Technical University of Munich
The Technical University of Munich is a research university with campuses in Munich and Freising-Weihenstephan. It is a member of TU9, an incorporated society of the largest and most notable German institutes of technology. TUM is ranked 4th overall in Reuters 2017 European Most Innovative University ranking. TUM's alumni include 18 Leibniz Prize winners and 22 IEEE Fellow Members. Timeline1868 - the University was founded by King Ludwig II. 1877 - Awarded the designation Königlich Bayerische Technische Hochschule München. 1901 Granted the right to award doctorates. 1902 Approval of the election of the Principal by the teaching staff. 1930 Integration of the College of Agriculture and Brewing in Weihenstephan. 1949–1954: Reconstruction of the main building of the Technische Universität by Robert Vorhoelzer after WWII. Construction of a new administrational building and library. 1957 Given the status of a ‘public legal body’. 1958 Research Reactor Munich, Garching assigned to the TH München. 1967 Establishment of a faculty of medicine 1970 Renamed to ‘Technische Universität München’.
1993 Establishment of a faculty of informatics 2000 Establishment of Weihenstephan Science Centre for Life & Food Sciences, Land Use and Environment belonging to the TUM. 2002 - The German Institute of Science and Technology was founded in Singapore. 2004 - the official opening of Forschungsreaktor München II, a leading neutron source, on March 2. 2005 - TUM Institute for Advanced Study founded 2006 - TUM one of three successful universities in Germany's excellence initiative 2009 - TUM School of Education established 2012 - TUM again one of now 11 successful universities in Germany's excellence initiative In its capacity as an academic stronghold of technology and science, the Technical University of Munich has played a vital role in Bavaria's transition from an agricultural state to an industrial state and Hi-Tech centre. To the present day, it is still the only state university dedicated to technology. Numerous excellent TUM professors have secured their place in the history of technology, many important scientists, architects and entrepreneurs studied there.
Such names as Karl Max von Bauernfeind, Rudolf Diesel, Claude Dornier, Walther von Dyck, Hans Fischer, Ernst Otto Fischer, August Föppl, Robert Huber, Carl von Linde, Heinz Maier-Leibnitz, Walther Meissner, Rudolf Mössbauer, Willy Messerschmitt, Wilhelm Nusselt, Hans Piloty, Friedrich von Thiersch, Franz von Soxhlet are connected with the TUM. The prerequisites for an academic training in engineering were created at the start of the 19th century when the advancement of technology on the basis of exact sciences commenced. There were calls for a'university for all technical studies' in Bavaria. The'polytechnic schools' set up in Augsburg and Nuremberg, which bridged the gap between middle schools and higher education colleges in their capacity as'lyceums', were the first approach. For further qualification purposes, a'technical college' was set up in 1833 as part of the Faculty of State Finance of the Ludwig Maximilian University, transferred from Landshut to Munich seven years previously; the experiment failed.
Instead, an advanced'engineering course' was established at the Polytechnic School Munich in 1840, the forerunner of what was to become the'Technische Hochschule München'. In 1868, King Ludwig II founded the newly structured Polytechnische Schule München, which had the status of a university, in Munich, it was allowed to call itself Königlich Bayerische Technische Hochschule München as from the academic year 1877–78. The first Principal was the former Head of Karl Max von Bauernfeind. In the year of its foundation, the college took up residence in the new building in Arcisstrasse, designed by Gottfried v. Neureuther. In those days, more than 350 students were taught by 21 lecturers; the college was divided into five sections: I. General Department, II. Engineering Department, III. Department of Architecture, IV. Mechanical/Technical Department, V. Chemical/Technical Department. Department VI. was added in 1872. Two of the university's long-standing requests were met by the state after the beginning of the 20th century: it was granted the right to award doctorates in 1901, in 1902 the election of the principal by the teaching staff was approved.
