Modernism is a philosophical movement that, along with cultural trends and changes, arose from wide-scale and far-reaching transformations in Western society during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Among the factors that shaped modernism were the development of modern industrial societies and the rapid growth of cities, followed by reactions of horror to World War I. Modernism rejected the certainty of Enlightenment thinking, many modernists rejected religious belief. Modernism, in general, includes the activities and creations of those who felt the traditional forms of art, literature, religious faith, social organization, activities of daily life, sciences, were becoming ill-fitted to their tasks and outdated in the new economic and political environment of an emerging industrialized world; the poet Ezra Pound's 1934 injunction to "Make it new!" was the touchstone of the movement's approach towards what it saw as the now obsolete culture of the past. In this spirit, its innovations, like the stream-of-consciousness novel and twelve-tone music, divisionist painting and abstract art, all had precursors in the 19th century.
A notable characteristic of modernism is self-consciousness and irony concerning literary and social traditions, which led to experiments with form, along with the use of techniques that drew attention to the processes and materials used in creating a painting, building, etc. Modernism explicitly rejected the ideology of realism and made use of the works of the past by the employment of reprise, rewriting, recapitulation and parody; some commentators define modernism as a mode of thinking—one or more philosophically defined characteristics, like self-consciousness or self-reference, that run across all the novelties in the arts and the disciplines. More common in the West, are those who see it as a progressive trend of thought that affirms the power of human beings to create and reshape their environment with the aid of practical experimentation, scientific knowledge, or technology. From this perspective, modernism encouraged the re-examination of every aspect of existence, from commerce to philosophy, with the goal of finding that which was'holding back' progress, replacing it with new ways of reaching the same end.
Others focus on modernism as an aesthetic introspection. This facilitates consideration of specific reactions to the use of technology in the First World War, anti-technological and nihilistic aspects of the works of diverse thinkers and artists spanning the period from Friedrich Nietzsche to Samuel Beckett. While some scholars see modernism continuing into the twenty first century, others see it evolving into late modernism or high modernism. Postmodernism refutes its basic assumptions. According to one critic, modernism developed out of Romanticism's revolt against the effects of the Industrial Revolution and bourgeois values: "The ground motive of modernism, Graff asserts, was criticism of the nineteenth-century bourgeois social order and its world view the modernists, carrying the torch of romanticism." While J. M. W. Turner, one of the greatest landscape painters of the 19th century, was a member of the Romantic movement, as "a pioneer in the study of light and atmosphere", he "anticipated the French Impressionists" and therefore modernism "in breaking down conventional formulas of representation.
The dominant trends of industrial Victorian England were opposed, from about 1850, by the English poets and painters that constituted the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, because of their "opposition to technical skill without inspiration." They were influenced by the writings of the art critic John Ruskin, who had strong feelings about the role of art in helping to improve the lives of the urban working classes, in the expanding industrial cities of Britain. Art critic Clement Greenberg describes the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood as proto-Modernists: "There the proto-Modernists were, of all people, the pre-Raphaelites; the Pre-Raphaelites foreshadowed Manet, with whom Modernist painting most begins. They acted on a dissatisfaction with painting as practiced in their time, holding that its realism wasn't truthful enough." Rationalism has had opponents in the philosophers Søren Kierkegaard and Friedrich Nietzsche, both of whom had significant influence on existentialism. However, the Industrial Revolution continued.
