Leslie Mark Hughes, OBE is a Welsh football manager and former player, most manager of Premier League club Southampton. During his playing career he was most noted for two spells at Manchester United, but he played for Barcelona and Bayern Munich, as well as the English clubs Chelsea, Southampton and Blackburn Rovers, he made 72 appearances for Wales scoring 16 goals. He retired from playing in 2002, he won a host of winners' medals during his playing career, including two Premier League titles, four FA Cups, three League Cups and two European Cup Winners' Cups. He collected an FA Cup runners-up medal and a League Cup runners-up medal. Hughes was the first player to win the PFA Players' Player of the Year award twice, in 1989 and 1991, his reign as Wales manager was his first managerial post. He failed to qualify for a World Cup or European Championship during his five years in charge, although his reign coincided with a marked improvement in results. Hughes spent four years in charge of Blackburn, guiding them to sixth place in 2005–06.
He took charge of Manchester City in June 2008 for a year and a half before spending the 2010–11 season at Fulham. He joined Queens Park Rangers in January 2012, helping them retain their Premier League status in 2011–12. Despite some high-profile signings in the summer of 2012, QPR began the 2012–13 season in poor form, Hughes was sacked on 23 November 2012. Hughes was appointed manager of Stoke City on 30 May 2013, he guided the club to three consecutive ninth-place Premier League finishes in 2013–14, 2014–15 and 2015–16. Following a poor start to the 2017–18 season, with the club in the relegation zone heading into the new year, he was dismissed by Stoke on 6 January 2018, hours after an FA Cup third round exit to League Two side Coventry City, he was appointed manager of fellow struggling side Southampton on 14 March 2018, signing a contract until the end of the season, with the Saints sat one point above his former club Stoke in 17th place at the time of his appointment. He guided the club to safety at the end of the 2017–18 season, left the club in December 2018.
Born in Ruabon, Hughes joined Manchester United after leaving school in the summer of 1980, having been spotted by the team's North Wales talent scout Hugh Roberts. However, he did not make his first team debut for three years – scoring in a 1–1 draw away to Oxford United in the League Cup, in the 1983–84 season; when Hughes made his United debut, the club's forward partnership consisted of 27-year-old Irishman Frank Stapleton and 18-year-old Norman Whiteside from Northern Ireland, breaking up that partnership would not be an easy challenge for Hughes. But Hughes broke into the first team, partnering Frank Stapleton in attack while Norman Whiteside was switched to midfield to partner Ray Wilkins and stand in for the injury prone Remi Moses; the departure of Wilkins to Milan at the end of the season saw manager Ron Atkinson decide to stick to using Whiteside in the centre of midfield, enabling Hughes to keep his place in the first team ahead of new signing Alan Brazil, he was rewarded handsomely as he scored 25 goals in 55 matches across all competitions as United achieved an FA Cup final victory over Everton.
They finished fourth in the league. Hughes managed a further 18 goals in the 1985–86 season, where they led until February having won their first ten league matches of the season, before a dismal second half of the season saw them slip into fourth place in the final table; that season saw him score 17 goals in the Football League First Division – it would remain the highest goals tally in a league season throughout his career. In the summer of 1986, Hughes was sold to Barcelona for £2 million. United announced on 21 March 1986 that Hughes would be heading for Spain at the end of the season, but the transfer had been agreed many weeks earlier. Manager Terry Venables signed Hughes at the same time that he signed Gary Lineker from Everton to form a new strike partnership at the Nou Camp, but Hughes was a disappointment in his only season at Barcelona, whereas Lineker did well in three seasons there, he was subsequently loaned out to German club Bayern Munich for the 1987–88 season, where he regained his form.