With an average of about 2,600 to 2,800 students, the TH München ranked ahead of the TH Berlin as the largest German technical college for a while. The first female undergraduate matriculated in architecture in 1905, after the Bavarian government allowed women to study at a technical college in the German Reich. However, the proportion of female students remained negligible. During the Weimar Republic, the TH München was obliged to make do with low funds and was drawn into radical political struggles in 1918–19 and again between 1928 and 1933. In the winter term of 1930–31, the National Socialist German Student Union became the strongest group within the AStA general student organisation of the THM for the first time; the TH München was able to broaden its spectrum of subjects by taking over several smaller colleges that were no longer viable. In 1922, the former commercial college'Handelshochschule München' became the VII Department of Economics; the forme
Tum – A Dangerous Obsession
Tum: A Dangerous Obsession is an Indian Hindi erotic thriller film released in February 2004. Directed by Aruna Raje, it stars Manisha Koirala and Rajat Kapoor in the lead roles. Kamini Gupta and Vinod Gupta with their two children are a happy family. Vinod, a CEO of a multinational corporation is busy and has no time for the family, he is unable to make it to his wedding anniversary. A young photographer, Jatin Pandey gives her company, he takes her pictures introduces to AD film Director Ramesh Tekwani for some AD shoots. They dance together. In the morning when she wakes up she finds herself in Jatin's bed. Jatin now craves and burns for Kamini, the forbidden fruit in his life, leading from passion to a dangerous obsession. Towards the end Jatin is found murdered. Inspector Yusuf Malik takes the bizarre case. A murder trail with passion. Karan Nath Manisha Koirala Rajat Kapoor Natanya Singh Deepti Daryanani Priya Ramesh Tekwani The film received negative reviews from critics; the Times of India gave it one and a half stars and called it "a forgettable affair".
1 Rehna to hai - Kumar Sanu, Alka Yagnik 2 Rehna to hai - Roop Kumar Rathod 3 Rehna to hai - Alka Yagnik, Roop Kumar Rathod 4 Kyun mera dil- Adnan Sami 5 Dil to udne laga- Shreya Ghoshal 6 Sangdil sanam- Udit Narayan, Anuradha Shriram, Kunal Ganjawala 7 Mera dil laile- Shaan Tum: A Dangerous Obsession on IMDb
Department of Tumbes
Tumbes is a coastal region in northwestern Peru and southwestern Ecuador. Due to the region's location near the Equator it has a warm climate, with beaches that are considered among the finest in Peru. Despite its small area, the region contains a wide variety of ecosystems; the name "Tumbes" originates from either Tumpis, a group of native peoples from the area, the word tumbos, a species of Passiflora that used to abound in the area, or the name of the Tumba cacique, whose son founded and populated the area. The Tumbes Region is bordered by the Ecuadorian provinces of El Loja on the east. Morphologically, four zones can be defined in the region: the delta of the Tumbes and Zarumilla rivers; the delta of the Tumbes river is shallow, when the tide is low, little sandy keys show up, which get covered by mangrove vegetation. Despite its small area— it is the second-smallest region in Peru— Tumbes has a great variety of ecosystems: mangroves, Tumbes-Piura dry forests, the only coastal tropical forests in Peru, a rich and warm sea.
Around 50% of the region's territory is covered by three protected natural areas: the Manglares de Tumbes National Sanctuary, the Cerros de Amotape National Park and the Tumbes Reserved Zone. Composed of a large mestizo population rooted in a mixture between the pre-Incan Tumpis and Tallanes tribes, creoles, the African peoples, including mulatos or zambos, a small Chinese community of Cantonese ancestry. According to the 1993 Census, the Tumbes Region has a population of 155,521 inhabitants, 53% of which are male and 47% are female; as of 2005, the Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática estimates the region's population to be 215,634. The majority of the region's residents speak Spanish as their native tongue. Immigrants from other regions make up 29.4% of the population. The largest immigrant groups are from the regions of Piura and the Lima Province/Lima Region; the population is spread out with 49.4% under the age of 20, 10.7% from 20 to 24, 26.6% from 25 to 44, 9.7% from 45 to 64, 3.5% who are 65 years of age or older.
