West of England Tumbler
The West of England Tumbler is a breed of fancy pigeon developed over many years of selective breeding. West of England Tumblers, along with other varieties of domesticated pigeons, are all descendants from the rock pigeon; the breed was developed in England in Bristol and the surrounding West Country in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. List of pigeon breeds
Berlin Short-faced Tumbler
The Berlin Short-faced Tumbler is a breed of fancy pigeon developed over many years of selective breeding. Berlin Short-faced Tumblers, along with other varieties of domesticated pigeons, are all descendants from the rock pigeon; this breed was developed by crossing the Ancient Tumbler, Kazaner Tumbler and other breeds in Berlin and surrounds in the mid 19th Century. List of pigeon breeds
Berlin Long-faced Tumbler
The Berlin Long-faced Tumbler is a breed of fancy pigeon. Berlin Long-faced Tumblers, along with other varieties of domesticated pigeons, are all descendants from the rock pigeon. List of pigeon breeds
English Long-faced Tumbler
The English Long-faced Tumbler is a breed of fancy pigeon developed over many years of selective breeding. English Long Face Tumblers, along with other varieties of domesticated pigeons, are all descendants from the rock pigeon; this breed is available in muffed varieties. Due to its short beak it requires foster parents to raise its young; the breed is popular around the world and has continued development in the United States. List of pigeon breeds
The Komorn Tumbler is a breed of fancy pigeon developed over many years of selective breeding. The breed has American and European varieties that are recognized as separate breeds at shows with classes catering for American Komorner Tumblers and European Komorner Tumblers. Bred for acrobatic flying as a tumbler pigeon, Komorners are free-flown today, exist only for exhibition in pigeon shows; the breed originated in 18-19th century in city Komárno in Austrian Empire. Its ancestors were imported by Ottoman Turks from eastern parts of the Ottoman Empire; the breed was imported into the United States by John Astalos and Peter Modola, both of Illinois, in the late 1920s, has grown in popularity since. The American Komorner Club was organized in 1946. Komorners are slim pigeons -- much more compact and delicate than the popular Racing Homer; the bird sports a magpied pattern with colors in black, red, silver and dun. They are bred in solid colors; the head is adorned with a crest extending from ear to ear, terminating in rosettes.
Birmingham Roller List of pigeon breeds
The Birmingham Roller is a popular breed of domesticated pigeon that originated in Birmingham, where they were developed via selective breeding, for their ability to do rapid backward somersaults while flying. As the name suggests and as mentioned by Wendell Levi in his book The Pigeon, this breed was developed in and around the City of Birmingham in England; the Birmingham Roller has a show type. Show Rollers are larger than the flying variety, are bred just for show. A similar breed called a Parlor Roller can't fly. Oriental Rollers are another aerial performer and come in many colour varieties; some fanciers fly their rollers in competition, both locally and nationally. There is a World Cup competition that includes several other countries. Kits are scored for quality and depth, as well as the number of birds that roll at the same time, referred to as a turn or break; the Birmingham Roller is a popular breed of performing pigeon, with around 10,000 breeders worldwide. It is not known why the Birmingham Roller and other roller pigeons tumble.
While it is true that the birds do perform backward somersaults in flight, the exact neurological causes of the rolling behavior are still unknown. Fanciers who breed rollers have many theories as to why rollers do back-flips, but most of them are not based on scientific evidence. Many agree that they seem to enjoy the motion arching and "wing-clapping" just before starting; this bird has a genetic inclination to flip backwards, provided adequate training and exercise. The spinning can appear to be so fast that the bird looks like a ball of feathers falling toward the ground, they return to their flock, called a "kit" in competition. The pigeon continues to do the same acrobatics with regular frequency in unison with other birds in the kit; the frequency, style, tightness of roll, angle are all determined by careful and methodical breeding. The flight time, height of flight, responsiveness to the trainer's commands are all determined by strict training and diet, along with consistent daily routine.
A noted pigeon fancier, William Pensom described the motion thus: A Birmingham roller is not one, deep to the extreme, but one that displays in its performance a likeness to a cricket ball spinning to earth in a straight line. The bird on starting raises its wings, spreads its tail downward, finishes in a similar manner; the true roller shows no separate movement between each revolution, but continues in an unbroken spin. There have been more recent, scientific studies of roller pigeons, including the mode of inheritance and a high-speed video analysis of the specific movements involved in rolling and tumbling in pigeons. In brief and tumbling in flight or on the ground are genetically the same phenomenon, but differ in duration, hence, the length of the tumble or roll; the most extreme example of rolling in flight is a "roll-down", in which case a bird will somersault to the ground from any height and, on the ground, the parlor roller, which cannot fly at all, somersaults backward every time it tries to fly.
