The Melanesian Brotherhood is an Anglican religious community of men in simple vows based in the Solomon Islands and Papua New Guinea. The Melanesian Brotherhood was formed in 1925 by Ini Kopuria, a policeman from Maravovo, Solomon Islands, he and the Bishop of Melanesia, the Right Reverend John Manwaring Steward, realised Ini's dream by forming a band of brothers to take the Gospel of Jesus Christ to the non-Christian areas of Melanesia. The Brothers were responsible for the evangelisation of large areas of Guadalcanal, Malaita and other areas in the Solomons, for Big Bay and other places in Vanuatu, the Popondetta area of Papua New Guinea. After training for three years, a novice is admitted as a brother by the Archbishop of Melanesia in his capacity as Father of the Brotherhood, or his deputy, or the Regional Father, a diocesan Bishop in his role as a Regional Father of the Brotherhood; this admission takes place on the Sunday nearest the feast of St. Simon & St. Jude at one of the three regional headquarters.
The Head Brother is based at The Mother House at Tabalia. Tabalia is the place given by Ini Kopuria on northwest Guadalcanal. Three regional Head Brothers assist the Head Brother, work supervising the Brothers' ministry in the three regions of Solomon Islands, Papua New Guinea, based at Popondetta, at Tumsisiro, on east Ambae, Vanuatu; each of the three regional centres supervises the mission of the brothers in Sections. The Sections are led by a Section Elder Brother. Under the Sections are the Households, which are led by an Elder Brother, under the Households are small communities of 3 to 6 brothers in Working Households, who are led by a Brother-in-Charge. Below the Working Households are Mobile Households with no full-time Brothers. Mobile Households have two or more Brothers, may develop into Working Households; each Mobile Household, Working Household, Section and the entire Brotherhood has its own chaplain, responsible for the daily celebration of Mass and the spiritual lives of the Brothers in his care.
He may not be a member of the Brotherhood. The Brothers follow a sixfold cycle of daily office and Eucharist consisting of First Office, Morning Prayer, Morning Office, Midday Office, Afternoon Office, Evening Prayer, Last Office; the text for Morning Prayer, the Eucharist, Evening Prayer are from the Melanesian English Prayer Book, or its authorised alternatives, the lesser hours are simple offices in the "cathedral office" tradition rather than monastic, the devotion of the Angelus is prayed daily. The Brothers follow the evangelical counsels under the vows of poverty and obedience, they spend three year as novices and take vows for terms of five years, which are renewable. The constitution of the brotherhood permits some brothers to take life vows, but most brothers serve from seven to twenty years and are released; the released brother go back into the world finds a wife, resumes life as a Christian layman in his village. Several brothers and many more former brothers are ordained to the diaconate or the priesthood.
Although called the Melanesian Brotherhood, there are many Brothers who are from Polynesian islands, several Filipinos and Europeans have joined the community. During the "ethnic tension" of 1999–2000 in the Solomon Islands, the Brotherhood participated in peace-making efforts which led to a ceasefire and to the Townsville Peace Agreement of October 2000, they gathered weapons from combatants and discarded them at sea. One rebel leader, Harold Keke, continued to cause trouble. Brother Nathaniel Sado, who knew Keke, did not return. On 23 April 2003, six brothers went to investigate reports. Nathaniel, they did not return either. Scanty reports indicated that Keke was holding them hostage, but on 8 August 2003, the Police Commissioner was able to inform the Brotherhood that all six were dead. Keke and his men surrendered several days and the bodies of the seven brothers were exhumed and brought back to Honiara for autopsy. Br. Nathaniel had been tortured for several days before dying, three of the others had been shot on arrival and the remaining three had been tortured and shot the next day.
The bodies were interred at Tabalia on 24 October 2003. On 20 February 2004, Prime Minister of Fiji, Laisenia Qarase presented the Brotherhood with the first prize in the regional category of the 4th Pacific Human Rights Awards "for its sacrifice above the call of duty to protect the vulnerable and build peace and security in Solomon Islands during the civil conflict and post-conflict reconstruction". On 3 August 2008, the seven martyred members of the Anglican Melanesian Brotherhood were honoured during the concluding Mass of the Lambeth Conference, at Canterbury Cathedral, their names were added to the book of contemporary martyrs and placed, along with an icon on the altar of the Chapel of Saints of Our Times. When the Eucharist was over and others came to pray in front of the small altar in the chapel. Now their icon stands at the Cathedral as a reminder of their witness to peace and of the multi-ethnic character of Global Anglicanism. Annelin Eriksen and Knut Rio suggest that the Melanesian Brotherhood is "dedicated to sorting out spiritual and sorcery-related problems."