The literacy rate in the region is 90.4%. Secondary education has been completed by 31.8% of the population and 4.5% have graduated from non-university higher education, while 2.3% have complete university studies. 45.9% only have attended primary education and 5.9% have not had any education. The region is divided into three provinces; the provinces, with their capitals in parenthesis, are: Contralmirante Villar Tumbes Zarumilla Tumbes was a populated region well before the Inca Empire. The first settlers were hunters. Most recent cultures that lived there have left evidence of the refinement in their ceramics, huacas or ruins that still stand today. Tumbes was integrated into the Inca Empire during the reign of Sapa Inca Pachacuti, he introduced a new way of organizing the empire, but the task of integration continued during Tupac Inca Yupanqui's and Huayna Capac's reigns. He made it a key departure point for his campaign to conquer the Cañaris; the adventure of the Spanish Conquistadores had its beginning in Tumbes: at Puerto Pizarro Francisco Pizarro and his men landed in search of gold.
The conquerors set off to the rest of the empire, overpowering their people. During colonial times, Tumbes was no more than a crossing point where soldiers and adventurers stopped momentarily to restock themselves, continue traveling. Tumbes, gained permanent importance after Peru's independence; as part of the decentralization process in Peru, a referendum was held on October 30, 2005 to decide whether the region would merge with the regions of Piura and Lambayeque to create the new Northern Region. However, voters in the region voted against the merge; the fact that Tumbes lies so close to the Equator has determined its landscape, which teems in plant life. The beaches of Tumbes and its warm sea are ideal for scuba diving, its pure white sands and warm weather all year long, a sea ideal for water sports, make the beach of Punta Sal one of the finest on the Peruvian coast. North of the city of Tumbes lies the gateway to the National Mangroves Sanctuary; the mangroves have formed vast clumps of saltwater-tolerant coastal forests which have created a unique ecosystem linking the river and the sea.
The mangroves are the breeding grounds for black scallops, which are served up in Tumbes' most famous dish, the black scallop ceviche. South of Tumbes lies Zorritos, the town which received its name from workers involved in drilling the first oilwell in the area, back in 1863. Not far from Zorritos lies the Bocapán beach, where visitors can swim in Hervideros, natural hot springs bubbling with iodized salts; the typical dishes of the Tumbesino cuisine are based on seafood— ceviche of black scallops
Poland the Republic of Poland, is a country located in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 administrative subdivisions, covering an area of 312,696 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With a population of 38.5 million people, Poland is the sixth most populous member state of the European Union. Poland's capital and largest metropolis is Warsaw. Other major cities include Kraków, Łódź, Wrocław, Poznań, Gdańsk, Szczecin. Poland is bordered by the Baltic Sea, Russia's Kaliningrad Oblast and Lithuania to the north and Ukraine to the east and Czech Republic, to the south, Germany to the west; the establishment of the Polish state can be traced back to AD 966, when Mieszko I, ruler of the realm coextensive with the territory of present-day Poland, converted to Christianity. The Kingdom of Poland was founded in 1025, in 1569 it cemented its longstanding political association with the Grand Duchy of Lithuania by signing the Union of Lublin; this union formed the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, one of the largest and most populous countries of 16th and 17th century Europe, with a uniquely liberal political system which adopted Europe's first written national constitution, the Constitution of 3 May 1791.
