Conquistadors /kɒŋˈkɪstəˌdɔːrz/ is a term used to refer to the soldiers and explorers of the Spanish Empire or the Portuguese Empire in a general sense. During the Age of Discovery, conquistadors sailed beyond Europe to the Americas, Oceania and Asia, conquering territory and they colonized much of the world for Spain and Portugal in the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries. Portugal established a route to China in the early 16th century, sending ships via the southern coast of Africa, human infections gained worldwide transmission vectors for the first time, from Africa and Eurasia to the Americas and vice versa. The spread of diseases, including smallpox and typhus. In the 16th century perhaps 240,000 Europeans entered American ports, by the late 16th century silver imports from America provided one-fifth of Spains total budget. The conquistadors were professional warriors, using European tactics and their units would often specialize in forms of combat that required long periods of training that were too costly for informal groups.
Their armies were composed of Iberian and other European soldiers. Native allied troops were largely equipped with armament and armour that varied geographically. Some groups consisted of men without military experience, Catholic clergy which helped with administrative duties. These native forces often included African slaves and Native Americans and they not only fought in the battlefield but served as interpreters, servants, teachers and scribes. India Catalina and Malintzin were Native American women slaves who worked for the Spaniards, Castilian law prohibited foreigners and non-Catholics from settling in the New World. However, not all conquistadors were Castilian, many foreigners Hispanicised their names and/or converted to Catholicism to serve the Castilian Crown. For example, Ioánnis Fokás was a Castilian of Greek origin who discovered the strait that bears his name between Vancouver Island and Washington State in 1592, german-born Nikolaus Federmann, Hispanicised as Nicolás de Federmán, was a conquistador in Venezuela and Colombia.
The origin of people in mixed expeditions was not always distinguished. Castilian law banned Spanish women from travelling to America unless they were married and accompanied by a husband, women who travelled thus include María de Escobar, María Estrada, Marina Vélez de Ortega, Marina de la Caballería, Francisca de Valenzuela, Catalina de Salazar. Some conquistadors married Native American women or had illegitimate children, European young men enlisted in the army because it was one way out of poverty. Catholic priests instructed the soldiers in mathematics, theology, Latin and history, Kings army officers taught military arts. An uneducated young recruit could become a leader, elected by their fellow professional soldiers
Pectoral (Ancient Egypt)
The pectorals of ancient Egypt were a form of jewelry, often represented as a brooch. These were mostly worn by people and the pharaoh. One type is attached with a necklace, meant to be suspended from the neck, statuary from the Old Kingdom onwards shows this form. A form was attached as a brooch, with the thematic, iconographic function, the thematic statements were typically about the pharaoh or statements of ancient Egyptian mythology and culture. They are usually of gold with inlays of gemstones. The basic definition of a brooch is as a piece of jewellery. Therefore, one form of the pectoral word listings uses the word for breadth, broad, to be wide or spacious, 15) None may have an alternate determinative used to define the word. From the above definitions, it can be seen that the collar, pectoral, etc. can include amulets inclusive into the pectorals iconography. The above listed words are refenced in E. A. Wallis Budges dictionary to 200 works, papyri, Egyptian literature, personal literature, statements in Egyptian language hieroglyhs were often the theme of famous pectorals, regardless of their actual use for adornment.