On 11 November 1987, he played two competitive matches in one day, first for Wales against Czechoslovakia in Prague in a Euro 1988 qualifier, second, after being flown across the border into Germany, appearing as a substitute for Bayern in their second round cup replay over Borussia Mönchengladbach. In May 1988, Hughes returned to Manchester United, managed by Sir Alex Ferguson, for a club record fee of £1.8 million. As he had done in his first spell at Old Trafford, Hughes proved to be a dynamic goalscorer and was a key player for the club over the next seven years. Alex Ferguson had been keen on re-signing Hughes for United soon after becoming manager in November 1986, but Hughes would have had been liable for taxation on money earned playing overseas if he had returned to England before April 1988. In 1988–89, his first season back in England, United disappointed in the league and finished 11th after an erratic season, they had gone ten league matches without a win in the autumn but went on a strong run after the turn of the new year to lift them to third place, only for a late season collapse to drag them down to mid-table.
Hughes was voted PFA Player of the Year, the first Manchester United player to be credited with that award, in its 16th season. He was United's joint top scorer that season, along with B
Turkey national football team
The Turkey national football team represents Turkey in association football and is controlled by the Turkish Football Federation, the governing body for football in Turkey. They are affiliated with UEFA. Turkey has qualified three times for the FIFA World Cup, in 1950, 1954, 2002, although they withdrew from the 1950 event. Turkey has qualified four times for the UEFA European Championship, in 1996, 2000, 2008, 2016, they have reached the semi-finals of three major tournaments: the 2002 World Cup, the 2003 FIFA Confederations Cup, Euro 2008. After their third-place finish at the 2002 World Cup, which marked a high point in Turkish football history, Turkey occupied a spot in the top ten of the FIFA World Rankings for the first time since the rankings were introduced in December 1992; the Turkey national team played their first match against Romania in 1923, drawing 2–2. Zeki Rıza Sporel is considered as the first big star of Turkish football as he scored the first two goals against Romania. Turkey played their first official match at the 1924 Summer Olympics losing 5–2 to Czechoslovakia.
Although Turkey qualified for the 1950 World Cup, beating Syria 7–0, they were forced to withdraw from the tournament due to financial problems. Turkey qualified for the 1954 World Cup after a play-off with Spain; the Turkish team first lost 4–1 to Spain, but a 1–0 win a few days initiated a replay. On that occasion, they tied 2 -- 2 after. Turkey was put in a group along with West Germany; the Turks, never played Hungary due to the tournament format, a 4–1 defeat by the Germans was followed by Turkey carrying out a 7–0 win over South Korea. Turkey lost the play-off to West Germany 7–2. In 1956, Turkey did play Hungary in a friendly match in Istanbul, defeating what was one of the strongest teams of the era, 3–1. Lefter Küçükandonyadis, arguably one of the best Turkish strikers of all-time, scored two goals during the tournament. Despite the introduction of a national league, showings by Turkish clubs in European competition, the 1960s would be a barren time for the national team. Most players from the 1954 World Cup squad were retired, the new generation of players failed to qualify for a major tournament.
The 1970s saw Turkey holding back in the World Cup and UEFA European Championship qualifiers, but the team was a point too short to qualify for both UEFA Euro 1972 and Euro 1976. In the 1980s the Turkish team suffered their worst defeats with 8–0 scorelines against Poland and twice against England, yet the 1990 World Cup qualifiers would mark a turning point for Turkish football, with Turkey only missing out on qualification in the final match. Prominent players in this period included Rıdvan Dilmen, Oğuz Çetin, Rıza Çalımbay, Feyyaz Uçar, European Golden Boot winner Tanju Çolak. In 1990, German coach Sepp Piontek was put in charge of the national team. Under his guidance, a group of new players debuted for the national team. Many of these players would become the backbone of the national team for many years. Piontek's mission came to an end in 1993, where he was replaced by Fatih Terim, who in turn managed to qualify for Euro 1996. Turkey qualified for its first major tournament since 1954, marking another turning point for Turkish football after having failed to qualify for both Euro 1992 and the 1994 World Cup.
