Rize Province is a province of northeast Turkey, on the eastern Black Sea coast between Trabzon and Artvin. The province of Erzurum is to the south, it was known as Lazistan, the designation of the term of Lazistan was banned in 1926, by Kemalists. Its capital is the city of Rize; the province is home to Laz, Turkish people and Georgian communities. Turkish president Recep Tayyip Erdoğan spent his early childhood in Rize, where his father was a member of the Turkish Coast Guard; the name comes from Greek ρίζα, meaning "mountain slopes". The Georgian and Armenian names are all derived from Greek as well: their names in respective order are Rize and Rize. We have little information as to the prehistory of this region, which being covered in thick forest is difficult to excavate and reveals little. Colchis which existed from the 13th to the 1st centuries BC is regarded as an early proto-Georgian polity in this area. According to Pliny the Elder, from 670 BC onwards the Aegean Ancient Greek community of Miletus established a series of trading posts along the Black Sea coast.
The Achaemenid Empire was defeated by Alexander the Great, however following of Alexander's death a number of separate kingdoms were established in Anatolia, including Pontus, in the corner of the south-eastern Black Sea, ruled by Mithridates. Rize was brought into the Kingdom of Pontus by Pharnaces in 180 BC; the small number of Hellenistic Greek inscriptions that have been found anywhere in Pontus suggest that Greek culture did not penetrate beyond the coastal cities and the court. The kingdom was absorbed into the Roman Empire between 10 AD and 395 AD, when it passed to the Byzantines. By this time writers including Pliny and the Roman adventurer Arrian were describing the inhabitants as Laz. During the whole medieval period, the region was under Byzantine control, was populated by Greeks and indigenous Lazs. During the reign of the Byzantine emperor Justinian I the warlike tribes of the interior, called Sannoi or Tzannoi, the ancestors of modern Laz people, were subdued and brought to central rule.
Locals began to have closer contact with the Greeks and acquired various Hellenic cultural traits, including in some cases the language. Locals were under nominal Byzantine suzerainty in the theme of Chaldia, with its capital at Trebizond, governed by the native semi-autonomous rulers, like the Gabras family. Following the Seljuk Turks invasion, there has been continuous influx of Armenians resulting partial armenization of the local Tzan population and formation of new Hemshin identity. With the Georgian intervention in Chaldia and collapse of Byzantine Empire in 1204, Empire of Trebizond was established along the southwestern coast of the Black Sea, populated by a large Lazian-speaking population. In the eastern part of the same empire, an autonomous coastal theme of Greater Lazia was established. Byzantine authors, such as Pachymeres, to some extent Trapezuntines such as Lazaropoulos and Bessarion, regarded the Trapezuntian Empire as being no more than a Lazian border state. Though Greek in higher culture, the rural areas of Trebizond empire appear to have been predominantly Laz in ethnic composition.
Laz family names, with Hellenized terminations, are noticeable in the records of the mediaeval empire of Trebizond, it is not too venturesome to suggest that the antagonism between the "town-party" and the "country-party," which existed in the politics of "the Empire," was in fact a national antagonism of Laz against Greek. In 1282, kingdom of Imereti besieged Trebizond, however after the failed attempt to take the city, the Georgians occupied several provinces and all the Trebizontine province of Lazia threw off its allegiance to the king of the'Iberian' and'Lazian' tribes and united itself with the Georgian Kingdom of Imereti. Laz populated area was contested by different Georgian principalities, however through Battle of Murjakheti, Principality of Guria ensured control over it, until 1547, when it was conquered by resurgent Ottoman forces and reorganized into the Lazistan sanjak as part of eyalet of Trabzon. From the late-17th century onwards, the Ottoman administration built many elegant bridges across the Fırtına River and its tributaries.
The province was a site of battles between Ottoman and Russian armies during Caucasus Campaign of World War I and was occupied by the Russian forces in 1916-1918. It was returned to the Ottomans with the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk in 1918. From 1924 onwards, Rize has been a province of the Republic of Turkey; until tea was planted here in the 1940s this was a poor area at the far end of the country, with only the Soviet Union beyond the Iron Curtain. Many generations of Rize people left to look for jobs in Istanbul or overseas; the city of Rize is a coastal town on a narrow strip of flat land between the sea. Today the area is wealthier although there is a marked difference between the lifestyle of the people in the wealthy city of Rize and those in the remote villages where wooden houses perch on the steep mountainside with the rain beating down; the province is known in Turkey for the production of Rize Tea. Rize is located between the Black Sea, it is considered to be the "wettest" corner of Turkey and is the country's main tea producing region.