They note that the brothers "wear black robes as uniforms" and "have a powerful walking stick t
The novitiate called the noviciate, is the period of training and preparation that a Christian novice monastic, apostolic, or member of a religious order undergoes prior to taking vows in order to discern whether he or she is called to vowed religious life. It includes times of intense study, living in community, studying the vowed life, deepening one's relationship with God, deepening one's self-awareness, it is a time of creating a new way of being in the world. The novitiate stage in most communities is a two-year period of formation; these years are "Sabbath time" to deepen one's relationship with God, to intensify the living out of the community's mission and charism, to foster human growth. The novitiate experience for many communities includes a concentrated program of prayer, study and limited ministerial engagement. Novices are not admitted to vows until they have completed the prescribed period of training and proving, called the novitiate. In the Middle Ages novices would have dormitories in separate areas within a monastery.
Earlier, different orders followed their own rules governing the length and conditions of the novitiate. At the time of the Reformation, the Council of Trent legislated the length and conditions by which anyone aspiring to become a monk is obliged to be a novice; the novitiate, through which life in an institute is begun, is arranged so that the novices better understand their divine vocation, indeed one, proper to the institute, experience the manner of living of the institute, form their mind and heart in its spirit, so that their intention and suitability are tested. —Canon Law 646 Conscious of their own responsibility, the Novices are to collaborate with their Director in such a way that they faithfully respond to the grace of a divine vocation. —Canon Law 652.3 Members of the institute are to take care that they cooperate for their part in the work of formation of the Novices through example of life and prayer —Canon Law 652.3 Novices are to be led to cultivate human and Christian virtues.
—Canon Law 652 A novice is free to quit the novitiate at any time, the Novice Director, Formation Director, or Superior is free to dismiss him or her with or without cause in most communities. In novicating, the vows are continuous through training. In some novitiate communities monastic, the novice wears clothing, distinct from secular dress but is not the full habit worn by professed members of the community; the novice's day encompasses participation in the full canonical hours, manual labor, classes designed to instruct novices in the religious life he is preparing to embrace. Spiritual exercises and tests of humility are common features of a novitiate; some Roman Catholic communities encourage frequent confession and reception of Holy Communion by their novices. A Superior will appoint an experienced member of the community to oversee the training of novices; this may be a Finally Professed Member, novice master or mistress, responsible for the training of all novices. Different religious communities will have varying requirements for the duration of the novitiate.
One must complete a postulancy before entering the novitiate. In many apostolic religious communities in the United States, postulancy or candidacy is one to three years. In the Eastern Orthodox Church, the novitiate is set at three years before one may be tonsured a monk or nun, though this requirement may be waived; the term "novitiate" refers to the building, house, or complex within a monastery or convent, devoted to the needs of novices. Monasticism Novice master
Ambae Island known as Aoba or Leper's Island, is an island in the South Pacific island nation of Vanuatu, located near 15°30′S 167°30′E 165 miles NNW of Vanuatu's capital city, Port Vila. First recorded sighting by Europeans was by the Spanish expedition of Pedro Fernández de Quirós in the spring of 1606; the misty sight of Ambae from neighbouring Espiritu Santo, which served as a major World War II airbase, inspired the mythical Bali Ha'i in James Michener's Tales of the South Pacific. Rough, black basalt stones compose its shoreline and surface in many places, though the soils are rich; the island appears to be covered in nearly unbroken vegetation. There are no reliable sources save the crater lakes which are inaccessible. Water for all human uses comes from cement-lined wells or water tanks filled with rainwater. Ambae is the emergent portion of Vanuatu's largest volcano, Manaro Voui, which rises 1,496 meters above sea level, or about 3,900 meters above the sea floor. A steam and ash eruption began on November 27, 2005, leading to a Level 2 volcano alert and preparations for evacuations.
