The Holkar dynasty was a Maratha clan of Dhangar origin in India. The Holkars were generals under Peshwa Baji Rao I, becane Maharajas of Indore in Central India as an independent member of the Maratha Empire until 1818, their kingdom became a princely state under the protectorate of British India. The dynasty was founded with Malhar Rao, who joined the service of the Peshwas of the Maratha Empire in 1721, rose to the ranks of Subedar; the name of the dynasty was associated with the title of the ruler, known informally as Holkar Maharaja. Malhar Rao Holkar, a Maratha chief serving Peshwa Baji Rao, established the dynasty's rule over Indore. In the 1720s, he led Maratha armies in Malwa region, in 1733 was granted 9 parghanas in the vicinity of Indore by the Peshwa; the township of Indore had existed as an independent principality established by Nandlal Mandloi of Kampel, Nandlal Mandloi was won by the Maratha force and allowed them to camp across the Khan River. In 1734, Malhar Rao established a camp called Malharganj.
In 1747, he started the construction of the Rajwada. By the time of his death, he ruled much of Malwa, was acknowledged as one of the five independent rulers of the Maratha Confederacy, he was succeeded by his daughter-in-law. She was born in the Chaundi village in Maharashtra, she moved the capital to Maheshwar, south of Indore on the Narmada River. Rani Ahilyabai was a prolific patron of Hindu temples in Maheshwar and Indore, she built temples at sacred sites outside her kingdom, from Dwarka in Gujarat east to the Kashi Vishwanath Temple at Varanasi on the Ganges. The adopted son of Malhar Rao Haolkar, Tukoji Rao Holkar succeeded Rani Ahilyabai upon her death. Tukoji Rao had been a commander under Ahilyabai for her entire rule, his son Yashwantrao Holkar succeeded him upon his death. He tried to free the Delhi Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II from the British in the unsuccessful Second Anglo-Maratha War; the grateful Shah Alam gave him the title of Maharajadiraj Rajrajeshwar Alija Bahadur in honor of his bravery.
Attempts by Yashwantrao Holkar to unite the kings failed, he was approached to sign a peace treaty with the British. The Treaty of Rajghat, signed late December 1805, recognised him as a sovereign king. In 1811, the four-year-old Maharaja Malharrao Holkar II succeeded Yashwantrao Holkar, his mother, Maharani Tulsabai Holkar, looked after the administration. However, with the help of Pathans and the British, Dharama Kunwar and Balaram Seth plotted to imprison Tulsabai and Malharrao; when Tulsabai learnt about this, she appointed Tantia Jog. As a result, Gaffur Khan Pindari secretly signed a treaty with the British on 9 November 1817 and killed Tulsabai on 19 December 1817; the treaty was signed on 6 January 1818 at Mandsaur. Bhimabai Holkar did not accept the treaty, kept attacking the British by guerilla methods. Rani Lakshmibai of Jhanshi took inspiration from Bhimabai Holkar and fought against the British. At the conclusion of the Third Anglo-Maratha War, the Holkars lost much of their territory to the British and were incorporated into the British Raj as a princely state of the Central India Agency.
The capital was shifted from Bhanpura to Indore. Malharrao Holkar III entered Indore on 2 November 1818. Tantia Jog was appointed his Diwan; as the old palace was destroyed by the army of Daulat Rao Scindia, a new palace was constructed in its place. Malharrao III was succeeded by Martandrao Holkar, who formally ascended to the throne on 17 January 1834, but he was replaced by Harirao Holkar, nephew of Yashwantrao, who ascended to the throne on 17 April 1834. He adopted Khanderao Holkar on 2 July 1841 and died on 24 October 1843. Khanderao was formally installed as the ruler on 13 November 1843, but he died on 17 February 1844. Tukojirao Holkar II was installed on the throne on 27 June 1844. During the Indian Rebellion of 1857, he was loyal to the British East India Company. In October 1872, he appointed T. Madhava Rao as the Diwan of Indore, he succeeded by his eldest son, Shivajirao. Yashwantrao Holkar II ruled Indore state until shortly after India's independence in 1947, when he acceded to the Indian Government.