One famous complex pectoral for Amenemhat III has a statement of his rulership, the Pectoral of Amenemhat III states the following, Lord Heaven, God-Good, Lord of the Two Lands, Ny-Maat-Ra, Lord Lands. Kamrins modern hieroglyph primer for Egyptian artifacts uses Amenemhat IIIs pectoral for Exercise 22, the discussion explains that the extended wings of the Vulture Goddess relate to Lord of the Sky-, the Vulture Goddess. Her translation, Lord of the sky Nimaatre, the god, lord of the Two Lands. Gardiners Sign List#S. Crowns, Staves, gardiners Sign List List of ancient Egyptian statuary with amulet necklaces, Budge. An Egyptian Hieroglyphic Dictionary, E. A. Wallace Budge, ©1978, ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphs, A Practical Guide, Janice Kamrin, ©2004, Harry N. Abrams, Lambelet. Orbis Terrae Aegiptiae, Museum Aegiptium, Illustrated Guide of the Egyptian Museum, Edouard Lambelet, ©1981, Lehnert & Landrock & Co
The Quimbaya civilization was a South American civilization, noted for spectacular gold work characterized by technical accuracy and detailed designs. The majority of the work is made in tumbaga alloy, with 30% copper. The Quimbaya inhabited the areas corresponding to the departments of Quindío, Caldas and Risaralda in Colombia. There is no data about when they were initially established. The Quimbaya people reached their zenith during the 4th to 7th century CE period known as The Quimbaya Classic, the cultures the most emblematic piece of this culture comes from this period, a form of poporo known as the Poporo Quimbaya, on exhibit at the BogotáBogotá Gold Museum. The most frequent designs in the art pieces are anthropomorphic, depicting men and women sitting with closed eyes and placid expression, as well as many fruits, most of the retrieved items are part of funeral offerings, found in the inside of sarcophagi made of hollow trunks. The gold represented a sacred metal and the passport for the afterlife
Brass is a metal alloy made of copper and zinc, the proportions of zinc and copper can be varied to create a range of brasses with varying properties. It is an alloy, atoms of the two constituents may replace each other within the same crystal structure. By comparison, bronze is principally an alloy of copper and tin, however and brass may include small proportions of a range of other elements including arsenic, aluminium and silicon. The term is applied to a variety of brasses. Modern practice in museums and archaeology increasingly avoids both terms for objects in favour of the all-embracing copper alloy. It is used in zippers, Brass is often used in situations in which it is important that sparks not be struck, such as in fittings and tools used near flammable or explosive materials. Brass has higher malleability than bronze or zinc, the relatively low melting point of brass and its flow characteristics make it a relatively easy material to cast. By varying the proportions of copper and zinc, the properties of the brass can be changed, allowing hard, the density of brass is 8.4 to 8.73 grams per cubic centimetre.
Today, almost 90% of all alloys are recycled. Because brass is not ferromagnetic, it can be separated from ferrous scrap by passing the scrap near a powerful magnet, Brass scrap is collected and transported to the foundry where it is melted and recast into billets. Billets are heated and extruded into the form and size. The general softness of brass means that it can often be machined without the use of cutting fluid, aluminium makes brass stronger and more corrosion-resistant. Aluminium causes a highly beneficial hard layer of oxide to be formed on the surface that is thin, transparent. Tin has an effect and finds its use especially in seawater applications. Combinations of iron, aluminium and manganese make brass wear and tear resistant, to enhance the machinability of brass, lead is often added in concentrations of around 2%. Since lead has a melting point than the other constituents of the brass. The pattern the globules form on the surface of the brass increases the available surface area which in turn affects the degree of leaching.
In addition, cutting operations can smear the lead globules over the surface and these effects can lead to significant lead leaching from brasses of comparatively low lead content
A pocket watch is a watch that is made to be carried in a pocket, as opposed to a wristwatch, which is strapped to the wrist. Pocket watches generally have a chain to allow them to be secured to a waistcoat, lapel, or belt loop. Watches were mounted on a leather strap or fob. This fob could provide a protective flap over their face, womens watches were normally of this form, with a watch fob that was more decorative than protective. Chains were frequently decorated with a silver or enamel pendant, often carrying the arms of some club or society, ostensibly practical gadgets such as a watch winding key, vesta case, or a cigar cutter appeared on watch chains, although usually in an overly decorated style. Also common are fasteners designed to be put through a buttonhole and worn in a jacket or waistcoat, by the end of the 15th century, spring-driven clocks appeared in Italy, and in Germany. Peter Henlein, a locksmith of Nuremberg, was regularly manufacturing pocket watches by 1524. Thereafter, pocket watch manufacture spread throughout the rest of Europe as the 16th century progressed, early watches only had an hour hand, the minute hand appearing in the late 17th century.
The first American pocket watches with machine made parts were manufactured by Henry Pitkin with his brother in the 1830s, the first timepieces to be worn, made in 16th-century Europe, were transitional in size between clocks and watches. These clock-watches were fastened to clothing or worn on a chain around the neck and they were heavy drum shaped brass cylinders several inches in diameter and ornamented. They had only an hour hand, the face was not covered with glass, but usually had a hinged brass cover, often decoratively pierced with grillwork so the time could be read without opening. The movement was made of iron or steel and held together with tapered pins and wedges, many of the movements included striking or alarm mechanisms. The shape evolved into a form, these were called Nuremberg eggs. Still in the century there was a trend for unusually shaped watches, and clock-watches shaped like books, fruit, flowers, crosses, styles changed in the 17th century and men began to wear watches in pockets instead of as pendants.