Influential innovations included steam-powered industrialization, the development of railways, starting in Britain in the 1830s, the subsequent advancements in physics and architecture associated with this. A major 19th-century engineering achievement was The Crystal Palace, the huge cast-iron and plate glass exhibition hall built for The Great Exhibition of 1851 in London. Glass and iron were used in a similar monumental style in the construction of major railway terminals in London, such as Paddington Station and King's Cross station; these technological advances led to the building of structures like the Brooklyn Bridge and the Eiffel Tower. The latter broke all previous limitations on; these engineering marvels radically altered the 19th-century urban environment and the daily lives of people. The human experience of time itself was altered, with the development of the electric telegraph from 1837, the adoption
The Barcelona chair is a chair designed by Ludwig Mies van der Rohe and Lilly Reich. It was designed for the German Pavilion, that country's entry for the International Exposition of 1929, hosted by Barcelona, Spain, it was first used in Villa Tugendhat, a World Heritage Site designed by Mies van der Rohe in the city of Brno. The frame was designed to be bolted together, but was redesigned in 1950 using stainless steel, which allowed the frame to be formed by a seamless piece of metal, giving it a smoother appearance. Bovine leather replaced the ivory-colored pigskin, used for the original pieces. Although many architects and furniture designers of the Bauhaus era were intent on providing well-designed homes and impeccably manufactured furnishings for the "common man," the Barcelona chair was an exception, it was designed for the Spanish Royalty to oversee the opening ceremonies of the exhibition and described by Time magazine as inhabiting "his sumptuous German pavilion." The form is thought to be extrapolated from Roman folding chairs known as the Curule chair – upholstered stools used by Roman aristocracy.
According to Knoll Inc. despite its industrial appearance the Barcelona chair requires much hand craftsmanship. Since 1953 Knoll Inc has manufactured Barcelona chairs, they make the frame in two different steel configurations and stainless. They say that their chairs are completely hand-laboured, that a facsimile of Ludwig Mies van der Rohe's signature is stamped into each chair. Barcelona chairs are made by other manufacturers worldwide and are sold under different marketing names. In his 1981 book about modern architecture, From Bauhaus to Our House, Tom Wolfe mocked the Barcelona chair as "the Platonic ideal of chair", wrote that, despite its high price, owning one had become a necessity for young architects: "When you saw the holy object on the sisal rug, you knew you were in a household where a fledgeling architect and his young wife had sacrificed everything to bring the symbol of the godly mission into their home." Barcelona Pavilion Bauhaus List of chairs List of furniture designers Ludwig Mies van der Rohe X-chair Sourcebook of Modern Furniture, Third Edition, Jerryll Habegger and Joseph H Osman Miles van der Rohe, Aurora Cuito and Cristina Montes Bauhaus, Hans Engels and Ulf Meyer Modernism - designing a new world, Christopher Wilk, V&A p. 155 Oxford Dictionary of Modern Design, Jonathan Woodham Pictures of the Barcelona Pavilion 360 degree view of the barcelona chair
Industrial design is a process of design applied to products that are to be manufactured through techniques of mass production. Its key characteristic is that design is separated from manufacture: the creative act of determining and defining a product's form and features takes place in advance of the physical act of making a product, which consists purely of repeated automated, replication; this distinguishes industrial design from craft-based design, where the form of the product is determined by the product's creator at the time of its creation. All manufactured products are the result of a design process, but the nature of this process can take many forms: it can be conducted by an individual or a large team; the role of an industrial designer is to create and execute design solutions for problems of form, usability, physical ergonomics, brand development and sales. For several millennia before the onset of industrialisation, technical expertise, manufacturing were done by individuals craftsmen, who determined the form of a product at the point of its creation, according to their own manual skill, the requirements of their clients, experience accumulated through their own experimentation, knowledge passed on to them through training or apprenticeship.
The division of labour that underlies the practice of industrial design did have precedents in the pre-industrial era. The growth of trade in the medieval period led to the emergence of large workshops in cities such as Florence, Venice and Bruges, where groups of more specialized craftsmen made objects with common forms through the repetitive duplication of models which defined by their shared training and technique. Competitive pressures in the early 16th century led to the emergence in Italy and Germany of pattern books: collections of engravings illustrating decorative forms and motifs which could be applied to a wide range of products, whose creation took place in advance of their application; the use of drawing to specify how something was to be constructed was first developed by architects and shipwrights during the Italian Renaissance. In the 17th century, the growth of artistic patronage in centralized monarchical states such as France led to large government-operated manufacturing operations epitomised by the Gobelins Manufactory, opened in Paris in 1667 by Louis XIV.
