Rex Ingram (actor)
For the film director, producer and actor, see Rex Ingram. Rex Ingram was an American Doctor and stage and television actor. Ingram was born near Illinois, on the Mississippi River. Ingram graduated from the Northwestern University medical school in 1919 and was the first African-American man to receive a Phi Beta Kappa key from Northwestern University, he went to Hollywood as a young man where he was discovered on a street corner by the casting director for Tarzan of the Apes, starring Elmo Lincoln. He made his screen debut in that film and had many other small roles as a generic black native, such as in the Tarzan films. With the arrival of sound, his presence and powerful voice became an asset and he went on to memorable roles in The Green Pastures, The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, The Thief of Bagdad, The Talk of the Town, Sahara. From 1929, he appeared on stage, making his debut on Broadway, he appeared in more than a dozen Broadway productions, with his final role coming in Kwamina in 1961.
He was in the original cast of Haiti, Cabin in the Sky, St. Louis Woman, he is one of the few actors to have played the Devil. In 1966 he played Tee-Tot in the movie Your Cheatin Heart; the Hank Williams Story. Ingram was arrested for violating the Mann Act in 1948. Pleading guilty to the charge of transporting a teenage girl to New York for immoral purposes, he was sentenced to eighteen months in jail, he served just ten months of his sentence, but the incident had a serious effect on his career for the next six years. In the interim, he invested in the Club Alabam, famed nightclub located in the Dunbar Hotel in South Central Los Angeles, with partners Joe Morris and Clarence Moore, reopening it as a jazz club. In 1962, he became the first African-American actor to be hired for a contract role on a soap opera, when he appeared on The Brighter Day, he had other minor work in television in the 1960s, appearing in an episode each of I Spy and The Bill Cosby Show, both of which starred Bill Cosby, who used his influence to land him the roles.
Shortly after filming a guest spot on The Bill Cosby Show, Ingram died of a heart attack at the age of 73. He was interred in Forest Lawn Memorial Park in California. Rex Ingram at the Internet Broadway Database Rex Ingram on IMDb Rex Ingram at Find a Grave
Wah Ming Chang was a Chinese-American designer and artist. With the encouragement of his adopted father, James Blanding Sloan, he began exhibiting his prints and watercolors at the age of seven to favorable reviews. Chang worked with Sloan on several theatre productions and in the 1940s, they created their own studio to produce films, he is known in life for his sculpture and the props he designed for Star Trek: The Original Series, including the tricorder and communicator. The Chang family moved from Honolulu, Hawaii to San Francisco and about 1920 opened the Ho-Ho Tea Room on Sutter Street, which became a favorite venue for the city's Bohemian artists. Wah-Ming's mother, Fai Sue Chang, was a graduate of Berkeley's California School of Arts and Crafts, where she specialized in fashion design and etching; when she died in 1928, her husband persuaded Wah Ming Chang's art teacher and family friends, the respected printmaker and theatre designer, James Blanding Sloan and his wife Mildred Taylor, to become his son's legal guardians.
Sloan exhibited Wah Ming's etchings and watercolors in public exhibitions as early as 1925 to favorable reviews in the San Francisco Bay Area and in the largest art colony on the Pacific Coast, Carmel-by-the-Sea. The child became part of Sloan's family, traveled in 1926 to Taos, New Mexico for the on-site study of American Indian culture, in 1928 displayed his block prints in joint exhibitions with Sloan at the prestigious Philadelphia Print Club and in Pasadena, California, he became a valued assistant in several of Sloan's marionette theatres as well as in productions for the Hollywood Bowl Ballet and the “Cavalcade of Texas.” In the mid-1940s Chang formed a joint studio business with Sloan, The East-West Film Company, produced such memorable films as Pick a Bale of Cotton and the controversial anti-war short, The Way of Peace, created in part with elaborate miniature sets and puppets in stop-motion. For Star Trek, Chang built costumes for the Gorn and Balok's false image, he created tribbles by using artificial fur stuffed with foam, the Neanderthals in "The Galileo Seven", the Romulan Bird of Prey, the Vulcan harp first seen in "Charlie X" and seen in "The Conscience of the King", "Amok Time", "The Way to Eden".