This is said to have occurred in 1675 when Charles II of England introduced waistcoats, to fit in pockets, their shape evolved into the typical pocket watch shape and flattened with no sharp edges. Glass was used to cover the beginning around 1610. Watch fobs began to be used, the originating from the German word fuppe. The watch was wound and set by opening the back and fitting a key to a square arbor, and turning it
Within Spain there are a number of nationalisms and regionalisms, reflecting the countrys complex history and diverse culture. There are several commonly spoken languages, most notably Basque. There are many populations outside Spain with ancestors who emigrated from Spain, the Roman Republic conquered Iberia during the 2nd and 1st centuries BC. As a result of Roman colonization, the majority of languages, with the exception of Basque. The Germanic Vandals and Suebi, with part of the Iranian Alans under King Respendial conquered the peninsula in 409 AD. The Iberian Peninsula was conquered and brought under the rule of the Arab Umayyads in 711 and by the Berber North African dynasties the Almohads, in the early 16th century the Kingdom of Navarre was conquered. In parallel, a wave of emigration began to the Americas began with over 16 million people emigrating to the Americas during the colonial period. In the post-colonial period, a further 3.5 million Spanish left for the Americas, particularly Argentina, Mexico, Chile, Puerto Rico, as a result, Spanish-descendants in Latin America number in the hundreds of millions.
Spain is home to one of the largest communities of Romani people, the Spanish Roma, which belong to the Iberian Kale subgroup, are a formerly-nomadic community, which spread across Western Asia, North Africa, and Europe, first reaching Spain in the 15th century. The population of Spain is became increasingly diverse due to recent immigration, the earliest modern humans inhabiting Spain are believed to have been Neolithic peoples who may have arrived in the Iberian Peninsula as early as 35, 000–40,000 years ago. In more recent times the Iberians are believed to have arrived or developed in the region between the 4th millennium BC and the 3rd millennium BC, initially settling along the Mediterranean coast, celts settled in Spain during the Iron Age. Some of those tribes in North-central Spain, which had contact with the Iberians, are called Celtiberians. In addition, a known as the Tartessians and Turdetanians inhabited southwestern Spain. The seafaring Phoenicians and Carthaginians successively founded trading colonies along the Mediterranean coast over a period of several centuries, the Second Punic War between the Carthaginians and Romans was fought mainly in what is now Spain and Portugal.
The Roman Republic conquered Iberia during the 2nd and 1st centuries BC transformed most of the region into a series of Latin-speaking provinces, hispania emerged as an important part of the Roman Empire and produced notable historical figures such as Trajan, Hadrian and Quintilian. The Germanic Vandals and Suebi, with part of the Iranian Alans under King Respendial, the Suebi became the first Germanic kingdom to convert officially to Roman Catholicism in 447 AD. under king Rechiar. After two centuries of domination by the Visigothic Kingdom, the Iberian Peninsula was invaded by a Muslim force under Tariq Bin Ziyad in 711 and this army consisted mainly ethnic Berbers from the Ghomara tribe, which were reinforced by Arabs from Syria once the conquest was complete. Muslim Iberia became part of the Umayyad Caliphate and would be known as Al-Andalus, the Berbers of Al Andalus revolted as early as 740 AD, halting Arab expansion across the Pyrenees into France
A tiara is a jeweled, ornamental crown traditionally worn by women. It is worn during formal occasions, particularly if the code is white tie. Today, the tiara is often used interchangeably with the word diadem. Both words come from head ornaments worn by ancient men and women to high status. As Geoffrey Munn notes, The word tiara is actually Persian in origin — the name first denoted the high-peaked head-dresses of Persian kings, now, it is used to describe almost every form of decorative head ornament. Ancient Greeks and Romans used gold to make wreath-shaped head ornaments, the use of tiaras and diadems declined along with the decline of the Roman Empire and the rise of Christianity. In the late 18th century, Neoclassicism gave rise to a revival of tiaras, jewelers taking inspiration from Ancient Greece and Rome created new wreaths made from precious gemstones. Napoleon and his wife Joséphine de Beauharnais are credited with popularizing tiaras along with the new Empire style, napoleon wanted the French court to be the grandest in Europe and had given his wife many fabulous Parures which included tiaras.