Here teams of hundreds of craftsmen, including specialist artists and engravers, produced sumptuously decorated products ranging from tapestries and furniture to metalwork and coaches, all under the creative supervision of the King's leading artist Charles Le Brun. This pattern of large-scale royal patronage was repeated in the court porcelain factories of the early 18th century, such as the Meissen porcelain workshops established in 1709 by the Grand Duke of Saxony, where patterns from a range of sources, including court goldsmiths and engravers, were used as models for the vessels and figurines for which it became famous; as long as reproduction remained craft-based, the form and artistic quality of the product remained in the hands of the individual craftsman, tended to decline as the scale of production increased. The emergence of industrial design is linked to the growth of industrialisation and mechanisation that began with the industrial revolution in Great Britain in the mid 18th century.
The rise of industrial manufacture changed the way objects were made, urbanisation changed patterns of consumption, the growth of empires broadened tastes and diversified markets, the emergence of a wider middle class created demand for fashionable styles from a much larger and more heterogeneous population. The first use of the term "industrial design" is attributed to the industrial designer Joseph Claude Sinel in 1919, but the discipline predates 1919 by at least a decade. Christopher Dresser is considered among the first independent industrial designers. Industrial design's origins lie in the industrialization of consumer products. For instance the Deutscher Werkbund, founded in 1907 and a precursor to the Bauhaus, was a state-sponsored effort to integrate traditional crafts and industrial mass-production techniques, to put Germany on a competitive footing with Great Britain and the United States; the earliest use of the term may have been in The Art Union, A monthly Journal of the Fine Arts, 1839.
Dyce's report to the Board of Trade on foreign schools of Design for Manufactures. Mr Dyces official visit to France and Bavaria for the purpose of examining the state of schools of design in those countries will be fresh in the recollection of our readers, his report on this subject was ordered to be printed some few months since, on the motion of Mr Hume. The school of St Peter, at Lyons was founded about 1750 for the instruction of draftsmen employed in preparing patterns for the silk manufacture, it has been much more successful than the Paris school and having been disorganized by the revolution, was restored by Napoleon and differently constituted, being erected into an Academy of Fine Art: to which the study of design for silk manufacture was attached as a subordinate branch. It appears that all the students who entered the school commence as if they were intended for artists in the higher sense of the word and are not expected to decide as to whether they will devote themselves to the Fine Arts or to Industrial Design, until they have completed their exercises in drawing and p
Leather is a natural durable and flexible material created by tanning animal rawhides and skins. The most common raw material is cattle hide, it can be produced at manufacturing scales ranging from artisan to modern industrial scale. Leather is used to make a variety of articles, including footwear, automobile seats, bags, book bindings, fashion accessories, furniture, it is decorated by a wide range of techniques. The earliest record of leather artifacts dates back to 2200 BC; the leather manufacturing process is divided into three fundamental subprocesses: preparatory stages and crusting. A further subprocess, can be added into the leather process sequence, but not all leathers receive finishing; the preparatory stages are. Preparatory stages may include: soaking, liming, bating and pickling. Tanning is a process that stabilizes the proteins collagen, of the raw hide to increase the thermal and microbiological stability of the hides and skins, making it suitable for a wide variety of end applications.
The principal difference between raw and tanned hides is that raw hides dry out to form a hard, inflexible material that, when rewetted, will putrefy, while tanned material dries to a flexible form that does not become putrid when rewetted. Many tanning methods and materials exist; the typical process sees tanners load the hides into a drum and immerse them in a tank that contains the tanning "liquor". The hides soak while the drum rotates about its axis, the tanning liquor penetrates through the full thickness of the hide. Once the process achieves penetration, workers raise the liquor's pH in a process called basification, which fixes the tanning material to the leather; the more tanning material fixed, the higher the leather's hydrothermal stability and shrinkage temperature resistance. Crusting is a process that lubricates leather, it includes a coloring operation. Chemicals added during crusting must be fixed in place. Crusting culminates with a drying and softening operation, may include splitting, dyeing, whitening or other methods.