The appointment of Piontek was a recommended move by another German coach, Jupp Derwall, who had coached Galatasaray for three seasons. Derwall is regarded as the revolutionizer of Turkish football, since his introduction of modern Western European training techniques and tactical ideas to the Turkish game heavily influenced the national team. Turkey qualified for Euro 1996, defeating both Switzerland and Sweden 2–1 en route during qualification. Despite a solid performance during the qualifiers, Turkey lost all their matches without scoring a single goal, they did, however. Although Turkey failed to qualify for the 1998 World Cup, they qualified for Euro 2000 after winning a play-off against the Republic of Ireland. Turkey lost their first match 2–1 to Italy, they drew their second match against Sweden 0–0, beat host nation Belgium 2–0, making it the first time in the history of the UEFA European Championship a host nation had been eliminated in the first round; this victory brought Turkey into the last eight of the tournament, where they were beaten 2–0 by Portugal, with Arif Erdem missing a critical penalty.
For the 2002 World Cup, Turkey finished second in their qualifying group, despite starting well and being the favourites to top the group. They lost 2 -- 1 to Sweden in the crucial match; the Turks were forced to play the play-offs against Austria. They booked their place at the finals; the Turkish team started the 2002 World Cup with a 2–1 defeat against eventual winners Brazil. Turkey qualified from the group stage with a 3–0 win against China PR after drawing 1–1 with Costa Rica. Turkey faced home team Japan in the second round, winning 1–0; the Turkish team continued their run, as they beat Senegal 1–0 on a golden goal to book their place in the semi-finals, where a 1–0 defeat against eventual tournament winners Brazil forced them to play the third place match, a bronze medal was won after a 3–2 victory over co-hosts South Korea. Hakan Şükür scored Turkey's first goal in 10.8 seconds when the South Koreans kicked off first. It was the fastest goal in World Cup history. Tens of thousands of flag-waving Turkish fans greeted the World Cup squad on their return to Istanbul
FIFA World Cup
The FIFA World Cup simply called the World Cup, is an international association football competition contested by the senior men's national teams of the members of the Fédération Internationale de Football Association, the sport's global governing body. The championship has been awarded every four years since the inaugural tournament in 1930, except in 1942 and 1946 when it was not held because of the Second World War; the current champion is France. The current format of the competition involves a qualification phase, which takes place over the preceding three years, to determine which teams qualify for the tournament phase, called the World Cup Finals. After this, 32 teams, including the automatically qualifying host nation, compete in the tournament phase for the title at venues within the host nation over a period of about a month; the 21 World Cup tournaments have been won by eight national teams. Brazil have won five times, they are the only team to have played in every tournament; the other World Cup winners are Italy, with four titles each.
The World Cup is the most prestigious association football tournament in the world, as well as the most viewed and followed sporting event in the world, exceeding the Olympic Games. Brazil, Italy and Mexico have each hosted twice, while Uruguay, Sweden, England, Spain, the United States and South Korea, South Africa and Russia have each hosted once. Qatar are planned as hosts of the 2022 finals, 2026 will be jointly hosted by Canada, the United States and Mexico, which will give Mexico the distinction of being the first country to have hosted games in three finals; the world's first international football match was a challenge match played in Glasgow in 1872 between Scotland and England, which ended in a 0–0 draw. The first international tournament, the inaugural British Home Championship, took place in 1884; as football grew in popularity in other parts of the world at the start of the 20th century, it was held as a demonstration sport with no medals awarded at the 1900 and 1904 Summer Olympics, at the 1906 Intercalated Games.
After FIFA was founded in 1904, it tried to arrange an international football tournament between nations outside the Olympic framework in Switzerland in 1906. These were early days for international football, the official history of FIFA describes the competition as having been a failure. At the 1908 Summer Olympics in London, football became an official competition. Planned by The Football Association, England's football governing body, the event was for amateur players only and was regarded suspiciously as a show rather than a competition. Great Britain won the gold medals, they repeated the feat at the 1912 Summer Olympics in Stockholm. With the Olympic event continuing to be contested only between amateur teams, Sir Thomas Lipton organised the Sir Thomas Lipton Trophy tournament in Turin in 1909; the Lipton tournament was a championship between individual clubs from different nations, each one of which represented an entire nation. The competition is sometimes described as The First World Cup, featured the most prestigious professional club sides from Italy and Switzerland, but the FA of England refused to be associated with the competition and declined the offer to send a professional team.