Indore became a district of Madhya Bharat state, merged into Madhya Pradesh state in 1956. Malhar Rao Holkar I. Born 16 March 1693, died 20 May 1766 Male Rao Holkar. Born 1745, died 5 April 1767 Ahilya Bai Holkar. Born 1725, died 13 August 1795 Tukoji Rao Holkar I. Born 1723, died 15 August 1797 Kashi Rao Holkar Born before 1776, died 1808 Khande Rao Holkar Born in 1798, died 1807 Yashwant Rao Holkar I. Born 1776, died 27 October 1811 Malhar Rao Holkar II Born 1806, died 27 October 1833 Marthand Rao Holkar. Born 1830, died 2 June 1849 Hari Rao Holkar. Born 1795, died 24 October 1843 Khande Rao Holkar II. Born 1828, died 17 March 1844 Tukoji Rao Holkar II. Born 3 May 1835, died 17 June 1886 Shivaji Rao Holkar. Born 11 November 1859, died 13 October 1908 Tukoji Rao Holkar III. Born 26 November 1890, died 21 May 1978 Yashwant Ra
Sai Bhosale was the first wife and chief consort of Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj, the founder of the Maratha Empire. She was the mother of the second Chhatrapati, Sambhaji. Saibai was a member of the prominent Nimbalkar family, whose members were the rulers of Phaltan from the era of the Pawar dynasty and served the Deccan sultanates and the Mughal Empire, she was a daughter of the fifteenth Raja of Phaltan, Mudhojirao Naik Nimbalkar and a sister of sixteenth Raja, Bajaji Rao Naik Nimbalkar. Saibai's mother Reubai was from the Shirke family. Ravali from Andhra Pradesh being the current last grand daughter of Saibai. Saibai and Shivaji were married while still in their childhood on 16 May 1640 at Pune; the marriage was arranged by Shivaji's mother, but was evidently not attended by Shivaji's father, Shahaji nor his brothers and Ekoji. Thus, Shahaji soon summoned his new daughter-in-law and his mother, Jijabai, to Bangalore, where he lived with his second wife, Tukabai. Saibai and Shivaji shared a close relationship with each other.
She is said to have been a loyal consort to Shivaji. By all accounts, Saibai was an affectionate woman, she is described as having been a "gentle and selfless person."All of her endearing personal qualities, were a sharp contrast to Shivaji's second wife, an intriguing lady. Yet, there is no record of any friction or mutual differences between Saibai and Shivaji's other wives; as long as Saibai was alive, she was an asset to Shivaji, not only regarding the affairs of the state, but regarding the household affairs. She had significant influence over her husband and the royal family as well. Saibai is reported to have acted as a counsel to Shivaji when he was invited by Mohammed Adil Shah, the king of Bijapur, for a personal interview. During Saibai's life time, the entire household of Shivaji bore a homogeneous atmosphere despite the fact that most of his marriages were performed due to political considerations. After Saibai's untimely death in 1659 followed by Jijabai's death in 1674, Shivaji's private life became clouded with anxiety and unhappiness.
Although Soyarabai had gained prominence in the royal household following their deaths, she was not an affectionate consort like Saibai, whom Shivaji had dearly loved. Soyarabai was working towards her own son, Rajaram's succession the throne despite the fact that Saibai's son, was the eldest and thus, the heir-apparent to his father. Soyarabai's political intrigues further caused more domestic difficulties in Shivaji's life. Saibai remained Shivaji's favourite. A great source of inspiration to him, legend has it that "Sai" was the last word he uttered on his deathbed. During the course of their nineteen years of marriage and Shivaji became parents of four children: Sakavarbai, Ranubai and Sambhaji. Sakhubai was married to her first-cousin, the son of Saibai's brother, Bajaji Rao Naik Nimbalkar; this marriage took place in 1657 with an objective to consolidate Bajaji's return to Hinduism as he had been converted to Islam by the Mughal viceroy Aurangzeb. Ranubai married into the Jadhav family. Ambikabai married Harji Raje Mahadik in 1668.