More than a century after the Partitions of Poland at the end of the 18th century, Poland regained its independence in 1918 with the Treaty of Versailles. In September 1939, World War II started with the invasion of Poland by Germany, followed by the Soviet Union invading Poland in accordance with the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact. More than six million Polish citizens, including 90% of the country's Jews, perished in the war. In 1947, the Polish People's Republic was established as a satellite state under Soviet influence. In the aftermath of the Revolutions of 1989, most notably through the emergence of the Solidarity movement, Poland reestablished itself as a presidential democratic republic. Poland is regional power, it has the fifth largest economy by GDP in the European Union and one of the most dynamic economies in the world achieving a high rank on the Human Development Index. Additionally, the Polish Stock Exchange in Warsaw is the largest and most important in Central Europe. Poland is a developed country, which maintains a high-income economy along with high standards of living, life quality, safety and economic freedom.
Having a developed school educational system, the country provides free university education, state-funded social security, a universal health care system for all citizens. Poland has 15 UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Poland is a member state of the European Union, the Schengen Area, the United Nations, NATO, the OECD, the Three Seas Initiative, the Visegrád Group; the origin of the name "Poland" derives from the West Slavic tribe of Polans that inhabited the Warta river basin of the historic Greater Poland region starting in the 6th century. The origin of the name "Polanie" itself derives from the early Slavic word "pole". In some languages, such as Hungarian, Lithuanian and Turkish, the exonym for Poland is Lechites, which derives from the name of a semi-legendary ruler of Polans, Lech I. Early Bronze Age in Poland begun around 2400 BC, while the Iron Age commenced in 750 BC. During this time, the Lusatian culture, spanning both the Bronze and Iron Ages, became prominent; the most famous archaeological find from the prehistory and protohistory of Poland is the Biskupin fortified settlement, dating from the Lusatian culture of the early Iron Age, around 700 BC.
Throughout the Antiquity period, many distinct ancient ethnic groups populated the regions of what is now Poland in an era that dates from about 400 BC to 500 AD. These groups are identified as Celtic, Slavic and Germanic tribes. Recent archeological findings in the Kujawy region, confirmed the presence of the Roman Legions on the territory of Poland; these were most expeditionary missions sent out to protect the amber trade. The exact time and routes of the original migration and settlement of Slavic peoples lacks written records and can only be defined as fragmented; the Slavic tribes who would form Poland migrated to these areas in the second half of the 5th century AD. Up until the creation of Mieszko's state and his subsequent conversion to Christianity in 966 AD, the main religion of Slavic tribes that inhabited the geographical area of present-day Poland was Slavic paganism. With the Baptism of Poland the Polish rulers accepted Christianity and the religious authority of the Roman Church.
However, the transition from paganism was not a smooth and instantaneous process for the rest of the population as evident from the pagan reaction of the 1030s. Poland began to form into a recognizable unitary and territorial entity around the middle of the 10th century under the Piast dynasty. Poland's first documented ruler, Mieszko I, accepted Christianity with the Baptism of Poland in 966, as the new official religion of his subjects; the bulk of the population converted in the course of the next few centuries. In 1000, Boleslaw the Brave, continuing the policy of his father Mieszko, held a Congress of Gniezno and created the metropolis of Gniezno and the dioceses of Kraków, Kołobrzeg, Wrocław. However, the pagan unrest led to the transfer of the capital to Kraków in 1038 by Casimir I the Restorer. In 1109, Prince Bolesław III Wrymouth defeated the King of Germany Henry V at the Battle of Hundsfeld, stopping the Ge
Land Rover Wolf
The Land Rover Wolf is a light military vehicle based on the Land Rover Defender. The MoD designates the Wolf 90 as Truck Utility Light HS and the Wolf 110 as Truck Utility Medium HS. Where HS stands for High Specification. Land Rover calls it eXtra Duty. From the debate in British parliament of 18 January 1996: "The Land Rover vehicle, known commercially as Defender XD, has been subjected to extensive and rigorous trialling in order to ensure that it can meet the high standards of reliability which are essential for operational military vehicles. Therefore, I am pleased to have been able to announce earlier today that, subject to the satisfactory completion of contractual negotiations, I propose to place an order with Land-Rover for about 8,000 vehicles; that order is worth about £170 million. It will bring substantial industrial and employment benefits to Land-Rover, enhance the vehicle's excellent prospects in export markets." The Wolf was tested, rejected and tested again before the MoD was satisfied.