Chang is mistakenly credited with having created the phaser. Jefferies' phaser was not accepted, Chang redesigned it for him. Chang's communicator design has been credited as an inspiration for modern flip-type cell phones, his Balok effigy was used in "The Corbomite Maneuver" Star Trek episode — and at the conclusion of many closing credits sequences of the series. His other film credits include sculpting the maquette of Pinocchio, used as the reference for the animators of the classic Walt Disney feature, articulated deer models for Bambi, he designed the spectacular headdress worn by Elizabeth Taylor in the feature film Cleopatra. Other work included building the title object from 1960s movie The Time Machine. Chang's firm, Project Unlimited, Inc. would win Academy Award recognition for its special effects, but Chang was not listed on the award, due to the way the credits were submitted to the Academy. Film historian Bob Burns reported. "He was the most humble, gentle man I've known in my life," Burns said.
"He never boasted about anything he did, he just did remarkable stuff."In addition, Chang built the artificial creature in "The Architects of Fear" episode of the original The Outer Limits, some props for the original Planet of the Apes film, the frightening skeleton animated in The Power, the flying machine in The Master of the World, the dinosaurs in Land of the Lost. Chang's work as a stop-motion animator through the effects company Centaur Productions, operated with fellow artist Gene Warren, has been enjoyed for years in the cartoons Hardrock and Joe and Suzy Snowflake. In life, Chang moved to Carmel-by-the-Sea, where he produced sculptures of wildlife. In 1941, 31-year-old Wah Ming was diagnosed with polio after suffering flu-like symptoms. After an extended stay at the Twin Oaks Sanitarium hospital in San Gabriel and treatments that included confinement in an iron lung, he would walk again, but for the rest of his life, never had enough strength in his lungs to be able to blow up a balloon.
While his earlier creative efforts were consumed with special effects and film related wonders, his more mature artistic creations were delightful bronze sculptures and whimsical statuary from a life-sized Dennis the Menace, commissioned by creator Hank Ketcham and displayed in Dennis Park in Monterey, California, to the smaller statues such as Girl and Frog, owned by a private collector in Los Angeles. Chang produced the educational 1970 short film Dinosaurs: The Terrible Lizards, a stop-motion feature which discussed life in the Mesozoic Era, it would gain a "Revised Edition" in 1986. Chang appeared in the documentary The Fantasy Film Worlds of George Pal. Mr. Chang was featured in the documentary Time Machine: The Journey Back and directed by Clyde Lucas. Chang produced bronze sculptures in collaboration with Henry "Bob" Jones after meeting at Disney. Riley, Gail Blasser. Wah Ming Chang: Artist and Master of Special Effects. Berkeley Heights, NJ: Enslow Publish
Paramount Pictures Corporation is an American film studio based in Hollywood, a subsidiary of the American media conglomerate Viacom since 1994. Paramount is the fifth oldest surviving film studio in the world, the second oldest in the United States, the sole member of the "Big Five" film studios still located in the Los Angeles neighborhood of Hollywood. In 1916, film producer Adolph Zukor put 22 actors and actresses under contract and honored each with a star on the logo. In 2014, Paramount Pictures became the first major Hollywood studio to distribute all of its films in digital form only; the company's headquarters and studios are located at 5555 Melrose Avenue, California, United States. Paramount Pictures is a member of the Motion Picture Association of America. Paramount is the fifth oldest surviving film studio in the world after the French studios Gaumont Film Company and Pathé, followed by the Nordisk Film company, Universal Studios, it is the last major film studio still headquartered in the Hollywood district of Los Angeles.
Paramount Pictures dates its existence from the 1912 founding date of the Famous Players Film Company. Hungarian-born founder Adolph Zukor, an early investor in nickelodeons, saw that movies appealed to working-class immigrants. With partners Daniel Frohman and Charles Frohman he planned to offer feature-length films that would appeal to the middle class by featuring the leading theatrical players of the time. By mid-1913, Famous Players had completed five films, Zukor was on his way to success, its first film was Les Amours de la reine Élisabeth. That same year, another aspiring producer, Jesse L. Lasky, opened his Lasky Feature Play Company with money borrowed from his brother-in-law, Samuel Goldfish known as Samuel Goldwyn; the Lasky company hired as their first employee a stage director with no film experience, Cecil B. DeMille, who would find a suitable site in Hollywood, near Los Angeles, for his first feature film, The Squaw Man. Starting in 1914, both Lasky and Famous Players released their films through a start-up company, Paramount Pictures Corporation, organized early that year by a Utah theatre owner, W. W. Hodkinson, who had bought and merged several smaller firms.
