Swedish Theatre (Stockholm)
The Swedish Theatre in Stockholm was, at the beginning of the 20th century, Swedens largest dramatic theatre. During its years in use, from 1875 to 1925, it was considered as Swedens foremost national theatre. It was founded by the actor Edvard Stjernström and located on Blasieholmen in central Stockholm, svenska Teatern, or Nya Teatern, was in its time Stockholms largest theatre, with 1,150 seats in its two stalls and four galleries. The theatre was equipped with the first rotating stage in Sweden and had its own ballet-ensemble that was known worldwide for its quality. The Swedish Theatres productions were known for their luxurious decor and splendour and it was here that the original Swedish stagings of Henrik Ibsens most well-known plays took place, as well as a number of great productions of William Shakespeares and Anton Chekhovs dramatic works. Under the directorship of Ludvig Josephson, it staged the premières of August Strindbergs Master Olof in 1881 and Sir Bengts Wife, many of the worlds greatest theatre companies came to perform at the Swedish Theatre, including Stanislavskis Moscow Art Theatre and Reinhardts Deutsches Theater.
The Swedish Theatre toured abroad, with productions in Moscow, Paris, Oslo. Most of Swedens greatest stage actors of the early 20th century were part of the ensemble, Anders de Wahl, Gerda Lundequist, Tora Teje, Inga Tidblad. Pauline Brunius and Hugo Björne were among others, after the death of the founder Edvard Stjernström, the theatre was run by his widow, the playwright Louise Granberg, in 1877-1880. The Swedish Theatre was for a time the prime jewel in the notorious Swedish theatre manager Albert Ranfts theatrical empire. The theatre was devastated in a fire on June 30,1925, since then, the Royal Dramatic Theatre has been seen as the countrys main national stage. Djurgårdsteatern Mindre teatern http, //runeberg. org/nfcf/0749. html Lane, in The Cambridge Guide to Theatre
The Edge of Heaven (film)
The Edge of Heaven is a 2007 Turkish-German drama written and directed by Fatih Akın. The film won the Prix du scénario at the 2007 Cannes Film Festival, was Germanys entry in the category Best Foreign Language Film at the 2007 Oscars, after making its worldwide debut at the Cannes Film Festival in France, the film was shown at several international film festivals. It was released in Germany on 27 September 2007, Yeters Death Retired widower Ali Aksu, a Turkish immigrant living in the German city of Bremen, believes he has found a solution to his loneliness when he meets Yeter Öztürk. He offers her a payment to stop working as a prostitute. After receiving threats from two Turkish Muslims for the work she does, she decides to accept his offer. Alis son, Nejat Aksu, a professor of German literature, back home from the hospital, Ali suspects Yeter and his son may have had a liaison. When his drunken demands of Yeter cause her to threaten to leave, he strikes her, Nejat travels to Istanbul to search for Yeters daughter and assumes responsibility for her education.
Unable to locate her through her family and not having any recent photos of her, he posts flyers with Yeters photo throughout the area, when he posts a flyer in a small German language bookstore that happens to be for sale, he finds himself charmed into buying it. Lottes Death A plainclothes officer loses his gun on the street during a riot, a hooded figure scoops it up and is pursued on foot by a battalion of uniformed officers, barely managing to hide the contraband on a random rooftop. This is Ayten, member of a Turkish anti-government resistance group, when her cell is raided, she flees Turkey and takes up a new identity with political allies in Bremen, Germany. However, even there, she has an out when she is unable to pay them money she owes. Her mothers number is lost, so she lives illegally and searches for her in local shoe shops, Lotte, a university student, offers to help her with food, and a place to stay—a gesture which is not particularly welcomed by her mother, Susanne. Ayten and Lotte become lovers and Lotte decides to help Ayten search for her mother, the quest is cut short when a traffic stop exposes Aytens illegal status and she attempts a claim of political asylum.