In addition to tea, the region is known for growing kiwi fruit. The province is rural and scenic, containing many mountain valleys and elevated yaylas; the district of Çamlı
The Chuvash Republic, or Chuvashia, is a federal subject of Russia. It is the homeland of a Turkic ethnic group, its capital is the city of Cheboksary. As of the 2010 Census, its population was 1,251,619; the Chuvash Republic is located in the center of European Russia, in the heart of the Volga-Vyatka economic region to the west of the Volga River, in the Volga Upland. It borders with the Mari El Republic in the north, Nizhny Novgorod Oblast in the west, the Republic of Mordovia in the southwest, Ulyanovsk Oblast in the south, the Republic of Tatarstan in the east and southeast. There are over two thousand rivers in the republic—with the major ones being the Volga, the Sura, the Tsivil—as well as four hundred lakes; some of the Volga River valley reservoirs are in the north of the republic, the Sura River flows towards the Volga along much of the republic's western boundary. Climate is moderate continental, with the average temperatures ranging from −13 °C in January to +19 °C in July. Annual precipitation is uneven from one year to another.
Natural resources include gypsum, clay, sapropel deposits and peat. There are oil and natural gas deposits, although their extraction has not yet been commercially pursued. Forests in the south along the Sura River, cover 30% of the land; the ancestors of the Chuvash were Bulgars and Suars, Turkic tribes residing in the Northern Caucasus in the 5th to 8th centuries. In the 7th and 8th centuries, a part of the Bulgars left for the Balkans, together with local Slavs, they established the state of modern Bulgaria. Another part moved to the Middle Volga Region, where the Bulgar population that did not adopt Islam formed the foundation of the Chuvash people. During the Mongol invasion of Volga Bulgaria, the steppe-dwelling Suar migrated north, where Finnic tribes, such as the Mordvins and Mari lived; the Chuvash claim to be the descendants of these Suars. In 1242, they became vassals of the Golden Horde. Mongol and Tatar rulers did not intervene in local internal affairs as long as tribute was paid annually to Sarai.
When the power of the Golden Horde began to diminish, local Mişär Tatar Murzas from Piana and Temnikov tried to govern the Chuvash area. During Ivan the Terrible's war of conquest against the Khanate of Kazan, in August 1552, the Chuvash Orsai and Mari Akpar Tokari princes swore their loyalty to the Grand Duchy of Muscovy at Alatyr on the Sura River. Between 1650 and 1850, the Russian Orthodox Church sent Chuvash-speaking missionaries to try to convert the Chuvash to the Orthodox faith. A group of these missionaries created a written Chuvash language. Most of the Chuvash who stayed in the area became Orthodox Christians. On May 15, 1917, the Chuvash joined the Idel-Ural Movement and in December 1917 joined the short-lived Idel-Ural State, when an agreement was reached with Tatar representatives to draw the eastern border of Chuvashia at the Sviyaga River. In 1918–1919, the Russian Civil War encompassed the area; this ended with victory for the Bolsheviks. To gain support from the local population, Lenin ordered the creation of a Chuvash state within the Russian SFSR.
On June 24, 1920, the Chuvash Autonomous Oblast was formed, transformed into the Chuvash ASSR in April 1925. During the Soviet period, the high authority in the republic was shared between three persons: The first secretary of the Chuvashia CPSU Committee, the chairman of the oblast Soviet, the Chairman of the Republic Executive Committee. Since 1991, CPSU lost all the power, the head of the Republic administration, the governor was appointed/elected alongside elected regional parliament; the Charter of Republic of Chuvashia is the fundamental law of the region. The State Council of the Chuvash Republic is the republic's regional standing legislative body; the highest executive body is the Republic's Government, which includes territorial executive bodies such as district administrations and commissions that facilitate development and run the day to day matters. The republic is one of the most densely populated regions in Russia. Population: 1,251,619 ; the capital is Cheboksary. Cheboksary is situated on the southern bank of the Volga in the northern part of the republic 650 kilometers east of Moscow.