Saibai's fourth issue was her only son, born in 1657 and was Shivaji's eldest son and thus, his heir-apparent. The birth of Sambhaji was an occasion of great joy and significance in the royal household for many different reasons. Saibai died in 1659 in Rajgad Fort while Shivaji was making preparations for his meeting with Afzal Khan at Pratapgad, she was ill from the time she gave birth to Sambhaji and her illness became serious preceding her death. Sambhaji was taken care by her trustworthy Dhaarau. Sambhaji was two years old at the time of his mother's death and was brought up by his paternal grandmother, which must have entailed long spells of separation between Shivaji and his much-loved son, Sambhaji. Saibai's samadhi is situated at Rajgad Fort. Literature - Shivpatni Saibai, a biography of Saibai's life written by Dr. Sadashiv Shivade. Television - In Colors TV's 2012 historical drama, Veer Shivaji, Saibai was portrayed by actress Palak Jain as a teenager and by Sonia Sharma as an adult
Pratap Singh, Raja of Satara
Pratap Singh Bhosle was the Emperor of the Maratha Empire, Satara from 1808 to 1819 but the main control was under the hands of the ministers who had carved out their own kingdoms like the Bhosle of Nagpur, Shindes of Gwalior, Holkars of Indore and Gaekwads of Baroda. The power of peshwas was reduced after 1761, he was Mahraja of Satara until 1839. Pratap Singh was the eldest son of Shahu II of Satara, whom he succeeded, a descendant of Chhatrapati Shivaji Raje Bhonsle, the founder of the Maratha Empire. Pratap Singh has build Pune-Satara Road, Build New Palace called Rajwada, used as a court last 150 years, In that Rajwada a school started around 1851, named Pratapsinh High School in which Dr Babasaheb Ambedkar learned till 4th standard,his date of birth 14th April 1891 record we can see in that school record, Pratapsinh started a Private Library in Satara town, in 1851 given to common public of Satara by his wife, The library now known as Nagar Vachanalaya and now renamed as Chhatrapati Pratap Sinh Maharaj Nagar Vachanalay Satara.
He built Satara-Medha-Mahabaleshwar Road. In Mahabaleshwar State. Rajpath 2 ways from Rajwada to Powai Naka were built by him, he started 2 schools for English, Persian and Sanskrit in satara. Modern Satara is his creation as Chh Shahu's RangMahal was burned in a fire, So Jal Mandir Palace he built a residence for him and his family where now Chh Udayan Raje Bhosale lives, he was dethroned and stripped of his powers and personal possessions in 1839. He was granted an allowance for his maintenance. Rango Bapuji Gupte a loyal Sardar to him fight a lot in legal battles up to London but invain to give justice to his beloved king, he was succeeded by his brother, Appa Saheb, under the title Shreemant Maharaj Shaji Raja Chhatrapati of Satara. Appa Saheb became known as Raja Shahaji. Naregal, Veena. "The Mutiny in Western India: The'Marginal' as Regional Dynamic". In Bates, Crispin. Mutiny at the Margins: New Perspectives on the Indian Uprising of 1857. 1. SAGE Publications India. Pp. 169–188. ISBN 978-8-13211-336-2
Muddupalani was a Telugu speaking poet and devadasi attached to the court of Pratap Singh, the Maratha king of Tanjore. Some commentators date her life to 1739-90, her place of birth as Nagavasram in Thanjavur district, she is noted as a poet and scholar and for her erotic epic Rādhikā-sāntvanam Muddupalani was well versed in Telugu and Sanskrit literature, was an accomplished dancer, came from a devadasi family: Muddupalani was the granddaughter of an exceptionally gifted courtesan called Tanjanayaki, not only a talented musician but was adept at the nava rasas. At her soirees, where music and conversation flowed, she entertained learned scholars and aristocrats. But... she longed to have children. She adopted children of Ayyavaya, a man she considered her brother, she raised the young boy, whom she named Muthyalu, to adulthood, got him married to another talented and beautiful courtesan called Rama Vadhuti. A staunch devotee of Lord Subramanya Swami, Muthyalu named his first-born daughter after the temple town of Palani where stands a famour temple dedicated to the beautiful warrior son of Lord Shiva.
Keeping the surname Muddu before the name, a general practise in the south, Muddupalani was thus born into an talented and devout household. She became one of the consorts of Pratap Singh, whose court was noted for its patronage of the arts, whose predecessors included Raghunatha Nayak, whose court played host to numbers of skilled female poets and musicians, such as Ramabhadramba and Madhuravani: Unlike a family woman in her time, as a courtesan Muddupalani would have had access to learning and the leisure to write and practise the arts, she would have expected and enjoyed functional equality with men. The esteem in which Muddupalani was held and the acclaim her work received can be attributed as much to the contexts and social, she drew upon as to her own talent; the Rādhikā-sāntvanam seems to reflect Muddupalani's own experiences of sexual and interpersonal relationships: her grandmother Tanjanayaki too had been a consort of the king, displaced by Muddupalani. After a few years, when the king renewed his attentions towards the older woman, the young and petulant Muddupalani is said to have become progressively jealous and taciturn, leaving the kind no option but to appease her.