For some leathers, tanners apply a surface coating, called "finishing". Finishing operations can include oiling, buffing, polishing, glazing, or tumbling, among others. Leather can be oiled to improve its water resistance; this currying process after tanning supplements the natural oils remaining in the leather itself, which can be washed out through repeated exposure to water. Frequent oiling of leather, with mink oil, neatsfoot oil, or a similar material keeps it supple and improves its lifespan dramatically. Tanning processes differ in which chemicals are used in the tanning liquor; some common types include: Vegetable-tanned leather is tanned using tannins extracted from vegetable matter, such as tree bark prepared in bark mills. It is the oldest known method, it is supple and brown in color, with the exact shade depending on the mix of materials and the color of the skin. The color tan derives its name from the appearance of undyed vegetable-tanned leather. Vegetable-tanned leather is not stable in water.
This is a feature of oak-bark-tanned leather, exploited in traditional shoemaking. In hot water, it shrinks drastically and congeals, becoming rigid and brittle. Boiled leather is an example of this, where the leather has been hardened by being immersed in hot water, or in boiled wax or similar substances, it was used as armor after hardening, it has been used for book binding. Chrome-tanned leather, invented in 1858, is tanned using chromium other chromium salts, it is known as "wet blue" for the pale blue color of the undyed leather. The chrome tanning method takes one day to complete, making it best suited for large-scale industrial use; this is the most common method in modern use. It is more supple and pliable than vegetable-tanned leather and does not discolor or lose shape as drastically in water as vegetable-tanned. However, there are environmental concerns with this tanning method. Aldehyde-tanned leather is tanned using oxazolidine compounds, it is referred to as "wet white" due to its pale cream color.
It is the main type of "chrome-free" leather seen in shoes for infants and automobiles. Formaldehyde has been used for tanning in the past. Chamois leather is a form of aldehyde tanning that produces a porous and water-absorbent leather. Chamois leather is made using marine oils that oxidize to produce the aldehydes that tan the leather. Brain tanned leathers are made by a labor-intensive process that uses emulsified oils those of animal brains such as deer and buffalo, they are known for their exceptional washability. Alum leather is transformed using aluminium salts mixed with a variety of binders and protein sources, such as flour and egg yolk. Alum leather is not tanned. In general, leather is produced in the following grades: Top-grain leather includes the outer layer of the hide, known as the grain, which features finer, more densely packed fibers, resulting in strength and durability. Depending on thickness, it may contain some of the more fibrous under layer, known as the corium. Types of top-grain leather incl
The Space Age is a time period encompassing the activities related to the Space Race, space exploration, space technology, the cultural developments influenced by these events. The Space Age is considered to have begun with Sputnik 1 in 1957; the Space Age began with the development of several technologies that converged with the October 4, 1957 launch of Sputnik 1 by the Soviet Union. This was the world's first artificial satellite, orbiting the Earth in 98.1 minutes and weighing 83 kg. The launch of Sputnik 1 ushered in a new era of political and technological achievements that became known as the Space Age; the Space Age was characterized by rapid development of new technology in a close race between the United States and the Soviet Union. Rapid advances were made in rocketry, materials science and other areas. Much of the technology developed for space applications has been spun off and found additional uses, memory foam is an example of this; the Space Age reached its peak with the Apollo program, that captured the imagination of much of the world's population.