Lipton invited an amateur side from County Durham, to represent England instead. West Auckland won the tournament and returned in 1911 to defend their title. In 1914, FIFA agreed to recognise the Olympic tournament as a "world football championship for amateurs", took responsibility for managing the event; this paved the way for the world's first intercontinental football competition, at the 1920 Summer Olympics, contested by Egypt and 13 European teams, won by Belgium. Uruguay won the next two Olympic football tournaments in 1924 and 1928; those were the first two open world championships, as 1924 was the start of FIFA's professional era. Due to the success of the Olympic football tournaments, FIFA, with President Jules Rimet as the driving force, again started looking at staging its own international tournament outside of the Olympics. On 28 May 1928, the FIFA Congress in Amsterdam decided to stage a world championship itself. With Uruguay now two-time official football world champions and to celebrate their centenary of independence in 1930, FIFA named Uruguay as the host country of the inaugural World Cup tournament.
The national associations of selected nations were invited to send a team, but the choice of Uruguay as a venue for the competition meant a long and costly trip across the Atlantic Ocean for European sides. Indeed, no European country pledged to send a team until two months before the start of the competition. Rimet persuaded teams from Belgium, France and Yugoslavia to make the trip. In total, 13 nations took part: seven from South America, four from Europe and two from North America; the first two World Cup matches took place on 13 July 1930, were won by France and the USA, who defeated Mexico 4–1 and Belgium 3–0 respectively. The first goal in World Cup history was scored by Lucien Laurent o
UEFA Euro 1996
The 1996 UEFA European Football Championship referred to as Euro 96, was the 10th UEFA European Championship, a quadrennial football tournament contested by European nations and organised by UEFA. It took place in England from 8 to 30 June 1996, it was the first European Championship to feature 16 finalists, following UEFA's decision to expand the tournament from eight teams. Games were staged in eight cities and, although not all games were sold out, the tournament holds the European Championship's second-highest aggregate attendance and average per game for the 16-team format, surpassed only in 2012, it was the first European Championships where 3 points for a win were awarded during the qualification and group stages, following the previous system of 2 points being awarded for a win, reflecting the growing use of this system in domestic leagues throughout the world during the previous decade. Germany won the tournament, beating the Czech Republic 2–1 in the final with a golden goal during extra time.
This was Germany's first major title won as a unified nation. At the time of the bidding process, it had not yet been confirmed that sixteen teams would be participating. Instead, the bids were prepared as if hosting an eight-team tournament, meaning only four venues were due to be required. All candidates had to submit their plans by 10 December 1991; the hosting of the event was contested by five bids: Austria, Greece, the Netherlands and Portugal. The English bid was selected by the UEFA Executive Committee at a meeting in Lisbon on 5 May 1992. In the year preceding the decision, the English FA had dropped plans to bid for the 1998 World Cup in order to gain the support of other UEFA members who were planning to bid for that event; the hosts, drew 1–1 with Switzerland in the opening match of Group A when Alan Shearer's 23rd-minute goal was cancelled out by a late Kubilay Türkyilmaz penalty kick. England defeated rivals Scotland 2–0 in their next game, produced one of their finest performances with a 4–1 win over the Netherlands.