Little more is known of Muddupalani's life, beyond what can be gleaned from the Rādhikā-sāntvanam, in which she says Which other woman of my kind has felicitated scholars with such gifts and money? To which other women of my kind have epics been dedicated? Which other woman of my kind has won such acclaim in each of the arts? You are incomparable, among your kind. A face that glows like skills of conversation, matching the countenance. Eyes filled with compassion. A great spirit of generosity, matching the glance; these are the ornaments. Her best-known work is Rādhikā-sāntvanam, an erotic narrative poem that deals with the marital relationship of the deity Krishna, his female friend Radha and new wife Ila, the appeasement of the jealousy of Radha, she received the concept of this poem when Krishna visited her in a dream and suggested that she write about the subject. The poem became the subject of a censorship controversy in the early 20th century, because of its sexual frankness, because it portrayed its women characters as taking the initiative in sex.
Muddupalani's other well-known work is a Telugu translation of Jayadeva's eponymous work. She translated the Thiruppavai by Andal, experimented with a form called saptapadalu, seven-lined songs, none of which survive
Baji Rao I
Baji Rao was a general of the Maratha Empire in India. He served as Peshwa to the fifth Maratha Chhatrapati Shahu from 1720 until his death. Bajirao was Peshwa in the Ashtapradhan mandal of Chhatrapati Shahu Maharaj, he is known by the name Bajirao Ballal. Baji Rao is credited with expanding the Maratha Empire alongwith other commanders like Holkars,Shindes,Gaekwads,Pawars,Bhonsales in India. Maratha empire reached its zenith on under reign of Chhatrapati Shahu Maharaj and he was one of the major contributors in expansion over the Indian subcontinent. In his military career spanning 20 years Baji Rao never lost a battle just like that of Chhatrapati Sambhaji Maharaj Bajirao was born into the Bhat family, his father Balaji Vishwanath was technically the third Peshwa of Chhatrapati Shahu. Baji Rao had two sisters, Bihubai Joshi and Anubai Ghorpade; the eldest of his sisters was married into a Deshastha family. He spent his childhood in his father's newly acquired fiefdom of Saswad. Bajirao would accompany his father on military campaigns.
He fought his first battle in Daulatabad at the age of 12. He was with his father when the latter was imprisoned by Damaji Thorat before being released for a ransom; when Vishwanath died in 1720, Chhatrapati Shahu appointed the 20-year old Baji Rao as the Peshwa. He was known as Shrimant Thorle Bajirao Balal Peshwa, he is said to have preached the ideal of Hindu Pad Padshahi,Bajirao intended to plant the Maratha flag upon the walls of Delhi and other cities governed by the Mughals and their subjects. He intended to create a Hindu-Pat-Padshahi; the twenty year old Bajirao was appointed Peshwa in succession to his father by Chhatrapati Shahu. By the time of Baji Rao's appointment, Mughal emperor Muhammad Shah had in 1719 recognized Marathas' rights over the territories possessed by Shivaji at his death; the treaty included the Maratha rights to collect taxes in the six provinces of Deccan. Bajirao believed that the Mughal Empire was in decline and wanted to take advantage of this situation with aggressive expansion in north India.
Sensing the declining fortune of the Mughals, he is reported to have said, "Strike, strike at the roots and the biggest tree will fall down." However, as a new Peshwa, he faced several challenges: His appointment as the Peshwa at a young age had evoked jealousy from senior officials like Naro Ram Mantri, Anant Ram Sumant and Shripatrao Pant Pratinidhi. This led Bajirao to promote as commanders young men like himself who were out of teens such as Malhar Rao Holkar, Ranoji Shinde, the Pawar brothers; these men did not belong to families that held hereditary Deshmukhi rights under the Deccan Sultanates. The Mughal viceroy of Deccan Nizam-ul-Mulk Asaf Jah I, had created his own independent kingdom in the region, he challenged Shahu's right to collect taxes in Deccan on the pretext that he did not know whether Shahu or his cousin Sambhaji II of Kolhapur were the rightful heir to the Maratha throne. The Marathas needed to assert their rights over the nobles of the newly gained territories in Malwa and Gujarat.