Despite Susannes financial support, Germany rules that Ayten has no fear of political persecution. She is deported and immediately imprisoned and she travels to Turkey to try to free Ayten, but quickly realizes how little hope there is, as she is facing 15 to 20 years in jail. Susanne pleads with her to think of her future and return home, when Lotte refuses, her mother denies her any further assistance. Lotte gravitates to Nejats bookstore and ends up renting a room from him. Finally granted a visit with Ayten, Lotte complies with her imprisoned lovers request
Carlota Suzanne Osten is a Swedish film director stage director and screenwriter. She won the award for Best Director at the 22nd Guldbagge Awards for the film The Mozart Brothers, Suzanne Osten was born in Stockholm. Ostens father was a democrat and resistance man who came to Sweden when he fled from the Nazi regime in Germany. Her parents were married in 1941 but divorced when Suzanne Osten was little, Osten formed one of Sweden’s first fringe theatrical companies and began her career as a stage director there in the late 1960s. In 1971, she continued to Stockholm City Theatre, which would be her fixed point for many decades, at that venue, she became a leader in developing the political theater of that time. Together with Margareta Garpe, she wrote the play Tjejsnack, intended for teenaged girls, some of the songs from that play, such as the feminist anthem Vi måste höja våra röster are on the record Sånger för kvinnor och män from 1972. After this and Garpe wrote the plays Kärleksföreställningen, Jösses flickor, befrielsen är nära and Fabriksflickorna, makten och härligheten.
All of these plays have a connection to the Swedish feminist organization Grupp 8. Suzanne Osten is a pioneer in developing theater for children, throughout her career, she has advocated for art and culture for children and youth. She asserts that the perspective is a question of power, about describing power relationships. A child is more dependent on the adult since children are powerless in relation to adults. Osten has remained true to this standpoint in her writing, directing, in 1975, she formed Unga Klara, a branch of Stockholm City Theater for the purpose of producing theatrical performances for children and youth. Osten worked there as both director and artistic director until the summer of 2014 and developed a process for creating a performance. The playscript Babydrama was written by psychoanalyst and dramatist Ann-Sofie Bárány following a period of improvisation and this production was controversial because the intended audience was infants aged from six months. Baby Drama is a cabaret with six actors, the narrative suggests the lived experience of the audience from conception, the time in the womb, meeting with its family, and on to a life of its own.
Osten documented the reaction of the audience in Baby Drama. Osten finds this to be proof of adult significance as performers, as art distributors and she interprets the reaction of the audience as an innate need in a child for gestures, facial expressions, emotions and bodies from which to learn communication. Osten’s process involves the entire company, actors, mask makers, based on research
Hungary is a unitary parliamentary republic in Central Europe. With about 10 million inhabitants, Hungary is a member state of the European Union. The official language is Hungarian, which is the most widely spoken language in Europe. Hungarys capital and largest metropolis is Budapest, a significant economic hub, major urban areas include Debrecen, Miskolc, Pécs and Győr. His great-grandson Stephen I ascended to the throne in 1000, converting the country to a Christian kingdom, by the 12th century, Hungary became a middle power within the Western world, reaching a golden age by the 15th century. Hungarys current borders were established in 1920 by the Treaty of Trianon after World War I, when the country lost 71% of its territory, 58% of its population, following the interwar period, Hungary joined the Axis Powers in World War II, suffering significant damage and casualties. Hungary became a state of the Soviet Union, which contributed to the establishment of a four-decade-long communist dictatorship.
On 23 October 1989, Hungary became again a democratic parliamentary republic, in the 21st century, Hungary is a middle power and has the worlds 57th largest economy by nominal GDP, as well as the 58th largest by PPP, out of 188 countries measured by the IMF. As a substantial actor in several industrial and technological sectors, it is both the worlds 36th largest exporter and importer of goods, Hungary is a high-income economy with a very high standard of living. It keeps up a security and universal health care system. Hungary joined the European Union in 2004 and part of the Schengen Area since 2007, Hungary is a member of the United Nations, NATO, WTO, World Bank, the AIIB, the Council of Europe and Visegrád Group. Well known for its cultural history, Hungary has been contributed significantly to arts, literature and science. Hungary is the 11th most popular country as a tourist destination in Europe and it is home to the largest thermal water cave system, the second largest thermal lake in the world, the largest lake in Central Europe, and the largest natural grasslands in Europe.