On December 8, the eruption became stronger, displacing more than 3,000 of Ambae Island's inhabitants to elsewhere on the island and requiring the evacuation of two hospitals. On September 28, 2017, after a week of increasing volcanic activity to Level 4, the government of Vanuatu ordered a complete evacuation of the island, home to about 11,000 residents. Ash from the eruption has covered killing crops and polluting the air and water. In April 2018 the remaining 10,000 residents were ordered to evacuate permanently; the population is Melanesian, though ancient Polynesian admixtures have given Man-Ambae lighter complexions and Polynesian languages. Religiously Ambae is Christian, split into many denominations; these can be characterized in three stages: the original colonial-missionary churches, the second-stage American-origin evangelical denominations, the newer, less orthodox, fusion/'unity' sects. This last category includes many grass-roots groups originating within Vanuatu. Missionary activity from outside continues from Mormons, who have a growing following on West & North Ambae.
Ambae has a population of less than 11,000, divided into 3–4 discernible language groups. The island has no considerable towns, though the Penama provincial center is located at Saratamata on East Ambae; the local economy is non-monetary, with cash crop income being used for school fees and sundry items like soap, kerosene, etc. Most regular employment is as teachers. Remittances from employed relatives in the towns of Santo or Vila contribute cash to the local economy. Ambae is serviced by fewer than 100 telephone lines on the east side, it has two post offices and National Bank of Vanuatu branches, at Saratamata and Nduindui, regular interisland ship traffic, several Vanair flights a week. Of the small-to-medium outer islands of Vanuatu, Ambae must be considered one of the more "developed." Traditional subsistence agriculture satisfies food needs, while most villagers engage in small-scale cash crop production as well. Grown in large upland gardens, the primary crops are taro, banana and manioc.
Kumala, vegetables and nuts help to provide an excellent diet, though protein is lacking. Without substantial reefs, seafood is less significant a protein source compared with other islands of Vanuatu and in any case is inaccessible to the large populations living at high inland elevations; the island is served by three airstrips with services by Air Vanuatu: Walaha Airport in the southwest, Redcliffe Airport in the south and Longana Airport in the northeast. Anglican liturgies in West Ambae spoken on Aoba
Book of Common Prayer
The Book of Common Prayer is the short title of a number of related prayer books used in the Anglican Communion, as well as by other Christian churches related to Anglicanism. The original book, published in 1549 in the reign of Edward VI, was a product of the English Reformation following the break with Rome; the work of 1549 was the first prayer book to include the complete forms of service for daily and Sunday worship in English. It contained Morning Prayer, Evening Prayer, the Litany, Holy Communion and the occasional services in full: the orders for Baptism, Marriage, "prayers to be said with the sick", a funeral service, it set out in full the "propers": the introits and epistle and gospel readings for the Sunday service of Holy Communion. Old Testament and New Testament readings for daily prayer were specified in tabular format as were the Psalms; the 1549 book was soon succeeded by a more reformed revision in 1552 under the same editorial hand, that of Thomas Cranmer, Archbishop of Canterbury.
It was used only for a few months, as after Edward VI's death in 1553, his half-sister Mary I restored Roman Catholic worship. Mary died in 1558 and, in 1559, Elizabeth I reintroduced the 1552 book with modifications to make it acceptable to more traditionally-minded worshippers and clergy. In 1604, James I ordered some further changes, the most significant being the addition to the Catechism of a section on the Sacraments. Following the tumultuous events surrounding the English Civil War, when the Book was again abolished, another modest revision was published in 1662; that edition remains the official prayer book of the Church of England, although through the twentieth century alternative forms which were technically supplements displaced the Book of Common Prayer for the main Sunday worship of most English parish churches. A Book of Common Prayer with local variations is used in churches around, or deriving from, the Anglican Communion in over 50 different countries and in over 150 different languages.
In some parts of the world, the 1662 Book remains technically authoritative but other books or patterns have replaced it in regular worship. Traditional English Lutheran and Presbyterian prayer books have borrowed from the Book of Common Prayer and the marriage and burial rites have found their way into those of other denominations and into the English language. Like the King James Version of the Bible and the works of Shakespeare, many words and phrases from the Book of Common Prayer have entered common parlance; the full name of the 1662 Book of Common Prayer is The Book of Common Prayer and Administration of the Sacraments and other Rites and Ceremonies of the Church, according to the use of the Church of England, Together with the Psalter or Psalms of David, pointed as they are to be Sung or said in churches: And the Form and Manner of Making and Consecrating of Bishops and Deacons. The forms of parish worship in the late medieval church in England, which followed the Latin Roman Rite, varied according to local practice.