Several areas that were nominally part of the Maratha territory, were not under Peshwa's control. For example, the Siddis controlled the Janjira fort. On 4 January 1721, Baji Rao met Nizam-ul-Mulk Asaf Jah I at Chikhalthan to settle their disputes through agreement. However, Nizam refused to recognize the Maratha rights to collect taxes from the Deccan provinces. Nizam was made Vizier of Mughal Empire in 1721, but alarmed at his growing power, emperor Muhammad Shah transferred him from Deccan to Awadh in 1723. Nizam resigned as the Vizier and marched towards Deccan; the emperor sent an army against him. In response, Mughal emperor was forced to recognize him as the viceroy of Deccan; the Marathas, led by Bajirao, helped. In fact, for his bravery in the battle, Baji Rao was honored with a robe, a mansabdari of 7,000, an elephant and a jewel. After the battle, Nizam tried to appease both the Maratha Chhatrapati Shahu as well as the Mughal emperor. However, in reality, he wanted to carve out a sovereign kingdom and considered the Marathas his rivals in the Deccan.
In 1725, Nizam sent an army to clear out the Maratha revenue collectors from the Carnatic region. The Marathas dispatched a force under Fateh Singh Bhosle to counter him; the Marathas were forced to retreat. They launched a second campaign after the monsoon season, but once again, they were unable to prevent the Nizam from ousting the Maratha collectors. Meanwhile, in Deccan, Sambhaji II of Kolhapur State had become a rival claimant to the title of the Maratha Chhatrapati. Nizam took advantage of this dispute among the Marathas, he refused to pay the chauth or sardeshmukhi on the grounds that it was unclear, the real Chhatrapati: Shahu or Sambhaji II. Nizam offered to act as an arbitrator in this dispute. At the court of Shahu, Nizam's spokesman was Parshuram Pant Pratinidhi, a Deshastha Brahmin and a rival of Bajirao. At the court of Sambhaji II, his supporter was Chandrasen Jadhav, who had fought Bajirao's father a decade earlier. Bajirao convinced Shahu not to accept Nizam's arbitration offer and instead launch an assault against him.
On 27 August 1727, Baji Rao started a march against Nizam. He raided and plundered several of Nizam's territories, such as Jalna and Khandesh. While Bajirao was away, Nizam invaded Pune, where he installed Samb
Chhatrapati Shahu Maharaj was the fifth Chhatrapati of the Maratha Empire created by his grandfather, Shivaji Maharaj. He was Shivaji's eldest son and successor. Shahu, as a child, was taken prisoner along with his mother in 1689 by Mughal sardar, Zulfikar Khan Nusrat Jang After the death of Aurangzeb in 1707, leading Mughal courtiers released Shahu with a force of fifty men, thinking that a friendly Maratha leader would be a useful ally. At that time he fought a brief war with his aunt Tarabai in an internecine conflict to gain the Maratha throne in 1707; the battle is known as Battle of Khed, On 12th of October 1707 Supreme commander of Maratha forces Dhanaji Jadhav joined Shahuji in that battle. Tarabai along with her son Shivaji 2 left for Panhala fort and Finally Shahuji captured Satara and became the emperor of Marathas with the capital at Satara, he crowned himself as the Chhatrapati of the Maratha Empire on 12th January 1708. Meanwhile Tarabai set up a new court at Kolhapur with her son Shivaji II as the Emperor.