Patrick Kluivert's late goal for the Netherlands secured his team second place in the group and ensured that Scotland would exit another major competition on goal difference. Group B had Western European France and Spain, along with Balkan World Cup participants Romania and Bulgaria. France and Spain dominated the group, with France avenging Bulgaria for the 1994 qualification debacle, World Cup quarter-finalists Romania going home, with no points and only one goal scored. Groups C and D saw the Czech Republic and Croatia, whose national teams had only come into existence, qualify for the knockout stages; the Czechs lost to Germany, the eventual group winners, in their opener, but defeated Italy and drew with Russia. Italy's defeat meant they had to beat Germany in their final game to progress, but the World Cup finalists could only manage a 0–0 draw and were eliminated. In Group D, Croatia qualified with wins over Turkey and Denmark; the loss to the Croats sent the Danes, the surprise champions of 1992, home.
Turkey became the first team since the introduction of a group stage to be eliminated without gaining a point or scoring a goal. The other three quarter-finalists were Portugal, a France team featuring a young Zinedine Zidane; the knockout stages were characterised by defensive play. The first quarter-final between the hosts and Spain ended goalless, after Spain had two goals disallowed and two claims for a penalty denied; the English progressed. France and Netherlands played out a 0–0 draw, with France winning the penalty shootout 5–4. Jürgen Klinsmann opened the scoring for Germany in their match against Croatia. A goal from Davor Šuker evened the score after 51 minutes, before Matthias Sammer of Germany scored eight minutes and the game ended 2–1 to Germany. Czech Republic progressed after beating Portugal 1–0; the first semi-final, featuring France and Czech Republic, resulted in another 0–0 draw and penalties. Reynald Pedros was the one player to miss in the shootout, as Czech Republic won the penalty shoot-out 6–5.
The other semi-final was a repeat of the 1990 World Cup semi-final between England. Alan Shearer headed in after three minutes to give his side the lead, but Stefan Kuntz evened the score less than 15 minutes and the score remained 1–1 after 90 minutes. In extra time, Paul Gascoigne came close to scoring a golden goal, but fractionally missed a cross from Shearer in front of the empty goal, Darren Anderton hit the post, Kuntz had a goal disallowed for pushing. Neither team was able to find a second goal. In penalties, both sides scored their first five kicks, but in the sixth round, Gareth Southgate had his penalty saved, allowing Andreas Möller to score the winning goal; the final saw the Czech Republic hoping to repeat Euro 1976 when Czechoslovakia defeated West Germany. Patrik Berger scored from a penalty in 59th minute to put the Czechs ahead. German substitute Oliver Bierhoff scored to make it 1–1. Five minutes into extra time, Bierhoff's shot was mishandled by Czech goalkeeper Kouba and the ball ended up in the back of the net for the first golden goal in the history of the competition.
Germany were European champions again, the first time as a unified country. On 30 November 1992, UEFA formally decided to expand the tournament to sixteen teams. UEFA cited the increased number of internatio
Trabzon known as Trebizond, is a city on the Black Sea coast of northeastern Turkey and the capital of Trabzon Province. Trabzon, located on the historical Silk Road, became a melting pot of religions and culture for centuries and a trade gateway to Persia in the southeast and the Caucasus to the northeast; the Venetian and Genoese merchants paid visits to Trebizond during the medieval period and sold silk and woolen fabric. Trabzon formed the basis of several states in its long history and was the capital city of the Empire of Trebizond between 1204 and 1461. During the early modern period, because of the importance of its port, again became a focal point of trade to Persia and the Caucasus; the Turkish name of the city is Trabzon. It is known in English as Trebizond; the first recorded name of the city is Τραπεζοῦς, referencing the table-like central hill between the Zağnos and Kuzgun streams on which it was founded In Latin, Trabzon was called Trapezus, a latinization of its ancient Greek name.