The specific cause of the rolling phenomenon has not yet been determined, but the high-speed video analysis of parlor rollers in motion shows that their head goes backwards and their tail upwards when they raise their wings, the exact opposite of what a normal pigeon would do in attempting to fly. List of pigeon breeds National Birmingham Roller Club Rick Mee's Roller Pigeons
The domestic pigeon is a pigeon subspecies, derived from the rock dove. The rock pigeon is the world's oldest domesticated bird. Mesopotamian cuneiform tablets mention the domestication of pigeons more than 5,000 years ago, as do Egyptian hieroglyphics. Research suggests. Pigeons have made contributions of considerable importance to humanity in times of war. In war the homing ability of pigeons has been put to use by making them messengers. So-called war pigeons have carried many vital messages and some have been decorated for their services. Medals such as the Croix de guerre, awarded to Cher Ami, the Dickin Medal awarded to the pigeons G. I. Joe and Paddy, amongst 32 others, have been awarded to pigeons for their services in saving human lives. Domestic pigeons reproduce in a similar way to the wild rock pigeon. Humans will select breeding partners. Crop milk or pigeon milk produced by both male and female parent birds may be replaced with artificial substitutes. Pigeons are protective of their eggs, in some cases will go to severe lengths to protect their productive eggs and have been known to seek revenge on those who interfere with their productive process.
Baby pigeons are called squabs. Trained domestic pigeons are able to return to the home loft if released at a location that they have never visited before and that may be up to 1000 km away. A special breed, called homing pigeons has been developed through selective breeding to carry messages and members of this variety of pigeon are still being used in the sport of pigeon racing and the white release dove ceremony at weddings and funerals; the ability a pigeon has to return home from a strange location necessitates two sorts of information. The first, called "map sense" is their geographic location; the second, "compass sense" is the bearing they need to fly from their new location in order to reach their home. Both of these senses, respond to a number of different cues in different situations; the most popular conception of how pigeons are able to do this is that they are able to sense the Earth's magnetic field with tiny magnetic tissues in their head. This is all the more surprising as they are not a migratory species, a fact used by some ornithologists to dispute this theory.
Another theory is that pigeons have compass sense, which uses the position of the sun, along with an internal clock, to work out direction. However, studies have shown that if magnetic disruption or clock changes disrupt these senses, the pigeon can still manage to get home; the variability in the effects of manipulations to these sense of the pigeons indicates that there is more than one cue on which navigation is based and that map sense appears to rely on a comparison of available cuesOther potential cues used include: The use of a sun compass Nocturnal navigate by stars Visual landmark map Navigation by infrasound map Polarised light compass Olfactory stimulisee: Olfactory navigation Pigeons are bred for meat called squab and harvested from young birds. Pigeons grow to a large size in the nest before they are fledged and able to fly, in this stage of their development they are prized as food. For commercial meat production a breed of large white pigeon, named "King pigeon," has been developed by selective breeding.
Breeds of pigeons developed for their meat are collectively known as utility pigeons. Pigeon fanciers developed many exotic forms of pigeon; these are classed as fancy pigeons. Fanciers compete against each other at exhibitions or shows and the different forms or breeds are judged to a standard to decide who has the best bird. Among those breeds are the English carrier pigeons, a variety of pigeon with wattles and a unique vertical, stance. There are many ornamental breeds of pigeons, including the "Duchess" breed, which has as a prominent characteristic feet that are covered by a sort of fan of feathers; the fantail pigeons are very ornamental with their fan-shaped tail feathers. Pigeons are kept by enthusiasts for the enjoyment of Flying/Sporting competitions. Breeds such as tipplers are flown in endurance contests by their owners. Domestic pigeons are commonly used in laboratory experiments in biology and cognitive science. Pigeons have been trained to distinguish for instance. In Project Sea Hunt, a US coast guard search and rescue project in the 1970s/1980s, pigeons were shown to be more effective than humans in spotting shipwreck victims at sea.
Research in pigeons is widespread, encompassing shape and texture perception and prototype memory, category-based and associative concepts, many more unlisted here. Pigeons are able to acquire orthographic processing skills, which form part of the ability to read, basic numerical skills equivalent to those shown in primates. In the United States, some pigeon keepers illegally trap and kill hawks and falcons to protect their pigeons. In American pigeon-related organizations, some enthusiasts have shared their experiences of killing hawks and falcons, although this is frowned upon by the majority of fanciers. None of the major clubs condone this practice, it is estimated that 1,000 birds of prey have been killed in Oregon and Washington, that 1,000–2,000 are killed in southern California annually. In June 2007, three Oregon men were indicted with misdemeanour violations of the Migratory Bird Treaty Act for killing birds of prey. Seven Californians and a Texan were charged in the case. In the West Midlands region of the United Kingdom pigeon