By far the most common form, or "use", found. There was no single book; the chant for worship was contained in the Roman Gradual for the Mass and in the Antiphoner for the offices. The Book of Common Prayer has never contained prescribed chant; the work of producing a liturgy in the English language books was done by Thomas Cranmer, Archbishop of Canterbury, starting cautiously in the reign of Henry VIII, more radically under his son Edward VI. In his early days Cranmer was somewhat conservative: an admirer, of John Fisher, it may have been his visit to Germany in 1532. In 1538, as Henry began diplomatic negotiations with Lutheran princes, Cranmer came face to face with a Lutheran embassy; the Exhortation and Litany, the earliest English-language service of the Church of England, was the first overt manifestation of his changing views. It was no mere translation from the Latin: its Protestant character is made clear by the drastic reduction of the place of saints, compressing what had been the major part into three petitions.
Published in 1544, it borrowed from Martin Luther's Litany and Myles Coverdale's New Testament and was the only service that might be considered to be "Protestant" to be finished within the lifetime of King Henry VIII. It was only on Henry's death in 1547 and the accession of Edward VI that revision could proceed faster. Cranmer finished his work on an English Communion rite in 1548, obeying an order of Convocation of the previous year that communion was to be given to the people as both bread and wine; the ordinary Roman Rite of the Mass had made no provision for any congregation present to receive communion in both species. So, Cranmer composed in English an additional rite of congregational preparation and communion, to be undertaken
Anglicanism is a Western Christian tradition which has developed from the practices and identity of the Church of England following the English Reformation. Adherents of Anglicanism are called "Anglicans"; the majority of Anglicans are members of national or regional ecclesiastical provinces of the international Anglican Communion, which forms the third-largest Christian communion in the world, after the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church. They are in full communion with the See of Canterbury, thus the Archbishop of Canterbury, whom the communion refers to as its primus inter pares, he calls the decennial Lambeth Conference, chairs the meeting of primates, the Anglican Consultative Council. Some churches that are not part of the Anglican Communion or recognized by the Anglican Communion call themselves Anglican, including those that are part of the Continuing Anglican movement and Anglican realignment. Anglicans base their Christian faith on the Bible, traditions of the apostolic Church, apostolic succession and the writings of the Church Fathers.
Anglicanism forms one of the branches of Western Christianity, having definitively declared its independence from the Holy See at the time of the Elizabethan Religious Settlement. Many of the new Anglican formularies of the mid-16th century corresponded to those of contemporary Protestantism; these reforms in the Church of England were understood by one of those most responsible for them, Thomas Cranmer, the Archbishop of Canterbury, others as navigating a middle way between two of the emerging Protestant traditions, namely Lutheranism and Calvinism. In the first half of the 17th century, the Church of England and its associated Church of Ireland were presented by some Anglican divines as comprising a distinct Christian tradition, with theologies and forms of worship representing a different kind of middle way, or via media, between Protestantism and Roman Catholicism – a perspective that came to be influential in theories of Anglican identity and expressed in the description of Anglicanism as "Catholic and Reformed".
The degree of distinction between Protestant and Catholic tendencies within the Anglican tradition is a matter of debate both within specific Anglican churches and throughout the Anglican Communion. Unique to Anglicanism is the Book of Common Prayer, the collection of services in one Book used for centuries; the Book is acknowledged as a principal tie that binds the Anglican Communion together as a liturgical rather than a confessional tradition or one possessing a magisterium as in the Roman Catholic Church. After the American Revolution, Anglican congregations in the United States and British North America were each reconstituted into autonomous churches with their own bishops and self-governing structures. Through the expansion of the British Empire and the activity of Christian missions, this model was adopted as the model for many newly formed churches in Africa and Asia-Pacific. In the 19th century, the term Anglicanism was coined to describe the common religious tradition of these churches.
The word Anglican originates in Anglicana ecclesia libera sit, a phrase from the Magna Carta dated 15 June 1215, meaning "the Anglican Church shall be free". Adherents of Anglicanism are called Anglicans; as an adjective, "Anglican" is used to describe the people and churches, as well as the liturgical traditions and theological concepts developed by the Church of England. As a noun, an Anglican is a member of a church in the Anglican Communion; the word is used by followers of separated groups which have left the communion or have been founded separately from it, although this is considered as a misuse by the Anglican Communion. The word Anglicanism came into being in the 19th century; the word referred only to the teachings and rites of Christians throughout the world in communion with the see of Canterbury, but has come to sometimes be extended to any church following those traditions rather than actual membership in the modern Anglican Communion. Although the term Anglican is found referring to the Church of England as far back as the 16th century, its use did not become general until the latter half of the 19th century.