Both in Pontic Greek and Modern Greek, it is called Τραπεζούντα. In Ottoman Turkish and Persian, it is written as طربزون. During Ottoman times, Tara Bozan was used; some western geographers used this name instead of the Latin Trebizond. In Laz it is known as ტამტრა or T'rap'uzani, in Georgian it is ტრაპიზონი and in Armenian it is Տրապիզոն Trapizon; the 19th-century Armenian travelling priest Byjiskian called the city by other, native names, including Hurşidabat and Ozinis. Other versions of the name, which have incidentally been used in English literature as well, include: Trebizonde, Trebisonda, Trapesunta,Trapisonda, Terabesoun, Trabuzan and Tarabossan. Before the city was founded as a Greek colony the area was dominated by Colchian and Chaldian tribes, it is possible. The Hayasa, in conflict with the Central-Anatolian Hittites in the 14th century BCE, are believed to have lived in the area south of Trabzon. Greek authors mentioned the Macrones and the Chalybes as native peoples. One of the dominant Caucasian groups to the east were the Laz, who were part of the monarchy of the Colchis, together with other related Georgian peoples.
According to Greek sources the city was founded in classical antiquity in 756 BCE as Τραπεζοῦς, by Milesian traders from Sinope. It was one of a number of Milesian trading colonies along the shores of the Black Sea. Others included Abydos and Cyzicus in the Dardanelles, nearby Kerasous. Like most Greek colonies, the city was a small enclave of Greek life, not an empire unto its own, in the European sense of the word; as a colony Trapezous paid tribute to Sinope, but early banking activity is suggested occurring in the city in the 4th century BCE, according to a silver drachma coin from Trapezus in the British Museum, London. Cyrus the Great added the city to the Achaemenid Empire, was the first ruler to consolidate the eastern Black Sea region into a single political entity. Trebizond's trade partners included the Mossynoeci; when Xenophon and the Ten Thousand mercenaries were fighting their way out of Persia, the first Greek city they reached was Trebizond. The city and the local Mossynoeci had become estranged from the Mossynoecian capital, to the point of civil war.
Xenophon's force resolved this in the rebels' favor, so in Trebizond's interest. Up until the conquests of Alexander the Great the city remained under the dominion of the Achaemenids. While the Pontus was not directly affected by the war, its cities gained independence as a result of it. Local ruling families continued to claim partial Persian heritage, Persian culture had some lasting influence on the city. Minthrion to the east of the old town were devoted to the Persian-Anatolian Greek god Mithra. In the 2nd century BCE the city with its natural harbours was added to the Kingdom of Pontus by Pharnaces I. Mithridates VI Eupator made it the home port of the Pontic fleet, in his quest to remove the Romans from Anatolia. After the defeat of Mithridates in 66 BCE the city was first handed to the Galatians, but it was soon returned to the grandson of Mithradates, subsequently became part of the new client Kingdom of Pontus; when the kingdom was annexed to the Roman province of Galatia two centuries the fleet passed to new commanders, becoming the Classis Pontica.
The city received the status of civitas libera, extending it judicial autonomy and the right to mint its own coin. Trabzon gained importance for its access to roads leading over the Zigana Pass to the Armenian frontier or the upper Euphrates valley. New roads were constructed from Mesopotamia under the rule of Vespasian. In the next century, the emperor Hadrian commissioned improvements to give the city a more structured harbor; the emperor visited the city in the year 129 as part of his inspection of the eastern border. A mithraeum now serves as a crypt for the church and monastery of Panagia Theoskepastos in nearby Kizlara, east of the citadel and south of the modern harbor. Trebizond was affected by two events over the following centuries: in the civil war between Septimius Severus and Pescennius Niger
West Ham United F.C.
West Ham United Football Club is a professional football club based in Stratford, East London, England. They compete in the top tier of English football; the club re-located to the London Stadium in 2016. The club was reformed in 1900 as West Ham United, they moved to the Boleyn Ground in 1904. The team competed in the Southern League and Western League before joining the Football League in 1919, they were promoted to the top flight in 1923, when they were losing finalists in the first FA Cup Final held at Wembley. In 1940, the club won the inaugural Football League War Cup. West Ham have been winners of the FA Cup three times, in 1964, 1975, 1980, have been runners-up twice, in 1923, 2006; the club have reached two major European finals, winning the European Cup Winners' Cup in 1965 and finishing runners-up in the same competition in 1976. West Ham won the Intertoto Cup in 1999, they are one of eight clubs never to have fallen below the second tier of English football, spending 60 of 92 league seasons in the top flight, up to and including the 2017–18 season.