The landing of Apollo 11 was watched by over 500 million people around the world and is recognized as one of the defining moments of the 20th century. Since public attention has moved to other areas. In the United States, the Space Shuttle Challenger disaster in 1986 marked a significant decline in manned Shuttle launches. Following the disaster, NASA grounded all Shuttles for safety concerns until 1988. During the 1990s funding for space related programs fell as the remaining structures of the now dissolved Soviet Union disintegrated and NASA no longer had any direct competition. Since participation in space launches has widened to more governments and commercial interests. Since the 1990s, space exploration and space-related technologies gained a perception by many people of being commonplace. NASA permanently grounded all U. S. Space Shuttles in 2011. NASA has since relied on Russia to take American astronauts to and from the International Space Station. Although referred to beginning on October 4, 1957 with the launch of Sputnik 1 by the Soviet Union, the technology behind the space age and subsequent space race began back in the 1920s and 1930s.
With the technological advancements and inventions common in Nazis Germany related to war, their creation of a missile capable of striking London became their primary goal and would lay the groundwork for future space technologies and exploration. On March 1926 Robert H. Goddard launched the world's first liquid fuel rocket, considered as one of the earliest precursors in modern rocket technology and by some as the beginning of the space age, although his rocket did not reach the Kármán line. Referred to as the most important rocket developer during the twentieth century, Dr. Wernher von Braun worked first for Germany, the United States, he first joined the German Society for Space Travel in 1928 and joined the German army in 1932 to develop liquid-fuel rockets. He and his teams’ work on the V-2 rocket became the basis for both the United States’ and the Soviet Unions’ intercontinental ballistic missiles and space programs. Referred to as the A-4 rocket in Germany, the V-2 rocket was introduced by the German army nearing the end of the war.
Fueled by burning a mixture of liquid oxygen and alcohol, the V-2 was capable of 3,500 miles per hour. With an effective range of 200 miles with an approximate arch of 60 miles, the V-2 missile was capable of striking at Southern England from bases in the low land countries. 3,200 – 3,600 V-2 missiles were deployed against Allied targets during the course of the war, with about 25% of all missiles launched failing due to air bursts. In the early 21st century, the Ansari X Prize competition was set up to help jump start private spaceflight, won by Space Ship One in 2004, becoming the first spaceship not funded by a government agency. Several countries now have space programs. There are many scientific and commercial satellites in use today, with thousands of satellites in orbit, several countries have plans to send humans into space; some of the countries joining this new race are France, India and Israel all of which have employed surveillance satellites. There are several other countries with space agencies although not as extensive to include the United Kingdom, Germany and Spain.
As for the United States space program, NASA is constructing a deep-space crew capsule named the Orion. NASA’s goal with this new space capsule is to carry humans to Mars; the Orion spacecraft is due to be completed in the early 2020s. NASA is hoping that this mission will be a kick starter that will “usher in a new era of space exploration.”Another major factor, affecting the current Space Age is the privatization of space flight. There are two major companies and SpaceX, that are taking a large part in research and innovation. Elon Musk, the owner of SpaceX, has stated an ultimate goal of putting a colony of 1 million people on Mars and in 2018 they launched their largest rocket, bringing this goal closer to reality. Since the aforementioned V-2 rocket flight was undertaken in secrecy, it was not public knowledge for many years afterward. Further, the German launches, as well as the subsequent sounding rocket tests performed in both the United States and the Soviet Union during the late 1940s and early 1950s, were not considered significant enough to start a new age because they did not reach orbit.
Having a rocket powerful enough to reach orbit meant that a nation had the ability to place a payload anywhere on the planet, or to use ano
Fiberglass or fibreglass is a common type of fiber-reinforced plastic using glass fiber. The fibers may be flattened into a sheet, or woven into a fabric; the plastic matrix may be a thermoset polymer matrix—most based on thermosetting polymers such as epoxy, polyester resin, or vinylester—or a thermoplastic. Cheaper and more flexible than carbon fiber, it is stronger than many metals by weight, can be molded into complex shapes. Applications include aircraft, automobiles, bath tubs and enclosures, swimming pools, hot tubs, septic tanks, water tanks, pipes, orthopedic casts and external door skins. GRP covers are widely used in the water-treatment industry to help control odors. Other common names for fiberglass are glass-reinforced plastic, glass-fiber reinforced plastic or GFK; because glass fiber itself is sometimes referred to as "fiberglass", the composite is called "fiberglass reinforced plastic". This article will adopt the convention that "fiberglass" refers to the complete glass fiber reinforced composite material, rather than only to the glass fiber within it.
