drama Upstairs, Downstairs. He was given the role after a chance encounter with producer John Whitney at the Garrick Club in London. During some of Upstairs, Downstairs's run, Langton lived in Eaton Place, the square in Belgravia where Upstairs, Downstairs was set and where exterior scenes were filmed. Following the success of Upstairs, Langton appeared in the 1972 BBC Television adaption of Dorothy L. Sayers's Lord Peter Wimsey mystery Clouds of Witness, as the Duke of Denver, older brother to Lord Peter Wimsey, the 1976 film The Incredible Sarah, Robert Altman's sci-fi film Quintet starring Paul Newman. In the 1980s, he appeared on television in The Spoils of War and Witness for the Prosecution, played Sir Charles Baskerville in the 1983 TV film of The Hound of the Baskervilles, Earl Mountbatten of Burma in Charles & Diana: A Royal Love Story, H. H. Asquith in Number 10, appeared in the film The Whistle Blower, opposite Michael Caine.
His final television appearances were in The Case-Book of Sherlock Holmes and Absolutely in 1991, The Good Guys in 1992. Langton had continued to appear on stage, including appearances in Night and Day and Beyond Reasonable Doubt. In May 1975, Langton married Claire Green, the former wife of TV host Hughie Green. In 1994, he died in Stratford-upon-Avon; the subsequent obituaries revealed that he was in fact 82, not 72 as was his "official age". The obituaries paid tribute to a "popular and easy going man" who always "behaved like a gentleman". Alibi Breaker Peter Bradfield Under his real name Basil Langton The Ship That Died of Shame - Man in Coastal Forces Club Bar Seven Waves Away - John Hayden Saint Joan - Captain of Warwick's Guard The Trials of Oscar Wilde - Frank The World of Suzie Wong - Police Inspector The Pumpkin Eater - 1st Man in Bar A Hard Day's Night - Actor in Dressing Room The Liquidator - Station Commander The Incredible Sarah - Duc De Morny L'Amour en question - Sir Geoffrey Quintet - Goldstar Witness for the Prosecution - Mayhew The Hound of the Baskervilles - Sir Charles Baskerville The Whistle Blower - Government Minister David Langton on IMDb "David Langton".
Advertising is a marketing communication that employs an sponsored, non-personal message to promote or sell a product, service or idea. Sponsors of advertising are businesses wishing to promote their products or services. Advertising is differentiated from public relations in that an advertiser pays for and has control over the message, it differs from personal selling in that the message is non-personal, i.e. not directed to a particular individual. Advertising is communicated through various mass media, including traditional media such as newspapers, television, outdoor advertising or direct mail; the actual presentation of the message in a medium is referred to as an advertisement, or "ad" or advert for short. Commercial ads seek to generate increased consumption of their products or services through "branding", which associates a product name or image with certain qualities in the minds of consumers. On the other hand, ads that intend to elicit an immediate sale are known as direct-response advertising.
Non-commercial entities that advertise more than consumer products or services include political parties, interest groups, religious organizations and governmental agencies. Non-profit organizations may use free modes such as a public service announcement. Advertising may help to reassure employees or shareholders that a company is viable or successful. Modern advertising originated with the techniques introduced with tobacco advertising in the 1920s, most with the campaigns of Edward Bernays, considered the founder of modern, "Madison Avenue" advertising. Worldwide spending on advertising in 2015 amounted to an estimated US$529.43 billion. Advertising's projected distribution for 2017 was 40.4% on TV, 33.3% on digital, 9% on newspapers, 6.9% on magazines, 5.8% on outdoor and 4.3% on radio. Internationally, the largest advertising-agency groups are Dentsu, Omnicom, WPP. In Latin, advertere means "to turn towards". Egyptians used papyrus to make sales messages and wall posters. Commercial messages and political campaign displays have been found in the ruins of Pompeii and ancient Arabia.
Lost and found advertising on papyrus was common in ancient ancient Rome. Wall or rock painting for commercial advertising is another manifestation of an ancient advertising form, present to this day in many parts of Asia and South America; the tradition of wall painting can be traced back to Indian rock art paintings that date back to 4000 BC. In ancient China, the earliest advertising known was oral, as recorded in the Classic of Poetry of bamboo flutes played to sell confectionery. Advertisement takes in the form of calligraphic signboards and inked papers. A copper printing plate dated back to the Song dynasty used to print posters in the form of a square sheet of paper with a rabbit logo with "Jinan Liu's Fine Needle Shop" and "We buy high-quality steel rods and make fine-quality needles, to be ready for use at home in no time" written above and below is considered the world's earliest identified printed advertising medium. In Europe, as the towns and cities of the Middle Ages began to grow, the general population was unable to read, instead of signs that read "cobbler", "miller", "tailor", or "blacksmith", images associated with their trade would be used such as a boot, a suit, a hat, a clock, a diamond, a horseshoe, a candle or a bag of flour.
Fruits and vegetables were sold in the city square from the backs of carts and wagons and their proprietors used street callers to announce their whereabouts. The first compilation of such advertisements was gathered in "Les Crieries de Paris", a thirteenth-century poem by Guillaume de la Villeneuve. In the 18th century advertisements started to appear in weekly newspapers in England; these early print advertisements were used to promote books and newspapers, which became affordable with advances in the printing press. However, false advertising and so-called "quack" advertisements became a problem, which ushered in the regulation of advertising content. Thomas J. Barratt of London has been called "the father of modern advertising". Working for the Pears Soap company, Barratt created an effective advertising campaign for the company products, which involved the use of targeted slogans and phrases. One of his slogans, "Good morning. Have you used Pears' soap?" was famous in its day and into the 20th century.