In British parliamentary legislation referring to the English Established Church, there is no need for a description. When the Union with Ireland Act created the United Church of England and Ireland, it is specified that it shall be one "Protestant Episcopal Church", thereby distinguishing its form of church government from the Presbyterian polity that prevails in the Church of Scotland; the word Episcopal is preferred in the title of the Episcopal Church and the Scottish Episcopal Church, though the full name of the former is The Protestant Episcopal Church of the United States of America. Elsewhere, the term "Anglican Church" came to be preferred as it distinguished these churches from others that maintain an episcopal polity. Anglicanism, in its structures and forms of worship, is understood as a distinct Christian tradition representing a middle ground between what are perceived to be the extremes of the claims of 16th-century Roman Ca
The Eucharist is a Christian rite, considered a sacrament in most churches, as an ordinance in others. According to the New Testament, the rite was instituted by Jesus Christ during the Last Supper. Through the Eucharistic celebration Christians remember both Christ's sacrifice of himself on the cross and his commission of the apostles at the Last Supper; the elements of the Eucharist, sacramental bread and sacramental wine, are consecrated on an altar and consumed thereafter. Communicants, those who consume the elements, may speak of "receiving the Eucharist", as well as "celebrating the Eucharist". Christians recognize a special presence of Christ in this rite, though they differ about how and when Christ is present. While all agree that there is no perceptible change in the elements, Roman Catholics believe that their substances become the body and blood of Christ. Lutherans believe the true body and blood of Christ are present "in, under" the forms of the bread and wine. Reformed Christians believe in a real spiritual presence of Christ in the Eucharist.
Others, such as the Plymouth Brethren and the Christadelphians, take the act to be only a symbolic reenactment of the Last Supper and a memorial. In spite of differences among Christians about various aspects of the Eucharist, there is, according to the Encyclopædia Britannica, "more of a consensus among Christians about the meaning of the Eucharist than would appear from the confessional debates over the sacramental presence, the effects of the Eucharist, the proper auspices under which it may be celebrated"; the Greek noun εὐχαριστία, meaning "thanksgiving", appears fifteen times in the New Testament but is not used as an official name for the rite. Do this in remembrance of me"; the term "Eucharist" is that by which the rite is referred to by the Didache, Ignatius of Antioch and Justin Martyr. Today, "the Eucharist" is the name still used by Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Roman Catholics, Anglicans and Lutherans. Other Protestant or Evangelical denominations use this term, preferring either "Communion", "the Lord's Supper", "Memorial", "Remembrance", or "the Breaking of Bread".
Latter-day Saints call it "Sacrament". The Lord's Supper, in Greek Κυριακὸν δεῖπνον, was in use in the early 50s of the 1st century, as witnessed by the First Epistle to the Corinthians: When you come together, it is not the Lord's Supper you eat, for as you eat, each of you goes ahead without waiting for anybody else. One remains hungry, another gets drunk; those who use the term "Eucharist" use the expression "the Lord's Supper", but it is the predominant term among Evangelical and Pentecostal churches, who avoid using the term "Communion". They refer to the observance as an "ordinance"; those Protestant churches avoid the term "sacrament".'Holy Communion' are used by some groups originating in the Protestant Reformation to mean the entire Eucharistic rite. Others, such as the Catholic Church, do not use this term for the rite, but instead mean by it the act of partaking of the consecrated elements; the term "Communion" is derived from Latin communio, which translates Greek κοινωνία in 1 Corinthians 10:16: The cup of blessing which we bless, is it not the communion of the blood of Christ?