Glass fibers have been produced for centuries, but the earliest patent was awarded to the Prussian inventor Hermann Hammesfahr in the U. S. in 1880. Mass production of glass strands was accidentally discovered in 1932 when Games Slayter, a researcher at Owens-Illinois, directed a jet of compressed air at a stream of molten glass and produced fibers. A patent for this method of producing glass wool was first applied for in 1933. Owens joined with the Corning company in 1935 and the method was adapted by Owens Corning to produce its patented "Fiberglas" in 1936. Fiberglas was a glass wool with fibers entrapping a great deal of gas, making it useful as an insulator at high temperatures. A suitable resin for combining the fiberglass with a plastic to produce a composite material was developed in 1936 by du Pont; the first ancestor of modern polyester resins is Cyanamid's resin of 1942. Peroxide curing systems were used by then. With the combination of fiberglass and resin the gas content of the material was replaced by plastic.
This reduced the insulation properties to values typical of the plastic, but now for the first time the composite showed great strength and promise as a structural and building material. Confusingly, many glass fiber composites continued to be called "fiberglass" and the name was used for the low-density glass wool product containing gas instead of plastic. Ray Greene of Owens Corning is credited with producing the first composite boat in 1937, but did not proceed further at the time due to the brittle nature of the plastic used. In 1939 Russia was reported to have constructed a passenger boat of plastic materials, the United States a fuselage and wings of an aircraft; the first car to have a fiber-glass body was a 1946 prototype of the Stout Scarab, but the model did not enter production. Unlike glass fibers used for insulation, for the final structure to be strong, the fiber's surfaces must be entirely free of defects, as this permits the fibers to reach gigapascal tensile strengths. If a bulk piece of glass were defect-free, it would be as strong as glass fibers.
The process of manufacturing fiberglass is called pultrusion. The manufacturing process for glass fibers suitable for reinforcement uses large furnaces to melt the silica sand, kaolin clay, colemanite and other minerals until a liquid forms, it is extruded through bushings, which are bundles of small orifices. These filaments are sized with a chemical solution; the individual filaments are now bundled in large numbers to provide a roving. The diameter of the filaments, the number of filaments in the roving, determine its weight expressed in one of two measurement systems: yield, or yards per pound. Examples of standard yields are 450yield, 675yield. Tex, or grams per km. Examples of standard tex are 1100tex, 2200tex; these rovings are either used directly in a composite application such as pultrusion, filament winding, gun roving, or in an intermediary step, to manufacture fabrics such as chopped strand mat, woven fabrics, knit fabrics or uni-directional fabrics. Chopped strand mat or CSM is a form of reinforcement used in fiberglass.
It consists of glass fibers held together by a binder. It is processed using the hand lay-up technique, where sheets of material are placed on a mold and brushed with resin; because the binder dissolves in resin, the material conforms to different shapes when wetted out. After the resin cures, the hardened product finished. Using chopped strand mat gives a fiberglass with isotropic in-plane material properties. A coating or primer is applied to the roving to: help protect the glass filaments for processing and manipulation. Ensure proper bonding to the resin matrix, thus allowing for transfer of shear loads from the glass fiber
Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13. It is a silvery-white, soft and ductile metal in the boron group. By mass, aluminium makes up about 8% of the Earth's crust; the chief ore of aluminium is bauxite. Aluminium metal is so chemically reactive that native specimens are rare and limited to extreme reducing environments. Instead, it is found combined in over 270 different minerals. Aluminium is remarkable for its low density and its ability to resist corrosion through the phenomenon of passivation. Aluminium and its alloys are vital to the aerospace industry and important in transportation and building industries, such as building facades and window frames; the oxides and sulfates are the most useful compounds of aluminium. Despite its prevalence in the environment, no known form of life uses aluminium salts metabolically, but aluminium is well tolerated by plants and animals; because of these salts' abundance, the potential for a biological role for them is of continuing interest, studies continue.