The club's highest league position to date came in 1985–86, when they achieved third place in the First Division. Three West Ham players were members of the 1966 World Cup final-winning England team: captain Bobby Moore and goalscorers Geoff Hurst and Martin Peters; the earliest accepted incarnation of West Ham United was founded in 1895 as Thames Ironworks F. C. the works team of the largest and last surviving shipbuilder on the Thames, Thames Ironworks and Shipbuilding Company, by foreman and local league referee Dave Taylor and owner Arnold Hills and was announced in the Thames Ironworks Gazette of June 1895. Thames Ironworks was based in Leamouth Wharf in Blackwall and Canning Town on both banks of the River Lea, where the Lea meets the Thames. Thames Ironworks built the most famous being HMS Warrior; the last ship built there was the yard shut soon after. The repair yard of the Castle Shipping Line was a near neighbour and their work team known as the Castle Swifts, would informally merge with the Thames Ironworks own team.
The team played on a amateur basis for 1895 at least, with a team featuring a number of works employees. Thomas Freeman was Walter Parks, a clerk. Johnny Stewart, Walter Tranter and James Lindsay were all boilermakers. Other employees included William Chapman, George Sage and Fred Chamberlain, as well as apprentice riveter Charlie Dove, to have a great influence on the club's future at a date. Thames Ironworks won the West Ham Charity Cup, contested by clubs in the West Ham locality, in 1895 won the London League in 1897, they turned professional in 1898 upon entering the Southern League Second Division, were promoted to the First Division at the first attempt. The following year they came second from bottom, but had established themselves as a fledged competitive team, they comfortably fended off the challenge of local rivals Fulham in a relegation play-off, 5–1 in late April 1900 and retained their First Division status. The team played in full dark blue kits, as inspired by Mr. Hills, an Oxford University "Blue," but changed the following season by adopting the sky blue shirts and white shorts combination worn through 1897 to 1899.
Following growing disputes over the running and financing of the club, in June 1900 Thames Ironworks F. C. was disbanded almost relaunched on 5 July 1900 as West Ham United F. C. with Syd King as their manager and future manager Charlie Paynter as his assistant. Because of the original "works team" roots and links, they are still known as "the Irons" or "the Hammers" amongst fans and the media. West Ham Utd joined the Western League for the 1901 season while continuing to play in the Southern Division 1. In 1907, West Ham were crowned the Western League Division 1B Champions, defeated 1A champions Fulham 1–0 to become the Western League Overall Champions; the reborn club continued to play their games at the Memorial Grounds in Plaistow but moved to a pitch in the Upton Park area in the guise of the Boleyn Ground stadium in 1904. West Ham's first game in their new home was against fierce rivals Millwall drawing a crowd of 10,000 and with West Ham running out 3–0 winners, as the Daily Mirror wrote on 2 September 1904, "Favoured by the weather turning fine after heavy rains of the morning, West Ham United began their season most auspiciously yesterday evening.
In 1919, still under King's leadership, West Ham gained entrance to the Football League Second Division, their first game being a 1–1 draw with Lincoln City, were promoted to Division One in 1923 making it to the first FA Cup Final to be held at the old Wembley stadium. Their opponents were Bolton Wanderers; this was known as the White Horse Final, so named because an estimated 200,000 people came to see the match. The Cup Final match; the team enjoyed mixed success in Division 1 but retained their status for ten years and reached the FA Cup semi-final in 1933. In 1932, the club was relegated to Division Two and long term custodian Syd King was sacked after serving the club in the role of manager for 32 years, as a player from 1899 to 1903. Following rel
Association football, more known as football or soccer, is a team sport played with a spherical ball between two teams of eleven players. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies, making it the world's most popular sport; the game is played on a rectangular field called a pitch with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by moving the ball beyond the goal line into the opposing goal. Association football is one of a family of football codes, which emerged from various ball games played worldwide since antiquity; the modern game traces its origins to 1863 when the Laws of the Game were codified in England by The Football Association. Players are not allowed to touch the ball with hands or arms while it is in play, except for the goalkeepers within the penalty area. Other players use their feet to strike or pass the ball, but may use any other part of their body except the hands and the arms; the team that scores most goals by the end of the match wins.