Nearby to the east is the next largest city, Novocheboksarsk. Source: Russian Federal State Statistics Service Note: TFR According to the 2010 Census, ethnic Chuvash make up 67.7% of the republic's population. Other groups include Russians, Mordvins, a host of smaller groups, each accounting for less than 0.5% of the total population. Osteopetrosis affects 1 newborn out of every 20,000 to 250,000 worldwide, but the odds are much higher in the Russian region of Chuvashia due to genetic traits of the Chuvash people. According to a 2012 survey, 54.7% of the population of Chuvashia adheres to the Russian Orthodox Church, 4% are Orthodox Christian believers without belonging to any church or members of non-Russian Orthodox churches, 3% of the population follow I
Bagpipes are a woodwind instrument using enclosed reeds fed from a constant reservoir of air in the form of a bag. The Scottish Great Highland bagpipes are the best known in the Anglophone world; the term bagpipe is correct in the singular or plural, though pipers refer to the bagpipes as "the pipes", "a set of pipes" or "a stand of pipes". A set of bagpipes minimally consists of an air supply, a bag, a chanter, at least one drone. Many bagpipes have more than one drone in various combinations, held in place in stocks—sockets that fasten the various pipes to the bag; the most common method of supplying air to the bag is through blowing into a blowstick. In some pipes the player must cover the tip of the blowpipe with their tongue while inhaling, but most blowpipes have a non-return valve that eliminates this need. In recent times, there are many instruments that assist in creating a clean air flow to the pipes and assist the collection of condensation. An innovation, dating from the 16th or 17th century, is the use of a bellows to supply air.
In these pipes, sometimes called "cauld wind pipes", air is not heated or moistened by the player's breathing, so bellows-driven bagpipes can use more refined or delicate reeds. Such pipes include the Irish uilleann pipes; the bag is an airtight reservoir that holds air and regulates its flow via arm pressure, allowing the player to maintain continuous sound. The player keeps the bag inflated by blowing air into it through a blowpipe or pumping air into it with a bellows. Materials used for bags vary but the most common are the skins of local animals such as goats, dogs and cows. More bags made of synthetic materials including Gore-Tex have become much more common. A drawback of the synthetic bag is the potential for fungal spores to colonise the bag because of a reduction in necessary cleaning, with the associated danger of lung infection. An advantage of a synthetic bag is that it has a zip which allows the user to fit a more effective moisture trap to the inside of the bag. Bags cut from larger materials are saddle-stitched with an extra strip folded over the seam and stitched or glued to reduce leaks.
Holes are cut to accommodate the stocks. In the case of bags made from intact animal skins, the stocks are tied into the points where the limbs and the head joined the body of the whole animal, a construction technique common in Central Europe; the chanter is the melody pipe, played with two hands. All bagpipes have at least one chanter. A chanter can be bored internally so that the inside walls are parallel for its full length, or it can be bored in a conical shape; the chanter is open-ended, so there is no easy way for the player to stop the pipe from sounding. Thus most bagpipes share a legato sound where there are no rests in the music; because of this inability to stop playing, technical movements are used to break up notes and to create the illusion of articulation and accents. Because of their importance, these embellishments are highly technical systems specific to each bagpipe, take many years of study to master. A few bagpipes have closed ends or stop the end on the player's leg, so that when the player "closes" the chanter becomes silent.
A practice chanter is a chanter without bag or drones, allowing a player to practice the instrument and with no variables other than playing the chanter. The term chanter is derived from the Latin cantare, or "to sing", much like the modern French word chanteur; the note from the chanter is produced by a reed installed at its top. The reed may be a double reed. Double reeds are used with both conical- and parallel-bored chanters while single reeds are limited to parallel-bored chanters. In general, double-reed chanters are found in pipes of Western Europe while single-reed chanters appear in most other regions. Most bagpipes have at least one drone: a pipe, not fingered but rather produces a constant harmonizing note throughout play. Exceptions are those pipes which have a double-chanter instead. A drone is most a cylindrically-bored tube with a single reed, although drones with double reeds exist; the drone is designed in two or more parts with a sliding joint so that the pitch of the drone can be adjusted.