Queen Elizabeth II is said to have the largest and most valuable collection of tiaras in the world and she is often seen wearing them on state occasions. The Queen received many of them through inheritance, especially from Queen Alexandra, Queen Mary, consort of King George V, purchased the Grand Duchess Vladimir tiara in the 1920s. It consists of numerous interlocking diamond circles, pearl drops can be attached inside the circles or emeralds. Queen Mary had a made for the Delhi Durbar held in 1911 in India. It is now on loan for wearing by the Duchess of Cornwall, wife of Charles, Queen Elizabeth II commissioned a ruby and diamond tiara. A gift of aquamarines she received as a present from the people of Brazil were added to diamonds to make a new tiara, other queens and princesses regularly wear tiaras at formal evening occasions. The Swedish Royal Family have a magnificent collection as do the Danish, the Dutch, many of the Danish royal jewels originally came into the collection when Princess Louise of Sweden married the future King Frederick VIII of Denmark.
The Romanov dynasty had a superb collection up until the revolution of 1917, the Iranian royal family had a large collection of tiaras. Since the Iranian Revolution, they are housed at the National Jewelry Museum in Tehran, although usually associated with women of reigning and noble families, tiaras have been worn by commoners as well, especially rich American socialites like Barbara Hutton. Tiaras are generally a semi-circular or circular band, usually of precious metal, Tiaras are worn by women around their head or on the forehead as a circlet on very formal or high social occasions
An earring is a piece of jewellery attached to the ear via a piercing in the earlobe or another external part of the ear. Earrings are worn by both sexes, although more common among women, and have used by different civilizations in different times. Locations for piercings other than the earlobe include the rook, the simple term ear piercing usually refers to an earlobe piercing, whereas piercings in the upper part of the external ear are often referred to as cartilage piercings. Cartilage piercings are more complex to perform than earlobe piercings and take longer to heal, earring components may be made of any number of materials, including metal, glass, precious stone, wood and other materials. Designs range from small loops and studs to large plates and dangling items, the size is ultimately limited by the physical capacity of the earlobe to hold the earring without tearing. However, heavy earrings worn over extended periods of time may lead to stretching of the earlobe, Ear piercing is one of the oldest known forms of body modification, with artistic and written references from cultures around the world dating back to early history.
Gold and Bronze hoop earrings were prevalent in the Minoan Civilization and examples can be seen on frescoes on the Aegean island of Santorini, during the late Minoan and early Mycenaean periods of Bronze Age Greece hoop earrings with conical pendants were fashionable. Early evidence of earrings worn by men can be seen in evidence from Persepolis in ancient Persia. The carved images of soldiers of the Persian Empire, displayed on some of the walls of the palace. Howard Carter writes in his description of Tutankhamuns tomb that the Pharaohs earlobes were perforated, the burial masks ears were perforated as well, but the holes were covered with golden discs. That implies that at the time, earrings were worn in Egypt by children. Other early evidence of earring-wearing is evident in the Biblical record, in Exodus 32, 1–4, it is written that while Moses was up on Mount Sinai, the Israelites demanded that Aaron make a god for them. It is written that he commanded them to bring their sons, Earrings became fashionable among courtiers and gentlemen in the 1590s during the English Renaissance.
A document published in 1577 by clergyman William Harrison, Description of England, states Some lusty courtiers and gentlemen of courage do wear either rings of gold, among sailors, a pierced earlobe was a symbol that the wearer had sailed around the world or had crossed the equator. The practice of wearing earrings was a tradition for Ainu men and women, Earrings were commonplace among nomadic Turkic tribes. By the late 1950s or early 1960s, the practice re-emerged, teenage girls were known to hold ear piercing parties, where they performed the procedure on one another. Such an event is depicted in the 1978 motion picture Grease, where Sandy, by the mid-1960s, some physicians offered ear piercing as a service. Simultaneously, Manhattan jewelry stores were some of the earliest commercial, non-medical locations for getting an ear piercing, in the late 1960s, ear piercing began to make inroads among men through the hippie and gay communities, although they had been popular among sailors for decades
A lapidary is an artist or artisan who forms stone, minerals, or gemstones into decorative items such as cabochons, engraved gems, including cameos, and faceted designs. The primary techniques employed are cutting and polishing, carving is an important, but specialised technique. Hardstone carving is the used in art history for objects produced by the specialised carving techniques. Diamond cutters are not referred to as lapidaries, due to the specialized techniques which are required to work diamond. By extension the term lapidary has sometimes applied to collectors of and dealer in gems. The etymological roots of lapidary is in the Latin word lapis which means stone, the term evolved from lapidarius meaning stonecutter or working with stone, into Old French lapidaire, thereon to mean one skilled in working with precious stones in 14th century. These powers included the belief in the ability of stones to prevent harm, the word appeared as an English adjective in the 18th century. The earliest known lapidary work likely occurred during the Stone Age, as people created tools from stone, they inevitably realized that some geological materials were harder than others.