If the score is level at the end of the game, either a draw is declared or the game goes into extra time or a penalty shootout depending on the format of the competition. Association football is governed internationally by the International Federation of Association Football, which organises World Cups for both men and women every four years; the rules of association football were codified in England by the Football Association in 1863 and the name association football was coined to distinguish the game from the other forms of football played at the time rugby football. The first written "reference to the inflated ball used in the game" was in the mid-14th century: "Þe heued fro þe body went, Als it were a foteballe"; the Online Etymology Dictionary states that the "rules of the game" were made in 1848, before the "split off in 1863". The term soccer comes from a slang or jocular abbreviation of the word "association", with the suffix "-er" appended to it; the word soccer was first recorded in 1889 in the earlier form of socca.
Within the English-speaking world, association football is now called "football" in the United Kingdom and "soccer" in Canada and the United States. People in countries where other codes of football are prevalent may use either term, although national associations in Australia and New Zealand now use "football" for the formal name. According to FIFA, the Chinese competitive game cuju is the earliest form of football for which there is evidence. Cuju players could use any part of the body apart from hands and the intent was kicking a ball through an opening into a net, it was remarkably similar to modern football. During the Han Dynasty, cuju games were standardised and rules were established. Phaininda and episkyros were Greek ball games. An image of an episkyros player depicted in low relief on a vase at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens appears on the UEFA European Championship Cup. Athenaeus, writing in 228 AD, referenced the Roman ball game harpastum. Phaininda and harpastum were played involving hands and violence.
They all appear to have resembled rugby football and volleyball more than what is recognizable as modern football. As with pre-codified "mob football", the antecedent of all modern football codes, these three games involved more handling the ball than kicking. Other games included kemari in chuk-guk in Korea. Association football in itself does not have a classical history. Notwithstanding any similarities to other ball games played around the world FIFA has recognised that no historical connection exists with any game played in antiquity outside Europe; the modern rules of association football are based on the mid-19th century efforts to standardise the varying forms of football played in the public schools of England. The history of football in England dates back to at least the eighth century AD; the Cambridge Rules, first drawn up at Cambridge University in 1848, were influential in the development of subsequent codes, including association football. The Cambridge Rules were written at Trinity College, Cambridge, at a meeting attended by representatives from Eton, Rugby and Shrewsbury schools.
They were not universally adopted. During the 1850s, many clubs unconnected to schools or universities were formed throughout the English-speaking world, to play various forms of football; some came up with their own distinct codes of rules, most notably the Sheffield Football Club, formed by former public school pupils in 1857, which led to formation of a Sheffield FA in 1867. In 1862, John Charles Thring of Uppingham School devised an influential set of rules; these ongoing efforts contributed to the formation of The Football Association in 1863, which first met on the morning of 26 October 1863 at the Freemasons' Tavern in Great Queen Street, London. The only school to be represented on this occasion was Charterhouse; the Freemason's Tavern was the setting for five more meetings between October and December, which produced the first comprehensive set of rules. At the final meeting, the first FA treasurer, the representative from Blackheath, withdrew his club from the FA over the removal of two draft rules at the previous meeting: the first allowed for running with the ball in hand.
Other English rugby clubs followed this lead and did not join the FA and instead in 1871 formed the Rugby Football Union. The eleven remaining clubs, under