Depending on the type of pipes, the drones may lie over the shoulder, across the arm opposite the bag, or may run parallel to the chanter. Some drones have a tuning screw, which alters the length of the drone by opening a hole, allowing the drone to be tuned to two or more distinct pitches; the tuning screw may shut off the drone altogether. In most types of pipes, where there is one drone it is pitched two octaves below the tonic of the chanter. Additional drones add the octave below and a drone consonant with the fifth
Trabzon Province is a province of Turkey on the Black Sea coast. Located in a strategically important region, Trabzon is one of the oldest trade port cities in Anatolia. Neighbouring provinces are Giresun to the west, Gümüşhane to the southwest, Bayburt to the southeast and Rize to the east; the provincial capital is Trabzon city, the traffic code is 61. The major ethnic groups are Turks, but the province is home to a minority of Muslim Pontic Greek speakers, though younger speakers are not always fluent in this language. Trabzon province is divided into 18 districts: Trabzon Districts along the 114 km coastline: Beşikdüzü, Vakfıkebir, Çarşıbaşı, Akçaabat, Arsin, Araklı, Sürmene and Of. Districts inland: Tonya, Düzköy, Şalpazarı, Maçka, Köprübaşı, Dernekpazarı, Hayrat and Çaykara. Beşikdüzü and Şalpazarı gained district status in 1988, Çarşıbaşı, Düzköy, Köprübaşı, Dernekpazarı and Hayrat in 1990. Remarkably attractive throughout its history, Trabzon was the subject of hundreds of travel books by western travellers, some of whom had named it "city of tale in the East" The capital city Trabzon was founded, as Trapezus, by Greek colonists from Sinope, modern Sinop, Turkey.
Starting from the 9th century BC, the city had been mentioned by historians such as Homeros, Hesiodos. The first written source regarding Trabzon is Anabasis, authored by Xenophon. An important Roman and Byzantine centre, it was the capital of the Empire of Trebizond from 1204 to 1461. Trabzon was subsequently made part of the Ottoman Empire by Mehmet the Conqueror, it was a sanjak before gaining the status of eyalet, became a vilayet in 1868. After the region was conquered in 1461, the Fatih Medrese, Hatuniye Medrese, İskender Pasha Medrese and Hamza Pasha Medrese were established as important medreses of the period; the province was a site of major fighting between Ottoman and Russian forces during the Caucasus Campaign of World War I, which resulted in the capture of the city of Trabzon by the Russian army under command of Grand Duke Nicholas and Nikolai Yudenich in April 1916. The province was restored to Turkish control in early 1918 following Russia's exit from World War I with the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk.
Hagia Sophia of Trabzon Trabzon Castle Kalepark Sümela Monastery Kuştul Monastery Kaymaklı Monastery Vazelon Monastery Kızlar Monastery Fatih Mosque Yeni Cuma Mosque Nakip Mosque İskender Pasha Mosque Lake Uzungöl Pontic Mountains 2000 - 979,081 1997 - 858,687 1990 - 795,849 1985 - 786,194 1980 - 731,045 1975 - 719,008 1970 - 659,120 1965 - 595,782 1960 - 532,999 1955 - 462,249 1950 - 420,279 1945 - 395,733 1940 - 390,733 1935 - 360,679 1927 - 290,303 World Trade Center Trabzon Trabzon Museum Trabzon Chepni Pontic Greeks Kadirga Festival Araklı Governorate of Trabzon Municipality of Trabzon Trabzonspor S. K. Culture of the Black Sea Region All about Trabzon Trabzon Real Estate
Dalmatia is one of the four historical regions of Croatia, alongside Croatia proper and Istria. Dalmatia is a narrow belt of the east shore of the Adriatic Sea, stretching from the island of Rab in the north to the Bay of Kotor in the south; the hinterland ranges in width from fifty kilometres in the north, to just a few kilometres in the south. Seventy-nine islands run parallel to the coast, the largest being Brač, Hvar; the largest city is Split, followed by Zadar, Šibenik. The name of the region stems from an Illyrian tribe called the Dalmatae, who lived in the area in classical antiquity, it became a Roman province, as result a Romance culture emerged, along with the now-extinct Dalmatian language largely replaced with related Venetian. With the arrival of Croats to the area in the 8th century, who occupied most of the hinterland and Romance elements began to intermix in language and culture. During the Middle Ages, its cities were conquered by, or switched allegiance to, the kingdoms of the region.