Hodkinson and actor, producer Hobart Bosworth had started production of a series of Jack London movies. Paramount was the first successful nationwide distributor. Famous Players and Lasky were owned while Paramount was a corporation. In 1916, Zukor maneuvered a three-way merger of his Famous Players, the Lasky Company, Paramount. Zukor and Lasky bought Hodkinson out of Paramount, merged the three companies into one; the new company Lasky and Zukor founded, Famous Players-Lasky Corporation, grew with Lasky and his partners Goldwyn and DeMille running the production side, Hiram Abrams in charge of distribution, Zukor making great plans. With only the exhibitor-owned First National as a rival, Famous Players-Lasky and its "Paramount Pictures" soon dominated the business; because Zukor believed in stars, he signed and developed many of the leading early stars, including Mary Pickford, Marguerite Clark, Pauline Frederick, Douglas Fairbanks, Gloria Swanson, Rudolph Valentino, Wallace Reid. With so many important players, Paramount was able to introduce "block booking", which meant that an exhibitor who wanted a particular star's films had to buy a year's worth of other Paramount productions.
It was this system that gave Paramount a leading position in the 1920s and 1930s, but which led the government to pursue it on antitrust grounds for more than twenty years. The driving force behind Paramount's rise was Zukor. Through the teens and twenties, he built the Publix Theatres Corporation, a chain of nearly 2,000 screens, ran two production studios, became an early investor in radio, taking a 50% interest in the new Columbia Broadcasting System in 1928. In 1926, Zukor hired independent producer B. P. Schulberg, an unerring eye for new talent, to run the new West Coast operations, they purchased the Robert Brunton Studios, a 26-acre facility at 5451 Marathon Street for US$1 million. In 1927, Famous Players-Lasky took the name Paramount Famous Lasky Corporation. Three years because of the importance of the Publix Theatres, it became Paramount Publix Corporation. In 1928, Paramount began releasing Inkwell Imps, animated cartoons produced by Max and Dave Fleischer's Fleischer Studios in New York City.
The Fleischers, veterans in the animation industry, were among the few animation producers capable of challenging the prominence of Walt Disney. The Paramount newsreel series Paramount News ran from 1927 to 1957. Paramount was one of the first Hollywood studios to release what were known at that time as "talkies", in 1929, released their first musical, Innocents of Paris. Richard A. Whiting and Leo Robin composed the score for the film. By acquiring the successful Balaban & Katz chain in 1926, Zukor gained the services of Barney Balaban, his brother A. J. Balaban, their partner Sam Katz (who would run the Paramount-Publix theatre chain in New York City from the thirty-five-stor
Black and white
Black-and-white images combine black and white in a continuous spectrum, producing a range of shades of gray. The history of various visual media has begun with black and white, as technology improved, altered to color. However, there are exceptions to this rule, including black-and-white fine art photography and in motion pictures, many art films. Most early forms of motion pictures or film were white; some color film processes, including hand coloring were experimented with, in limited use, from the earliest days of motion pictures. The switch from most films being in black-and-white to most being in color was gradual, taking place from the 1930s to the 1960s; when most film studios had the capability to make color films, the technology's popularity was limited, as using the Technicolor process was expensive and cumbersome. For many years, it was not possible for films in color to render realistic hues, thus its use was restricted to historical films and cartoons until the 1950s, while many directors preferred to use black-and-white stock.
For the years 1940–1966, a separate Academy Award for Best Art Direction was given for black-and-white movies along with one for color. The earliest television broadcasts were transmitted in black-and-white, received and displayed by black-and-white only television sets. Scottish inventor John Logie Baird demonstrated the world's first color television transmission on July 3, 1928 using a mechanical process; some color broadcasts in the U. S. began in the 1950s, with color becoming common in western industrialized nations during the late 1960s. In the United States, the Federal Communications Commission settled on a color NTSC standard in 1953, the NBC network began broadcasting a limited color television schedule in January 1954. Color television became more widespread in the U. S. between 1963 and 1967, when major networks like CBS and ABC joined NBC in broadcasting full color schedules. Some TV stations in the US were still broadcasting in B&W until the late 80s to early 90s, depending on network.