Under Shahu's reign, Maratha power and influence extended to all corners of the Indian subcontinent. He was a powerful ruler of Maratha Samrajya after his grandfather father Sambhaji; however after his death, power moved from the ruling chhatrapati to his ministers and the generals who had carved out their own fiefdoms such as Bhonsle of Nagpur, Gaekwad of Baroda, Scindia of Gwalior and Holkar of Indore. He remained the most famous ruler expanding the territories of Maratha empire Chhatrapati Shahu's Seal। श्री वर्धिष्णुर्विक्रमे विष्णोः। सा मूर्तिरिव वामनी । । शंभूसुतोरिव । मुद्रा शिवराजस्य राजते ।। Early in his reign, Chhatrapati Shahu Maharaj appointed Bahiroji Pingale as the Peshwa and Dhanaji Jadhav as the Sar Senapati. Bahiroji Pingale was taken as prisoner by Kanhoji Angre in 1711. In 1713 Shahu Maharaj appointed Balaji Vishwanath as his Peshwa and other 7 ministers as Ashtapradhan Mandal. Over the next few years, Under the directions and orders of Chhatrapati Shahu, Balaji followed by his son, Bajirao I and grandson Balaji Bajirao with help of capable military leaders such as Shinde, Gaekwad and Bhonsle of Nagpur expanded Maratha power in all directions of the Indian subcontinent..
Shahu fathered four daughters. He adopted two sons, Fatehsinh I and Rajaram II of Satara. Rajaram II had been brought to him by Shahu's paternal aunt, who claimed that the young man was her grandson and a descendant of Shivaji, but disowned him as an imposter. After Shahu's death the powers were indirectly shifted to the Peshwa Balaji Bajirao and other ministers with Shrimant Rajaram 2 as the Chhatrapati of the Kingdom Shahu died in 1749, his adopted son Rajaram II of Satara succeeded him. Rajaram 2 was a powerful ruler but Tarabai tried to control his decisions, This led to a conflict between Tararani Sarkar and Rajaram 2, She told that Rajaram was just a imposter and so the actual power of Chhatrapati declined but still he continued to be the Chhatrapati and Chhatrapati enjoyed a lot of respect and ransom from the ministers as they were the real kings of the Maratha Empire, but the actual power was held by others: first by Tarabai and by Peshwa Balaji Baji Rao. Moreover the Peshwas lost their power and other independent kings started exercising real control.
Satara district Mehta, Jaswant Lal. Advanced Study in the History of Modern India 1707-1813. Sterling Publishers. Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 2, p. 441. Kasar, D. B. Rigveda to Raigarh making of Shivaji the great, Mumbai: Manudevi Prakashan, Rs. 165. Akkalkot, Solapur district gazette
Peshwa Madhav Rao II was Peshwa of the Maratha Empire in India, from his infancy. He was known as Madhav Rao Narayan, he was the posthumous son of Narayanrao Peshwa, murdered in 1773 on the orders of Raghunathrao. Madhavrao was considered the legal heir, was installed as Peshwa by the Treaty of Salbai in 1782. Madhavrao was the Posthumous son of Peshwa Narayanrao by Gangabai. After Narayanrao's murder, Raghunathrao became Peshwa but was soon deposed by the courtiers and knights of the Maratha Empire, they instead installed Gangabai's new born son, Madhavrao II, as the Peshwa with the courtiers, led by Nana Fadnavis, as the Regents. Madhavrao was made Peshawa when he was 40 days old, his time in power was dominated by the political intrigues of Nana Phadnis. After the British loss in 1782 in the First Anglo-Maratha War, Mahadji Shinde got Madhvrao recognized as Peshwa by the British. However, all powers of the peshwa were in the hands of ministers like Nana Fadnavis, Mahadaji Shinde and others. In,1788 when Ghulam Qadir attacked Delhi, Mahadaji Shinde led the army of marathas to Delhi and saved the mughal emperor and his family.
In 1790, the Marathas won over rajput states in the Battle of Patan. After the death of Mahadaji Shinde In 1794, the Maratha power got concentrated in the hands of Nana Fadnavis. Madhavrao was fond of the out-doors and had a private collection of exotic animals such as lions and rhinoceros; the area where he hunted became the Peshwe park zoo in Pune. He was fond of his herd of trained dancing deer. Madhavrao committed suicide at the age of 21 by jumping off from the high walls of the Shaniwar Wada in Pune.. The cause of the suicide was that he could not endure the highhandedness of Nana Fadnavis. Just before his suicide, it is said that in ordering the execution of the despised police commissioner, Ghashiram Kotwal, Madhavrao was able to defy the wishes of Nana for the first time Nana Fadnavis Mahadaji Pant Guruji Mahadaji Scindia Narayan Rao Jayapalan, N.. History of India. Atlantic Publishers & Distributors Limited. P. 79. ISBN 9788171569281. Retrieved 2014-10-12. Maratha Empire Peshawe Family Peshwa Maratha emperors