The longest-lasting rule was the one of the Republic of Venice, which controlled most of Dalmatia between 1420 and 1797, with the exception of the small but stable Republic of Ragusa in the south. Between 1815 and 1918, it was a province of the Austrian Empire known as the Kingdom of Dalmatia. After the Austro-Hungarian defeat in the First World War, Dalmatia was split between the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes which controlled most of it, the Kingdom of Italy which held several smaller parts, after World War II, SFR Yugoslavia took complete control over the area; the name Dalmatia derives from the name of the Dalmatae tribe, connected with the Illyrian word delme meaning "sheep". Its Latin form Dalmatia gave rise to its current English name. In the Venetian language, once dominant in the area, it is spelled Dalmàssia, in modern Italian Dalmazia; the modern Croatian spelling is Dalmacija, pronounced. Dalmatia is referenced in the New Testament at 2 Timothy 4:10, so its name has been translated in many of the world's languages.
In antiquity the Roman province of Dalmatia was much larger than the present-day Split-Dalmatia County, stretching from Istria in the north to modern-day Albania in the south. Dalmatia signified not only a geographical unit, but was an entity based on common culture and settlement types, a common narrow eastern Adriatic coastal belt, Mediterranean climate, sclerophyllous vegetation of the Illyrian province, Adriatic carbonate platform, karst geomorphology. Dalmatia is today a historical region only, not formally instituted in Croatian law, its exact extent is therefore subject to public perception. According to Lena Mirošević and Josip Faričić of the University of Zadar: …the modern perception of Dalmatia is based on the territorial extent of the Austrian Kingdom of Dalmatia, with the exception of Rab island, geographically related to the Kvarner area and functionally to the Littoral–Gorski Kotar area, with the exception of the Bay of Kotor, annexed to another state after World War I; the southern part of Lika and upper Pounje, which were not a part of Austrian Dalmatia, became a part of Zadar County.
From the present-day administrative and territorial point of view, Dalmatia comprises the four Croatian littoral counties with seats in Zadar, Šibenik and Dubrovnik. "Dalmatia" is therefore perceived to extend to the borders of the Austrian Kingdom of Dalmatia. However, due to territorial and administrative changes over the past century, the perception can be seen to have altered somewhat with regard to certain areas, sources conflict as to their being part of the region in modern times: The Bay of Kotor area in Montenegro. With the subdivision of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia into oblasts in 1922, the whole of the Bay of Kotor from Sutorina to Sutomore was granted to the Zeta Oblast, so that the border of Dalmatia was formed at that point by the southern border of the former Republic of Ragusa; the Encyclopædia Britannica defines Dalmatia as extending "to the narrows of Kotor". Other sources, such as the Treccani encyclopedia and the "Rough Guide to Croatia" still include the Bay as being part of the region.
The island of Rab, along with the small islands of Sveti Grgur and Goli, were a part of the Kingdom of Dalmatia and are and culturally related to the region, but are today associated more with the Croatian Littoral, due to geographical vicinity and administrative expediency. Gračac municipality and northern Pag. A number of sources express the view that "from the modern-day administrative point of view", the extent of Dalmatia equates to the four southernmost counties of Croatia: Zadar, Šibenik-Knin, Split-Dalmatia, Dubrovnik-Neretva; this definition does not include the Bay of Kotor, nor the islands of Rab, Sveti Grgur, Goli. It excludes the northern part of the island of Pag, part of the Lika-Senj County. However, it includes the Gračac Municipality in Zadar County, not a part of the Kingdom of Dalmatia and is not traditionally associated with the region; the inhabitants of Dalmatia are culturally subdivided into two groups. The urban families of the coastal cities known as Fetivi, are culturally akin to the inhabitants of the Dalmatian islands.
The two are together distinct, in the Mediterranean aspects of their culture, fr
Fındıklı is a town and district of Rize Province on the Black Sea coast of Turkey, east of the city of Rize. The town was known as Vitze, which some claim means "twig" or "branch" in the Laz language and was renamed Fındıklı after the hazelnuts grown in the town, although these have now been replaced with tea. Scholar Özhan Öztürk claims that the town's former and native name comes from the word vis, meaning "town" in the now-extinct Thracian language and other Indo-European languages. Öztürk claims that Istanbul's old name Byzantion. Like most Black Sea districts, Fındıklı consists of a small strip of coast and a larger area of hills and mountains behind. There is little flat land in Fındıklı and most of the population lives in two large valleys, the Çağlayan and the Arılı; the climate is typical of the Black Sea coast, 6 months of dark cloud, 4 months overcast, six weeks of light cloud and 19 days of sunshine, with light rain at some point during every one of the 365 days of the year. These conditions are ideal for the crops that drive the local economy, namely tea and some other fruits.