Canada began airing color television in 1966 while the United Kingdom began to use an different color system from July 1967 known as PAL. The Republic of Ireland followed in 1970. Australia experimented with color television in 1967 but continued to broadcast in black-and-white until 1975, New Zealand experimented with color broadcasting in 1973 but didn't convert until 1975. In China, black-and-white television sets were the norm until as late as the 1990s, color TVs not outselling them until about 1989. In 1969, Japanese electronics manufacturers standardized the first format for industrial/non-broadcast videotape recorders called EIAJ-1, which offered only black-and-white video recording and playback. While used professionally now, many consumer camcorders have the ability to record in black-and-white. Throughout the 19th century, most photography was monochrome photography: images were either black-and-white or shades of sepia. Personal and commercial photographs might be hand tinted. Colour photography was rare and expensive and again containing inaccurate hues.
Color photography became more common from the mid-20th century. However, black-and-white photography has continued to be a popular medium for art photography, as shown in the picture by the well-known photographer Ansel Adams; this can take the form of black-and-white film or digital conversion to grayscale, with optional digital image editing manipulation to enhance the results. For amateur use certain companies such as Kodak manufactured black-and-white disposable cameras until 2009. Certain films are produced today which give black-and-white images using the ubiquitous C41 color process. Printing is an ancient art, color printing has been possible in some ways from the time colored inks were produced. In the modern era, for financial and other practical reasons, black-and-white printing has been common through the 20th century. However, with the technology of the 21st century, home color printers, which can produce color photographs, are common and inexpensive, a technology unimaginable in the mid-20th century.
Most American newspapers were black-and-white until the early 1980s. Some claim. In the UK, color was only introduced from the mid-1980s. Today, many newspapers restrict color photographs to the front and other prominent pages since mass-producing photographs in black-and-white is less expensive than color. Daily comic strips in newspapers were traditionally black-and-white with color reserved for Sunday strips.:Color printing is more expensive. Sometimes color is reserved for the cover. Magazines such as Jet magazine were either all or black-and-white until the end of the 2000s when it became all-color. Manga are published in black-and-white although now it is part of its image. Many school yearbooks are still or in black-and-white; the Wizard of Oz is in color when Dorothy is in Oz, but in black-and-white when she is in Kansas, although the latter scenes were in sepia when the film was released. The British film A Matter of Life and Death depicts the other world in black-and-white, earthly events in color.
Wim Wenders's film Wings of Desire uses sepia-tone black-and-white f
George Pal was a Hungarian-American animator, film director and producer, principally associated with the fantasy and science-fiction genres. He became an American citizen after emigrating from Europe, he was nominated for Academy Awards for seven consecutive years and received an honorary award in 1944. This makes him the second-most nominated Hungarian exile after Miklós Rózsa. Pal was born in Cegléd, the son of György Pál Marczincsak, Sr. and his wife Maria. He graduated from the Budapest Academy of Arts in 1928. From 1928 to 1931, he made films for Hunnia Films of Hungary. At the age of 23 in 1931, he married Elisabeth "Zsoka" Grandjean, after moving to Berlin, founded Trickfilm-Studio GmbH Pal und Wittke, with UFA Studios as its main customer from 1931 to 1933. During this time, he patented the Pal-Doll technique. In 1933, he worked in Prague, he started to use Pal-Doll techniques in Eindhoven, in a former butchery at villa-studio Suny Home. He left Germany, he made five films before 1939 for the British company Horlicks Malted Milk.
In December of that year, aged 32, he emigrated from Europe to the United States, began work for Paramount Pictures. At this time, his friend Walter Lantz helped him obtain American citizenship; as an animator, he made the Puppetoons series in the 1940s, which led to him being awarded an honorary Oscar in 1943 for "the development of novel methods and techniques in the production of short subjects known as Puppetoons". Pal switched to live-action film-making with The Great Rupert, he is best remembered as the producer of several science-fiction and fantasy films in the 1950s, such as When Worlds Collide, 1960s, four of which were collaborations with director Byron Haskin, including The War of the Worlds. He himself directed Tom Thumb, The Time Machine, The Wonderful World of the Brothers Grimm. In May 1980, he died in Beverly Hills, California, of a heart attack at the age of 72, is buried in Holy Cross Cemetery, Culver City, California; the Voyage of the Berg, on which he was working at the time, was never completed.