The next earliest documented examples of one may consider to be lapidary arts came in the form of drilling stone. The earliest roots of drilling rocks, a method, date back to approximately one million years ago. The early Egyptians developed cutting and jewelry fashioning methods for lapis lazuli, the lapidary arts were quite well developed in the Indian subcontinent by early 1st millennium CE. They discuss sources of gems and diamonds, their origins, several other Sanskrit texts on gems and lapidary, have been dated to post-10th century suggesting a continuous lapidary practice. According to Jason Hawkes and Stephanie Wynne-Jones, archaeological evidence suggests that trade between Africa and India, in products from lapidary arts, was established in the 1st millennium CE, lapidary has been a significant tradition in early Mesoamerica. These were made from shell, jade and greenstones, the lapidary products were used as a status symbol and during burials. The Aztec used string saw and bone drills for their lapidary arts, apart from figurative carving, there are three broad categories of lapidary arts.
These are the procedures of tumbling, cabochon cutting, and faceting, most modern lapidary work is done using motorized equipment. Polishing is done with resin or metal bonded emery, silicon carbide, in older systems the grinding and polishing powders were applied separately to the grinding or buffing wheel. Often, the final polish will use a different medium, such as tin oxide or cerium oxide, cutting of harder stones is done with a diamond tipped saw
A belt buckle is a buckle, a clasp for fastening two ends, such as of straps or a belt, in which a device attached to one of the ends is fitted or coupled to the other. The word enters Middle English via Old French and the Latin buccula or cheek-strap, Belt buckles and other fixtures are used on a variety of belts, including cingula, baltea and waist-belts. Belt buckles go back at least to the age and a gold great buckle was among the items interred at Sutton Hoo. Primarily decorative shield on tongue buckles were common Anglo-Saxon grave goods at this time, elaborately decorated on the shield portion and associated only with men. One such buckle, found in a 7th-century grave at Finglesham, frame-style buckles are the oldest design. In a frame-and-prong buckle the prong attaches to one end of the frame and extends away from the wearer through a hole in the belt, where it anchors against the opposite side of the frame. The oldest styles have a loop or D shaped frame. Very small buckles with removable center pins and chapes were introduced and used on shoes, beginning in the 17th century, a chape is the fixed cover or plate which attaches buckle to belt while the mordant or bite is the adjustable portion.
Plate-style buckles are common on western military belts of the mid-19th century, officers might have a similar but more intricate clasp-style closure that featured two interlocking metal parts. In practice, the term belt plate refers to any flat, the distance between the fixed frame or chape of a plate buckle and its adjustment prong is called the throw. Box-out buckles make the traditional belt seen today, usually made with an enduring leather or other synthetic material as the band, these belt buckles are less functional but more fashionable. These belts became popular after Hollywood began using them in movies for their fresh, now they dominate belt production, and are viewed as a more attractive belt. Box-frame buckles are another, 20th-century style of military friction buckle, the box-frame buckle consists of three parts. There may or may not be a tip on the opposite tongue end of the belt for easier insertion. Earlier, military-style buckles often use friction and are designed for use with cloth belts or straps, simple friction buckles are one-piece frames with no prong whatsoever, the strap or belt winding through a series of slots, and may more technically be called belt slides or belt trims.