It is more reliable than the Land Rover Defender on which it was based. When the Wolf was designed the engine in the civilian Defenders was the Td5. Land Rover preferred the 300Tdi for the Wolf because the electronics in the Td5 were more complex to manage in the field; the 300Tdi on a Wolf uses a different design of timing cover compared to the civilian version. The testing was rigorous and Salisbury axles kept breaking, the axle was redesigned using stronger internals and outer casing, making one of the strongest land rover axles made; the fibreglass roof was far simpler to manufacture over the raised height of the roofbars than the Defender aluminium roof. The production was outsourced. Everywhere else where Land Rover tried to mount the spare wheel caused the mountings to break free and it was too heavy for the bonnet. There are 3 versions of soft top, hard top and quick release; the chassis is different in design to the standard Defender chassis though it looks similar. The side walls are standard, most of the rest is bespoke.
The additional rear load bed mounting was to take increased weights as the standard chassis kept punching big dents in the rear floor. Chassis made after the production run are different ones have a triangular reinforcement behind the front outriggers, none of them have the front round tube going through the main chassis walls as it is more costly to tool and produce although it is stronger; the chassis wasn't galvanised due to the additional cost. There were unfounded Health and Safety concerns about the gases involved in welding a galvanised chassis, due to the fact that supplying correct respiratory protection to welders would negate this problem. WMIKs made from the factory had two outriggers in the middle of the chassis instead of just one on a standard Wolf chassis; the second outrigger is to take the extra load of the gun mounting. Many WMIKs kept one outrigger; the chassis on all Wolfs was sprayed internally with Dinitrol rust proofing. Goodyear G90s were strengthened on the sidewalls in testing.
The Michelin tyres were felt to be better but more expensive and classed as an approved second choice as used on Winterised/Waterproofed Wolfs. Experience from the pre Wolf Military Defender showed that full jerry cans were dangerous and too tight in the lockers, the unusual shaped doors were to take full jerrycans more easily, they were meant to be watertight but never were. The Wolf 90 does have mountings to carry jerrycans internally. Wolfs are equipped with a steering guard. To keep in line with MOD policy to simplify the stores chain, Wolf vehicles were fitted with 24 volt electrics; this meant supply of simple electrical items such as bulbs was now the same as the rest of the vehicle fleet. FFR variants gained a second alternator to power the signals equipment. A rear body roll cage was fitted in all conventionally bodied vehicles and some Wolfs were upgraded with an extra front roll cage, it is worth noting that this "roll cage" is not mounted to the chassis the rear body tub and has questionable benefit were the vehicle subjected to being rolled over.
The specially designed Ambulance bodied. To reduce noise and heat from the transmission in compliance with health and safety rules a special heavy duty military matting system was designed for the Wolf by Exmoor Trim; these mats weigh about 30 kg, consist of mats to cover the footwells and transmission tunnel. Not all Wolfs have these mats; the Wolf soft top is made of PVC and the rear flap is fastened either by zippers and Velcro or by Dutch lacing down the sides and elasticated straps to cleats on the tailgate. The MoD procured at least 97 different versions; the basic versions are: Air drop Commanders IK Field Ambulance Fitted For Radio Helicopter Support Platform Tropical Field Ambulance Waterised Weapons Mounted Installation Kit Weapons Mounted Installation Kit Winterised Winterised/Waterproofed Winterised/Waterproofed Field AmbulanceWaterproofed versions have a snorkel that allows the vehicle to wade through water up to windscreen level. Winterised versions are fitted with an engine fluids heater to pre-warm the engine, a heated windscreen and heaters in the rear cabin.