The H in the name of Hungary is most likely due to historical associations with the Huns. The rest of the word comes from the Latinized form of Medieval Greek Oungroi, according to an explanation the Greek name was borrowed from Proto-Slavic Ǫgǔri, in turn borrowed from Oghur-Turkic Onogur. Onogur was the name for the tribes who joined the Bulgar tribal confederacy that ruled the eastern parts of Hungary after the Avars. The Hungarians likely belonged to the Onogur tribal alliance and it is possible they became its ethnic majority. The Hungarian endonym is Magyarország, composed of magyar and ország, the word magyar is taken from the name of one of the seven major semi-nomadic Hungarian tribes, magyeri
Etiler is a neighbourhood on the European side of Istanbul, Turkey, in the district of Beşiktaş, close to the business quarters of Levent and Maslak. Etiler is famous for its upmarket cafés, night clubs, gyms, fashion shops and shopping malls and it is a favourite area among Istanbuls elite. The quarter has many villas and private residences, a similar example is the neighbouring quarter of Akatlar, which means Akkads, another ancient civilization from the history of Anatolia. Akmerkez is one of the best known shopping malls in Istanbul and it has all the major fashion brands and restaurants. Mayadrom is a smaller, more boutique shopping centre, Nispetiye Street is considered as the core centre of Etiler, with cafes and designer shops. The Istanbul Japanese School is located in Etiler, one of the campuses of the British International School Istanbul is located in Etiler. Bogazici University, which is a university with different faculties like education, engineering. It is situated near the end of Nispetiye Street, and has a view of the Bosphorus.
There are buses from Kabatas and Sisli to Etiler, and the M6 metro line is working in Etiler. Kültür Bakanlığı, Türkiye Ekonomik ve Toplumsal Tarih Vakfı, media related to Etiler at Wikimedia Commons Miscellaneous images of Etiler Etiler Virtual Tour
Istanbul University is a prominent Turkish university located in Istanbul. The main campus is adjacent to Beyazıt Square in Fatih, the district of the province. Istanbul University was established in 1453 by the Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II, education in a number of sciences and fields became available, until the 19th century, they were instrumental in educating the ruling cadres of the Ottoman society. An institution of higher education named the Darülfünûn-u Osmanî was created in 1863 and its first rector was Hasan Tahsini, regarded as one of the most important Ottoman scholars of the 19th century. In 1874 the Imperial University started classes in law in French, the Imperial University, now known as Darülfünûn-u Şahâne was refounded in 1900, with the departments of theology, mathematics and philology. In 1924, the faculties of law, medicine and sciences were established in Istanbul University, islamic theology was added in 1925, but in 1933 the university was reorganized without the latter. Starting from 1874, some classes of Literature and Applied Sciences were given at the building of Galatasaray High School, on 1 September 1900, the school was renamed and reorganized as the Darülfünûn-u Şahâne with courses on Mathematics and Theology.