Although technically not buckles, other such as plastic side-clasp or even seat belt latches are often used on belts. Because of their association with military equipment, belt buckles were primarily a masculine ornament well into the 19th century. Belt buckles became more popular as fashion accessories in the early 20th century, the large, flat surface of the western-style belt buckles make them a popular ornament or style of jewelry
A goldsmith is a metalworker who specializes in working with gold and other precious metals. Goldsmiths must be skilled in forming metal through filing, sawing, casting, the trade has very often included jewellery-making skills, as well as the very similar skills of the silversmith. Many universities and junior colleges offer goldsmithing, compared to other metals, gold is malleable, rare, and it is the only solid metallic element with a yellow color. It may easily be melted and cast without the problems of oxides and gas that are problematic with other such as bronzes. It is fairly easy to weld, wherein similarly to clay two small pieces may be pounded together to make one larger piece. Gold is classified as a noble metal—because it does not react with most elements and it usually is found in its native form, lasting indefinitely without oxidization and tarnishing. Gold has been worked by humans in all cultures where the metal is available, either indigenously or imported, and the history of these activities is extensive.
Superbly made objects from the ancient cultures of Africa, Europe, North America, some pieces date back thousands of years and were made using many techniques that still are used by modern goldsmiths. Techniques developed by some of those goldsmiths achieved a level that was lost and remained beyond the skills of those who followed. In medieval Europe goldsmiths were organized into guilds and usually were one of the most important, the guild kept records of members and the marks they used on their products. These records, when they survive, are useful to historians. Goldsmiths often acted as bankers, since they dealt in gold and had sufficient security for the storage of valuable items. The Sunar caste is one of the oldest communities in goldsmithing in India, in India, Vishwakarma are the goldsmith caste. The printmaking technique of engraving developed among goldsmiths in Germany around 1430, the notable engravers of the fifteenth century were either goldsmiths, such as Master E. S. or the sons of goldsmiths, such as Martin Schongauer and Albrecht Dürer. A goldsmith might have an array of skills and knowledge at their disposal.
Gold, being the most malleable metal of all, offers opportunities for the worker. In todays world a variety of other metals, especially platinum alloys. 24 Carat is pure gold and historically, was known as fine gold, because it is so soft, however,24 Carat gold is rarely used
The melting point of a solid is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid at atmospheric pressure. At the melting point the solid and liquid phase exist in equilibrium, the melting point of a substance depends on pressure and is usually specified at standard pressure. When considered as the temperature of the change from liquid to solid. Because of the ability of some substances to supercool, the point is not considered as a characteristic property of a substance. For most substances and freezing points are approximately equal, for example, the melting point and freezing point of mercury is 234.32 kelvins. However, certain substances possess differing solid-liquid transition temperatures, for example, agar melts at 85 °C and solidifies from 31 °C to 40 °C, such direction dependence is known as hysteresis. The melting point of ice at 1 atmosphere of pressure is close to 0 °C. In the presence of nucleating substances the freezing point of water is the same as the melting point, the chemical element with the highest melting point is tungsten, at 3687 K, this property makes tungsten excellent for use as filaments in light bulbs.
Many laboratory techniques exist for the determination of melting points, a Kofler bench is a metal strip with a temperature gradient. Any substance can be placed on a section of the strip revealing its thermal behaviour at the temperature at that point, differential scanning calorimetry gives information on melting point together with its enthalpy of fusion. A basic melting point apparatus for the analysis of crystalline solids consists of an oil bath with a transparent window, the several grains of a solid are placed in a thin glass tube and partially immersed in the oil bath. The oil bath is heated and with the aid of the melting of the individual crystals at a certain temperature can be observed. In large/small devices, the sample is placed in a heating block, the measurement can be made continuously with an operating process. For instance, oil refineries measure the point of diesel fuel online, meaning that the sample is taken from the process. This allows for more frequent measurements as the sample does not have to be manually collected, for refractory materials the extremely high melting point may be determined by heating the material in a black body furnace and measuring the black-body temperature with an optical pyrometer.
For the highest melting materials, this may require extrapolation by several hundred degrees, the spectral radiance from an incandescent body is known to be a function of its temperature. An optical pyrometer matches the radiance of a body under study to the radiance of a source that has been previously calibrated as a function of temperature, in this way, the measurement of the absolute magnitude of the intensity of radiation is unnecessary. However, known temperatures must be used to determine the calibration of the pyrometer, for temperatures above the calibration range of the source, an extrapolation technique must be employed