The Royal Marines operate the waterproofed version for amphibious assaults. Fitted with a'periscope' snorkel, waterproofed electrical systems and instruments, prepared with grease and graphite lubricant on every moving part, these versions can run with the entire vehicle submerged if needed; the tailgate is held open by str
The abdomen constitutes the part of the body between the thorax and pelvis, in humans and in other vertebrates. The abdomen is the frontal part of the abdominal segment of the trunk, the dorsal part of this segment being the back of the abdomen; the region occupied by the abdomen is termed the abdominal cavity. In arthropods it is the posterior tagma of the body; the abdomen stretches from the thorax at the thoracic diaphragm to the pelvis at the pelvic brim. The pelvic brim stretches from the lumbosacral joint to the pubic symphysis and is the edge of the pelvic inlet; the space above this inlet and under the thoracic diaphragm is termed the abdominal cavity. The boundary of the abdominal cavity is the abdominal wall in the front and the peritoneal surface at the rear; the abdomen contains most of the tubelike organs of the digestive tract, as well as several solid organs. Hollow abdominal organs include the stomach, the small intestine, the colon with its attached appendix. Organs such as the liver, its attached gallbladder, the pancreas function in close association with the digestive tract and communicate with it via ducts.
The spleen and adrenal glands lie within the abdomen, along with many blood vessels including the aorta and inferior vena cava. Anatomists may consider the urinary bladder, fallopian tubes, ovaries as either abdominal organs or as pelvic organs; the abdomen contains an extensive membrane called the peritoneum. A fold of peritoneum may cover certain organs, whereas it may cover only one side of organs that lie closer to the abdominal wall. Anatomists call the latter type of organs retroperitoneal. Digestive tract: Stomach, small intestine, large intestine with cecum and appendix Accessory organs of the digestive tract: Liver and pancreas Urinary system: Kidneys and ureters – but technically located in retroperitoneum – outside peritoneal membrane Other organs: SpleenAbdominal organs can be specialized in some animals. For example, the stomach of ruminants is divided into four chambers – rumen, reticulum and abomasum. In vertebrates, the abdomen is a large cavity enclosed by the abdominal muscles and laterally, by the vertebral column dorsally.
Lower ribs can enclose ventral and lateral walls. The abdominal cavity is upper part of the pelvic cavity, it is attached to the thoracic cavity by the diaphragm. Structures such as the aorta, inferior vena cava and esophagus pass through the diaphragm. Both the abdominal and pelvic cavities are lined by a serous membrane known as the parietal peritoneum; this membrane is continuous with the visceral peritoneum lining the organs. The abdomen in vertebrates contains a number of organs belonging, for instance, to the digestive tract and urinary system. There are three layers of the abdominal wall, they are, from the outside to the inside: external oblique, internal oblique, transverse abdominal. The first three layers extend between the vertebral column, the lower ribs, the iliac crest and pubis of the hip. All of their fibers merge towards the midline and surround the rectus abdominis in a sheath before joining up on the opposite side at the linea alba. Strength is gained by the criss-crossing of fibers, such that the external oblique are downward and forward, the internal oblique upward and forward, the transverse abdominal horizontally forward.
The transverse abdominal muscle is triangular, with its fibers running horizontally. It lies between the underlying transverse fascia, it originates from Poupart's ligament, the inner lip of the ilium, the lumbar fascia and the inner surface of the cartilages of the six lower ribs. It inserts into the linea alba behind the rectus abdominis; the rectus abdominis muscles are flat. The muscle is crossed by three fibrous bands called the tendinous intersections; the rectus abdominis is enclosed in a thick sheath formed, as described above, by fibers from each of the three muscles of the lateral abdominal wall. They originate at the pubis bone, run up the abdomen on either side of the linea alba, insert into the cartilages of the fifth and seventh ribs. In the region of the groin, the inguinal canal, a passage through the layers; this gap is where the testes can drop through the wall and where the fibrous cord from the uterus in the female runs. This is where weakness can form, cause inguinal hernias.