On 1 August 1933, İstanbul Darülfünûnu was reorganized as İstanbul Üniversitesi following the reforms of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk. Classes officially began on 1 November 1933, the main campus building with its landmark gate was previously used as the headquarters of the Harbiye Nezareti by the Ottoman government. Located on the grounds is the Beyazıt Tower, a 85 m tall fire-watch tower, the grounds were previously the location of the Ottoman era Eski Saray. Some Roman and Byzantine ruins are visible on the grounds. The university has a staff of 2,000 professors and associates and 4,000 assistants. More than 60,000 undergraduate and 8,000 postgraduate students follow the courses offered by Istanbul University every year, the main gate was depicted on the reverse of the Turkish 500 lira banknotes of 1971–1984
Sweden, officially the Kingdom of Sweden, is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe. It borders Norway to the west and Finland to the east, at 450,295 square kilometres, Sweden is the third-largest country in the European Union by area, with a total population of 10.0 million. Sweden consequently has a low density of 22 inhabitants per square kilometre. Approximately 85% of the lives in urban areas. Germanic peoples have inhabited Sweden since prehistoric times, emerging into history as the Geats/Götar and Swedes/Svear, Southern Sweden is predominantly agricultural, while the north is heavily forested. Sweden is part of the area of Fennoscandia. The climate is in very mild for its northerly latitude due to significant maritime influence. Today, Sweden is a monarchy and parliamentary democracy, with a monarch as head of state. The capital city is Stockholm, which is the most populous city in the country, legislative power is vested in the 349-member unicameral Riksdag. Executive power is exercised by the government chaired by the prime minister, Sweden is a unitary state, currently divided into 21 counties and 290 municipalities.
Sweden emerged as an independent and unified country during the Middle Ages, in the 17th century, it expanded its territories to form the Swedish Empire, which became one of the great powers of Europe until the early 18th century. Swedish territories outside the Scandinavian Peninsula were gradually lost during the 18th and 19th centuries, the last war in which Sweden was directly involved was in 1814, when Norway was militarily forced into personal union. Since then, Sweden has been at peace, maintaining a policy of neutrality in foreign affairs. The union with Norway was peacefully dissolved in 1905, leading to Swedens current borders, though Sweden was formally neutral through both world wars, Sweden engaged in humanitarian efforts, such as taking in refugees from German-occupied Europe. After the end of the Cold War, Sweden joined the European Union on 1 January 1995 and it is a member of the United Nations, the Nordic Council, Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.
Sweden maintains a Nordic social welfare system that provides health care. The modern name Sweden is derived through back-formation from Old English Swēoþēod and this word is derived from Sweon/Sweonas. The Swedish name Sverige literally means Realm of the Swedes, excluding the Geats in Götaland, the etymology of Swedes, and thus Sweden, is generally not agreed upon but may derive from Proto-Germanic Swihoniz meaning ones own, referring to ones own Germanic tribe
Istanbul, historically known as Constantinople and Byzantium, is the most populous city in Turkey and the countrys economic and historic center. Istanbul is a city in Eurasia, straddling the Bosphorus strait between the Sea of Marmara and the Black Sea. Its commercial and historical center lies on the European side and about a third of its population lives on the Asian side, the city is the administrative center of the Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality, both hosting a population of around 14.7 million residents. Istanbul is one of the worlds most populous cities and ranks as the worlds 7th-largest city proper, founded under the name of Byzantion on the Sarayburnu promontory around 660 BCE, the city developed to become one of the most significant in history. After its reestablishment as Constantinople in 330 CE, it served as a capital for almost 16 centuries, during the Roman and Byzantine, the Latin. Overlooked for the new capital Ankara during the period, the city has since regained much of its prominence.
The population of the city has increased tenfold since the 1950s, as migrants from across Anatolia have moved in, music and cultural festivals were established at the end of the 20th century and continue to be hosted by the city today. Infrastructure improvements have produced a complex transportation network, considered a global city, Istanbul has one of the fastest-growing metropolitan economies in the world. It hosts the headquarters of many Turkish companies and media outlets and accounts for more than a quarter of the gross domestic product. Hoping to capitalize on its revitalization and rapid expansion, Istanbul has bid for the Summer Olympics five times in twenty years, the first known name of the city is Byzantium, the name given to it at its foundation by Megarean colonists around 660 BCE. The name is thought to be derived from a personal name, ancient Greek tradition refers to a legendary king of that name as the leader of the Greek colonists. Modern scholars have hypothesized that the name of Byzas was of local Thracian or Illyrian origin.