Of aluminium isotopes, only 27Al is stable. This is consistent with aluminium having an odd atomic number, it is the only aluminium isotope that has existed on Earth in its current form since the creation of the planet. Nearly all the element on Earth is present as this isotope, which makes aluminium a mononuclidic element and means that its standard atomic weight equates to that of the isotope; the standard atomic weight of aluminium is low in comparison with many other metals, which has consequences for the element's properties. All other isotopes of aluminium are radioactive; the most stable of these is 26Al and therefore could not have survived since the formation of the planet. However, 26Al is produced from argon in the atmosphere by spallation caused by cosmic ray protons; the ratio of 26Al to 10Be has been used for radiodating of geological processes over 105 to 106 year time scales, in particular transport, sediment storage, burial times, erosion. Most meteorite scientists believe that the energy released by the decay of 26Al was responsible for the melting and differentiation of some asteroids after their formation 4.55 billion years ago.
The remaining isotopes of aluminium, with mass numbers ranging from 21 to 43, all have half-lives well under an hour. Three metastable states are known, all with half-lives under a minute. An aluminium atom has 13 electrons, arranged in an electron configuration of 3s23p1, with three electrons beyond a stable noble gas configuration. Accordingly, the combined first three ionization energies of aluminium are far lower than the fourth ionization energy alone. Aluminium can easily surrender its three outermost electrons in many chemical reactions; the electronegativity of aluminium is 1.61. A free aluminium atom has a radius of 143 pm. With the three outermost electrons removed, the radius shrinks to 39 pm for a 4-coordinated atom or 53.5 pm for a 6-coordinated atom. At standard temperature and pressure, aluminium atoms form a face-centered cubic crystal system bound by metallic bonding provided by atoms' outermost electrons; this crystal system is shared by some other metals, such as copper. Aluminium metal, when in quantity, is shiny and resembles silver because it preferentially absorbs far ultraviolet radiation while reflecting all visible light so it does not impart any color to reflected light, unlike the reflectance spectra of copper and gold.
Another important characteristic of aluminium is its low density, 2.70 g/cm3. Aluminium is a soft, lightweight and malleable with appearance ranging from silvery to dull gray, depending on the surface roughness, it is nonmagnetic and does not ignite. A fresh film of aluminium serves as a good reflector of visible light and an excellent reflector of medium and far infrared radiation; the yield strength of pure aluminium is 7–11 MPa, while aluminium alloys have yield strengths ranging from 200 MPa to 600 MPa. Aluminium has stiffness of steel, it is machined, cast and extruded. Aluminium atoms are arranged in a face-centered cubic structure. Aluminium has a stacking-fault energy of 200 mJ/m2. Aluminium is a good thermal and electrical conductor, having 59% the conductivity of copper, both thermal and electrical, while having only 30% of copper's density. Aluminium is capable of superconductivity, with a superconducting critical temperature of 1.2 kelvin and a critical magnetic field of about 100 gauss.
Aluminium is the most common material for the fabrication of superconducting qubits. Aluminium's corrosion resistance can be excellent due to a thin surface layer of aluminium oxide that forms when the bare metal is exposed to air preventing further oxidation, in a process termed passivation; the strongest aluminium alloys are less corrosion resistant due to galvanic reactions with alloyed copper. This corrosion resistance is reduced by aqueous salts in the presence of dissimilar metals. In acidic solutions, aluminium reacts with water to form hydrogen, in alkaline ones to form aluminates—protective passivation under these conditions is negligible; because it is corroded by dissolved chlorides, such as common sodium chloride, household plumbing is never made from aluminium. However, because