The bread which we break, is it not the communion of the body of Christ? The phrase appears in various related forms five times in the New Testament in contexts which, according to some, may refer to the celebration of the Eucharist, in either closer or symbolically more distant reference to the Last Supper, it is the term used by the Plymouth Brethren. The "Blessed Sacrament" and the "Blessed Sacrament of the Altar" are common terms used by Catholics and some Anglicans for the consecrated elements when reserved in a tabernacle. "Sacrament of the Altar" is in common use among Lutherans. In The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints the term "The Sacrament" is used of the rite. Mass is used in the Latin Rite of the Catholic Church, the Lutheran Churches, by many Anglicans, in some other forms of Western Christianity. At least in the Catholic Church, the Mass is a longer rite which always consists of two main parts: the Liturgy of the Word and the Liturgy of the Eucharist, in that order; the Liturgy of the Word consists of readings from scripture (the
Vanuatu the Republic of Vanuatu, is a Pacific island country located in the South Pacific Ocean. The archipelago, of volcanic origin, is 1,750 kilometres east of northern Australia, 540 kilometres northeast of New Caledonia, east of New Guinea, southeast of the Solomon Islands, west of Fiji. Vanuatu was first inhabited by Melanesian people; the first Europeans to visit the islands were a Spanish expedition led by Portuguese navigator Fernandes de Queirós, who arrived on the largest island in 1606. Since the Portuguese and Spanish monarchies had been unified under the king of Spain in 1580, Queirós claimed the archipelago for Spain, as part of the colonial Spanish East Indies, named it La Austrialia del Espíritu Santo. In the 1880s, France and the United Kingdom claimed parts of the archipelago, in 1906, they agreed on a framework for jointly managing the archipelago as the New Hebrides through an Anglo–French condominium. An independence movement arose in the 1970s, the Republic of Vanuatu was founded in 1980.
Since independence, the country is a member of the United Nations, Commonwealth of Nations, Organisation internationale de la Francophonie and the Pacific Islands Forum. Vanuatu's name is derived from the word vanua, which occurs in several Austronesian languages, the word tu. Together the two words indicated the independent status of the new country; the prehistory of Vanuatu is obscure. Pottery fragments have been found dating to 1300–1100 BC; the Vanuatu group of islands first had contact with Europeans in 1606, when the Portuguese explorer Pedro Fernandes de Queirós, sailing for the Spanish Crown, arrived on the largest island and called the group of islands La Austrialia del Espiritu Santo or "The Southern Land of the Holy Spirit", believing he had arrived in Terra Australis. The Spanish established a short-lived settlement at Big Bay on the north side of the island; the name Espiritu Santo remains to this day. Europeans did not return until 1768, when Louis Antoine de Bougainville rediscovered the islands on 22 May, naming them the Great Cyclades.
In 1774, Captain Cook named the islands the New Hebrides, a name that would last until independence in 1980. In 1825, the trader Peter Dillon's discovery of sandalwood on the island of Erromango began a rush of immigrants that ended in 1830 after a clash between immigrant Polynesian workers and indigenous Melanesians. During the 1860s, planters in Australia, New Caledonia, the Samoa Islands, in need of labourers, encouraged a long-term indentured labour trade called "blackbirding". At the height of the labour trade, more than one-half the adult male population of several of the islands worked abroad. Fragmentary evidence indicates that the current population of Vanuatu is reduced compared to pre-contact times. In the 19th century, both Roman Catholic and Protestant, arrived on the islands. Settlers came, looking for land on which to establish cotton plantations; when international cotton prices collapsed, they switched to coffee, bananas, most coconuts. British subjects from Australia made up the majority, but the establishment of the Caledonian Company of the New Hebrides in 1882 soon tipped the balance in favour of French subjects.
By around the start of the 20th century, the French outnumbered the British two to one. The jumbling of French and British interests in the islands brought petitions for one or another of the two powers to annex the territory; the Convention of 16 October 1887 established a joint naval commission for the sole purpose of protecting French and British citizens, with no claim to jurisdiction over internal native affairs. In 1906, however and the United Kingdom agreed to administer the islands jointly. Called the British-French Condominium, it was a unique form of government, with separate governmental systems that came together only in a joint court; the condominium's authority was extended in the Anglo-French Protocol of 1914, although this was not formally ratified until 1922. Melanesians were barred from acquiring the citizenship of either power and were stateless. In the 1920s, indentured workers from French Annam came to work in the plantations in the New Hebrides, they were 437 in 1923, 5,413 in 1930 after the crisis 1,630 in 1937.
There was some social and political unrest among them in 1947. Challenges to the condominium government began in the early 1940s; the arrival of Americans during the Second World War, with their informal habits and relative wealth, contributed to the rise of nationalism in the islands. The belief in a mythical messianic figure named John Frum was the basis for an indigenous cargo cult promising Melanesian deliverance. Today, John Frum is a political party with a member in Parliament; the first political party, established in the early 1970s, was called the New Hebrides National Party. One of the founders was Father Walter Lini, who became Prime Minister. Renamed the Vanua'aku Pati in 1974, the party pushed for independence, gained amidst the brief Coconut War; the independent Republic of Vanuatu was established in 1980. During the 1990s, Vanuatu experienced a period of political instability which resulted in a more decentralised government; the Vanu