He attempted to promote the name Nova Roma and its Greek version Νέα Ῥώμη Nea Romē, the use of Constantinople to refer to the city during the Ottoman period is now considered politically incorrect, even if not historically inaccurate, by Turks. By the 19th century, the city had acquired other names used by foreigners or Turks. Europeans used Constantinople to refer to the whole of the city, pera was used to describe the area between the Golden Horn and the Bosphorus, but Turks used the name Beyoğlu. The name İstanbul is commonly held to derive from the Medieval Greek phrase εἰς τὴν Πόλιν and this reflected its status as the only major city in the vicinity. The importance of Constantinople in the Ottoman world was reflected by its Ottoman name Der Saadet meaning the gate to Prosperity in Ottoman. An alternative view is that the name evolved directly from the name Constantinople, with the first, a Turkish folk etymology traces the name to Islam bol plenty of Islam because the city was called Islambol or Islambul as the capital of the Islamic Ottoman Empire
Fatih Akin is a German film director and producer. Akin was born in 1973 in Hamburg to parents of Turkish ethnicity and he attended the Hochschule für bildende Künste Hamburg to study visual communications and graduated in 2000. Fatih Akin has been married since 2004 to German-Mexican actress Monique Obermüller and lives in Hamburg-Altona and his brother, Cem Akin is an actor. Since he has directed films such as Im Juli in 2000, We forgot to go back in 2001. In 2005 he directed a documentary about the Istanbul music scene, Crossing the Bridge, The Sound of Istanbul and it is narrated by a member of a German experimental band Einstürzende Neubauten, Alexander Hacke, who produced music for Head-On. In 2007, Akins The Edge of Heaven, a German-Turkish cross-cultural tale of loss and forgiveness, on October 24,2007, the same film was awarded the first edition of the LUX prize for European cinema by the European Parliament. His most recent film is the comedy Soul Kitchen and he has said he chose this more light-hearted film because he needed a break after making the tough films Head-On and The Edge of Heaven before making his next planned film The Devil.
But, he says, now I feel ready to finish the trilogy, in 2012 his documentary film Polluting Paradise was screened in the Special Screenings section at the 2012 Cannes Film Festival. His 2014 film The Cut has been selected to compete for the Golden Lion at the 71st Venice International Film Festival, in Akins cinema, the lives of German Turks are a recurring theme, such as their struggles and their confusion about two different cultures. In Head-On, two different cultures are presented, the conservative Muslim and Turkish view of Sibels family, cahit is presented to be somewhat a mixture of these two ideas and cultures, representing a struggling Turk. Akin, on the hand, has never denied his Turkish roots. Akin defended the T-shirt as more than mere provocation and emphasized, I think that under Bush, Hollywood has been making certain films at the request of The Pentagon to normalise things like torture and Guantanamo. Im convinced the Bush administration wants a world war. Barbara Kosta, Transcultural Exchanges, Fatih Akins Crossing the Bridge, The Sound of Istanbul, in Martinson, Steven D.
/ Schulz, Renate A. com
Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a federal parliamentary republic in central-western Europe. It includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,021 square kilometres, with about 82 million inhabitants, Germany is the most populous member state of the European Union. After the United States, it is the second most popular destination in the world. Germanys capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while its largest conurbation is the Ruhr, other major cities include Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf and Leipzig. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity, a region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period the Germanic tribes expanded southward, beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation, in 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire.
After World War I and the German Revolution of 1918–1919, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic, the establishment of the national socialist dictatorship in 1933 led to World War II and the Holocaust. After a period of Allied occupation, two German states were founded, the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic, in 1990, the country was reunified. In the 21st century, Germany is a power and has the worlds fourth-largest economy by nominal GDP. As a global leader in industrial and technological sectors, it is both the worlds third-largest exporter and importer of goods. Germany is a country with a very high standard of living sustained by a skilled. It upholds a social security and universal health system, environmental protection. Germany was a member of the European Economic Community in 1957. It is part of the Schengen Area, and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999, Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G8, the G20, and the OECD.
The national military expenditure is the 9th highest in the world, the English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz popular, derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- people, the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a mine in Schöningen where three 380, 000-year-old wooden javelins were unearthed