Barratt introduced many of the crucial ideas that lie behind successful advertising and these were circulated in his day. He stressed the importance of a strong and exclusive brand image for Pears and of emphasizing the product's availability through saturation campaigns, he understood the importance of reevaluating the market for changing tastes and mores, stating in 1907 that "tastes change, fashions change, the advertiser has to change with them. An idea, effective a generation ago would fall flat and unprofitable if presented to the public today. Not that the idea of today is always better than the older idea, but it is different – it hits the present taste."As the economy expanded across the world during the 19th century, advertising grew alongside. In the United States, the success of this advertising format led to the growth of mail-order advertising. In June 1836, French newspaper La Presse was the first to include paid advertising in its pages, allowing it to lower its price, extend its readership and increase its profitability and the formula was soon copied by all titles.
Around 1840, Volney B. Palmer established the roo
Voluntary Aid Detachment
The Voluntary Aid Detachment was a voluntary unit of civilians providing nursing care for military personnel in the United Kingdom and various other countries in the British Empire. The most important periods of operation for these units were during World War I and World War II. Although VADs were intimately bound up in the war effort, they were not speaking military nurses, as they were not under the control of the military, unlike the Queen Alexandra's Royal Army Nursing Corps, the Princess Mary's Royal Air Force Nursing Service, the Queen Alexandra's Royal Naval Nursing Service; the VAD nurses worked in both field hospitals, i.e. close to the battlefield, longer-term places of recuperation back in Britain. The VAD system was founded in 1909 with the help of the British Order of St John. By the summer of 1914 there were over 2,500 Voluntary Aid Detachments in Britain. Of the 74,000 VAD members in 1914, two-thirds were girls. In August 1914, just after the outbreak of war in Europe, the British Red Cross and the Order of St John proposed to form a Joint War Organisation with the intention of working with common aims, reducing duplication of effort and providing St John personnel with the protection of the Red Cross.
At the outbreak of the First World War, VAD members eagerly offered their service to the war effort. The British Red Cross was reluctant to allow civilian women a role in overseas hospitals: most volunteers were of the middle and upper classes and unaccustomed to hardship and traditional hospital discipline. Military authorities would not accept VADs at the front line. Katharine Furse took two VADs to France in October 1914, restricting them to serve as canteen workers and cooks. Caught under fire in a sudden battle the VADs were pressed into emergency hospital service and acquitted themselves well; the growing shortage of trained nurses opened the door for VADs in overseas military hospitals. Furse was appointed commander-in-chief of the restrictions were removed. Female volunteers over the age of twenty-three and with more than three months' hospital experience were accepted for overseas service. By 1916 the military hospitals at home were employing about 8,000 trained nurses with about 126,000 beds, there were 4,000 nurses abroad with 93,000 beds.
By 1918 there were about 80,000 VAD members: 12,000 nurses working in the military hospitals and 60,000 unpaid volunteers working in auxiliary hospitals of various kinds. Some of the volunteers had a snobbish attitude towards the paid nurses. VADs were an uneasy addition to military hospitals' order, they lacked the advanced skill and discipline of trained professional nurses and were critical of the nursing profession. Relations improved as the war stretched on: VAD members increased their skill and efficiency and trained nurses were more accepting of the VADs' contributions. During four years of war 38,000 VADs served as ambulance drivers and cooks. VADs served in Mesopotamia and Gallipoli. VAD hospitals were opened in most large towns in Britain. VADs were sent to the Eastern Front, they provided an invaluable source of bedside aid in the war effort. Many were decorated for distinguished service. At the end of the war, the leaders of the nursing profession agreed that untrained VADs should not be allowed onto the newly established register of nurses.
Some VADs left written records of their service: Enid Bagnold, British author of the novel National Velvet, on which the 1944 film with Elizabeth Taylor was based. Her account of her experiences are related in her memoir A Diary Without Dates published in 1918. Vera Brittain, British author of the best-selling 1933 memoir Testament of Youth, recounting her experiences during World War I Agatha Christie, British author who details her VAD experiences in her posthumously published Autobiography Frances Cluett, from Newfoundland, whose letters describe the horrors of World War I Lady Ursula d'Abo, English author who details her VAD experiences in her memoir titled The Girl with the Widow's Peak: The Memoirs E. M. Delafield, British author of the Diary of a Provincial Lady series and some 30 other novels. A. D. People notable for their contributions to nursing, health, or science, or for their VAD service itself: Edith Cliff, commandant of Gledhow Hall Military Hospital, one of many such directors to be honoured for her nursing work Violet Jessop, British ocean liner stewardess trained as a VAD nurse after the outbreak of World War I.
She had been a stewardess aboard the RMS Titanic when it sank in 1912 and was aboard the hospital ship HMHS Britannic as a Red Cross nurse when it sank in 1916. Marjory Stephenson, biochemist and one of the first two women elected to the Royal Society in 1945. After the war, many VADs were prominent in other fields: Mary Borden, Anglo-American novelist May Wedderburn Cannan, British poet Lottie Dod, English sportswoman best known as a tennis player, she won the Wimbledon Ladies' Singles Championship five times in the late 19th century. Amelia Earhart, American aviation pioneer Hilda May Gordon, British painter Hattie Jacques, English comedy actress Naomi Mitchison, Scottish writer Olivia Robertson, British author and co-founder of the Fellowship of Isis Sophia Duleep Singh, suffragette Freya Stark and travel writer Jessie Traill, Australian painter Anna Zinkeisen, Scottish painter and illustrator Doris Zinkeisen, Scottish painter, commercia