The town produces around 32,000 tons of tea and 750 tons of hazelnuts each year. Other produce include milk, eggs and fish, the new development is the planting of kiwi fruit. Fındıklı itself is a small market town of 9,980 people. There is little developed industry, the younger generations migrate away to jobs in larger cities; the people are ethnic Laz. See Rize Province for the history the area, once part of the Colchis i.e. Lazica, Roman Empire, Kingdom of Georgia and the Empire of Trebizond, brought into the Ottoman Empire in 1509, occupied by Russia at the end of World War I. Fındıklı is twinned with: District governor's official website
A gaida is a bagpipe from the Balkans and Southeast Europe. Southeastern European bagpipes known as gaida include: Bulgarian and Macedonian гайда/гајда, the Greek γκάιντα, Aromanian gaidã, Albanian gajde and Serbian gajde/гајдe, Turkish “tulum” or “gayda”, Slovak gajdy. Gaida bags are of sheep or goat hide. Different regions have different ways of treating the hide; the simplest methods involve just the use of salt, while more complex treatments involve milk and the removal of fur. The hide is turned inside out so that the fur is on the inside of the bag, as this helps with moisture buildup within the bag; the stocks into which the chanters and blowpipe and drone fit are called "glavini" in Bulgarian. These can be made out of cornel animal horn; the blow pipe is a short. At the end of the blow pipe, within the bag, there is a small return valve of leather or felt which allows air into the bag via the blow pipe but not back out. In some more primitive gaida there is no flap, but the player blocks returning air with his tongue during breaths.
Each chanter is fitted with a reed made from bamboo, or elder. In regional languages these are variously termed Piska, or pisak. A more modern variant for the reed is a combination of a cotton phenolic material from which the body of the reed is made and a clarinet reed cut to size in order to fit the body; these type of reeds produce a louder sound and are not so sensitive to humidity and temperature changes. The chanter is the pipe. Different gaida may have a conical. Popular woods include plum wood or other fruit wood. A distinctive feature of the gaida's chanter is the "flea-hole", covered by the index finger of the left hand; the flea-hole is smaller than the rest and consists of a small tube, made out of metal or a chicken or duck feather. Uncovering the flea-hole raises any note played by a half step, it is used in creating the musical ornamentation that gives Balkan music its unique character; some types of gaida can have a double bored chanter, such as the Serbian three-voiced gajde. It has eight fingerholes: the top four are covered by the thumb and the first three fingers of the left hand the four fingers of the right hand cover the remaining four holes.
The drone is a long pipe which provides a constant harmony note, thus has no finger-holes. It is a long, three-piece tube with a note much lower than that of the chanter. Radoslav Paskalev Kostadin Varimezov Dafo Trendafilov Kaba gaida, a large Bulgarian bagpipe of the Rhodope mountains For other types of bagpipes with similar name, see gaita Garaj, Bernard. Gajdy a gajdošská tradícia na Slovensku. Bagpipe and Bagpipers´ Tradition in Slovakia. ASCO Ústav hudobnej vedy SAV Bratislava. Dzimrevski, Borivoje. Gajdata vo Makedonija: Instrument-instrumentalist-muzika. Institut za folklor Marko Cepenkov. ISBN 978-9989642098. Rice, Timothy. May It Fill Your Soul: Experiencing Bulgarian Music. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0226711225. Atanasov, Vergilij; the Bulgarian GAIDA/BAGPIPE. Massachusetts: Gaida Studies. ISBN 0-9724898-0-0. Širola, Božidar. Sviraljke s udarnim jezičkom. Zagreb: JAZU. Leibman, Robert. Traditional Songs and Dances from the Soko Banja Area. LP: Selo Records. Levy, Mark; the Bagpipe in the Rhodope Mountains of Bulgaria.
University of California. Jakovljević, Rastko. Marginality and Cultural Identities: Locating the Bagpipe Music of Serbia. PhD Thesis, Durham University; the presence of the gaida in Greece