Pal has a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 1722 Vine St. In 1980, the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences founded the "George Pal Lecture on Fantasy in Film" series in his memory. George Pal is among the many references to classic science fiction and horror films in the opening theme of both the stage musical The Rocky Horror Show and its cinematic counterpart, The Rocky Horror Picture Show. Pal's Puppetoons Tulips Shall Grow and John Henry and the Inky-Poo were added to the Library of Congress 1997 and 2015 National Film Registry. One of the Tubby the Tuba models along with a frog and three string instruments were donated to the Smithsonian Institution for the National Museum of American History; the Academy Film Archive has preserved several of George Pal's films, including Jasper and the Beanstalk, John Henry and the Inky Poo, Radio Röhren Revolution. The Great Rupert Destination Moon When Worlds Collide The War of the Worlds Houdini The Naked Jungle Conquest of Space Tom Thumb The Time Machine Atlantis, the Lost Continent The Wonderful World of the Brothers Grimm 7 Faces of Dr. Lao The Power Doc Savage: The Man of Bronze After Worlds Collide Odd John Logan's Run When the Sleeper Wakes War of the Worlds Unfinished TV pilot Doc Savage: The Arch Enemy of Evil The Time Traveller aka Time Machine II.
A novelization with Joe Morhaim was published posthumously in 1981. The Wonderful Wizard of Oz The Disappearance Voyage of the Berg The Fantasy Film Worlds of George Pal The Puppetoon Movie Gail Morgan Hickman; the Films of George Pal ISBN 0-498-01960-8. Miller, Thomas Kent. Mars in the Movies: A History. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Company, 2016. ISBN 978-0-7864-9914-4. George Pal on IMDb George Pal at Find a Grave NNDB entry George Pal Lecture on Fantasy in Film A Cinema of Miracles: Remembering George Pal George Pal: A Career in Perspective George Pal War Of The Worlds review plus info on proposed WOTW TV series
National Film Registry
The National Film Registry is the United States National Film Preservation Board's selection of films deserving of preservation. The NFPB, established by the National Film Preservation Act of 1988, was reauthorized by acts of Congress in 1992, 1996, 2005, again in October 2008; the NFPB's mission, to which the NFR contributes, is to ensure the survival and increased public availability of America's film heritage. The 1996 law created the non-profit National Film Preservation Foundation which, although affiliated with the NFPB, raises money from the private sector; the NFPB adds to the NFR up to 25 "culturally or aesthetically significant films" each year, showcasing the range and diversity of American film heritage to increase awareness for its preservation. A film becomes eligible for inclusion ten years after its original release. For the first selection in 1989, the public nominated 1,000 films for consideration. Members of the NFPB developed individual ballots of possible films for inclusion.
The ballots were tabulated into a list of 25 films, modified by Librarian of Congress James H. Billington and his staff at the Library for the final selection. Since 1997, members of the public have been able to nominate up to 50 films a year for the NFPB and Librarian to consider; the NFR includes films ranging from Hollywood classics to orphan films. A film is not required to be feature-length, nor is it required to have been theatrically released in the traditional sense. In addition, television programs and foreign films are not excluded from consideration, although American films are given preference; the Registry contains newsreels, silent films, student films, experimental films, short films, music videos, films out of copyright protection or in the public domain, film serials, home movies, documentaries and independent films. As of the 2018 listing, there are 750 films in the Registry; the earliest listed film is Newark Athlete, the most recent is Brokeback Mountain. Counting the 11 multi-year serials in the NFR once each by year of completion, the year with the most films selected is 1939, with 19 films from that year chosen.
The time between a film's debut and its selection varies greatly. The longest span is 121 years; the shortest span is the minimum 10 years. This table is through the 2018 induction list. For purposes of this list, multi-year serials are counted only once by year of completion. Category:United States National Film Registry films National Recording Registry These Amazing Shadows, a 2011 documentary film that tells the history and importance of the registry National Film Registry homepage Classic Movie Hub: National Film Registry List These Amazing Shadows site for Independent Lens on PBS