The pyramidalis muscle is triangular. It is located in the lower abdomen in front of the rectus abdominis, it is inserted into the linea alba halfway up to the navel. Functionally, the human abdomen is where most of the alimentary tract is placed and so most of the absorption and digestion of food occurs here; the alimentary tract in the abdomen consists of the lower esophagus, the stomach, the duodenum, the jejunum, the cecum and the appendix, the ascending and descending colons, the sigmoid colon and the rectum. Other vital organs inside the abdomen include the kidneys, the pancreas and the spleen; the abdominal wall is split into the posterior and anterior walls. The abdominal muscles have different important functions, they assist in the breathing process as accessory muscles of respiration. Moreover, these muscles serve as protection for the inner organs. Furthermore, together with the back muscles they provide postural support and are important in defining the form; when the glottis is closed and the thorax and pelvis are fixed, they are integral in the cough, defecation, childbirth and singing functions.
Atum, sometimes rendered as Atem or Tem, is an important deity in Egyptian mythology. Atum's name is thought to be derived from the verb tm which means to finish, thus he has been interpreted as being the "complete one" and the finisher of the world, which he returns to watery chaos at the end of the creative cycle. As creator he was seen as the underlying substance of the world, the deities and all things being made of his flesh or alternatively being his ka. Atum is one of the most important and mentioned deities from earliest times, as evidenced by his prominence in the Pyramid Texts, where he is portrayed as both a creator and father to the king. In the Heliopolitan creation myth, Atum was considered to be the first God, having created himself, sitting on a mound, from the primordial waters. Early myths state that Atum created the god Shu and goddess Tefnut by spitting them out of his mouth. To explain how Atum did this, the myth uses the metaphor of masturbation, with the hand he used in this act representing the female principle inherent within him.
Other interpretations state. In the Old Kingdom the Egyptians believed that Atum lifted the dead king's soul from his pyramid to the starry heavens, he was a solar deity, associated with the primary sun god Ra. Atum was linked with the evening sun, while Ra or the linked god Khepri were connected with the sun at morning and midday. In the Book of the Dead, still current in the Graeco-Roman period, the sun god Atum is said to have ascended from chaos-waters with the appearance of a snake, the animal renewing itself every morning. Atum is the god of post-existence. In the binary solar cycle, the serpentine Atum is contrasted with the ram-headed scarab Khepri—the young sun god, whose name is derived from the Egyptian hpr "to come into existence". Khepri-Atum encompassed sunset, thus reflecting the entire cycle of morning and evening. Atum was a self-created deity, the first being to emerge from the darkness and endless watery abyss that existed before creation. A product of the energy and matter contained in this chaos, he created his children—the first deities, out of loneliness.
He produced from his own sneeze, or in some accounts, Shu, the god of air, Tefnut, the goddess of moisture. The brother and sister, curious about the primeval waters that surrounded them, went to explore the waters and disappeared into the darkness. Unable to bear his loss, Atum sent the Eye of Ra, to find his children; the tears of joy he shed upon their return were the first human beings. Atum is depicted as a man wearing either the royal head-cloth or the dual white and red crown of Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt, reinforcing his connection with kingship. Sometimes he is shown as a serpent, the form he returns to at the end of the creative cycle, occasionally as a mongoose, bull, lizard, or ape. Atum's worship centered on the city of Heliopolis; the only surviving remnant of Heliopolis is the Temple of Re-Atum obelisk located in Al-Masalla of Al-Matariyyah, Cairo. It was erected by Senusret I of the Twelfth dynasty, still stands in its original position; the 68 ft high red granite obelisk weighs the weight of about 20 African elephants.
Myśliwiec, Karol. Studien zum Gott Atum. Band I, Die heiligen Tiere des Atum. Gerstenberg. ISBN 978-3806780338. Myśliwiec, Karol. Studien zum Gott Atum. Band II, Epitheta, Ikonographie. Gerstenberg. ISBN 978-3806780406