Oxford Road, Hong Kong
Oxford Road is a two-way street in Kowloon Tsai, Kowloon City District, Hong Kong. Completed in mid-1950s, Oxford Road was named after Oxford, England as one of the Kowloon Tong streets which were all named after places in Britain when the first British settlers arrived in Kowloon. Oxford, being a heritage-rich city in England, was chosen as the first name of all the Kowloon Tong streets. Oxford Road runs from Oxford Road Playground to Hereford Road near Sunderland Estate. Succeeding Flint Road at a roundabout near Ho Tung Road, Oxford Road runs northward in a divided dual-carriageway until it meets Lancashire Road near Lannox Gardens. Crossing the junction, Oxford Road merges into a two-way street, it meets Moray Road, Selkirk Road and Hampshire Road on the west side and intersects with Durham Road near Kowloon Tsai House tennis court. After Durham Road, Oxford Road meets Wiltshire Road on the west and terminates at Hereford Road near Sunderland Estate and Mary Rose School. Oxford Road is home to many schools such as, beginning from Oxford Road Playground, Maryknoll Convent School, Caritas Francis Hsu College, Creative Primary School, TWGHs Wong Fut Nam College, Jockey Club Government Secondary School, Kei Wa Primary School and Bishop Hall Jubilee School, together with Ying Wa College and Pui Shing Middle School.
List of streets and roads in Hong Kong
Traditional Chinese characters
Traditional Chinese characters are Chinese characters in any character set that does not contain newly created characters or character substitutions performed after 1946. They are most the characters in the standardized character sets of Taiwan, of Hong Kong and Macau, in the Kangxi Dictionary; the modern shapes of traditional Chinese characters first appeared with the emergence of the clerical script during the Han Dynasty, have been more or less stable since the 5th century. The retronym "traditional Chinese" is used to contrast traditional characters with Simplified Chinese characters, a standardized character set introduced by the government of the People's Republic of China on Mainland China in the 1950s. Traditional Chinese characters are used in Taiwan, Hong Kong, Macau. In contrast, Simplified Chinese characters are used in mainland China and Malaysia in official publications. However, several countries – such as Australia, the US and Canada – are increasing their number of printed materials in Simplified Chinese, to better accommodate citizens from mainland China.
The debate on traditional and simplified Chinese characters has been a long-running issue among Chinese communities. A large number of overseas Chinese online newspapers allow users to switch between both character sets. Although simplified characters are taught and endorsed by the government of China, there is no prohibition against the use of traditional characters. Traditional characters are used informally in regions in China in handwriting and used for inscriptions and religious text, they are retained in logos or graphics to evoke yesteryear. Nonetheless, the vast majority of media and communications in China is dominated by simplified characters. In Hong Kong and Macau, Traditional Chinese has been the legal written form since colonial times. In recent years, simplified Chinese characters in Hong Kong and Macau has appeared to accommodate Mainland Chinese tourists and immigrants; this has led to concerns by many residents to protect their local heritage. Taiwan has never adopted simplified characters.
The use of simplified characters in official documents is prohibited by the government of Taiwan. Simplified characters are understood to a certain extent by any educated Taiwanese, learning to read them takes little effort; some stroke simplifications that have been incorporated into Simplified Chinese are in common use in handwriting. For example, while the name of Taiwan is written as 臺灣, the semi-simplified name 台灣 is acceptable to write in official documents. In Southeast Asia, the Chinese Filipino community continues to be one of the most conservative regarding simplification. While major public universities are teaching simplified characters, many well-established Chinese schools still use traditional characters. Publications like the Chinese Commercial News, World News, United Daily News still use traditional characters. On the other hand, the Philippine Chinese Daily uses simplified. Aside from local newspapers, magazines from Hong Kong, such as the Yazhou Zhoukan, are found in some bookstores.
In case of film or television subtitles on DVD, the Chinese dub, used in Philippines is the same as the one used in Taiwan. This is because the DVDs belongs to DVD Region Code 3. Hence, most of the subtitles are in Traditional Characters. Overseas Chinese in the United States have long used traditional characters. A major influx of Chinese immigrants to the United States occurred during the latter half of the 19th century, before the standardization of simplified characters. Therefore, United States public notices and signage in Chinese are in Traditional Chinese. Traditional Chinese characters are called several different names within the Chinese-speaking world; the government of Taiwan calls traditional Chinese characters standard characters or orthodox characters. However, the same term is used outside Taiwan to distinguish standard and traditional characters from variant and idiomatic characters. In contrast, users of traditional characters outside Taiwan, such as those in Hong Kong and overseas Chinese communities, users of simplified Chinese characters, call them complex characters.
An informal name sometimes used by users of simplified characters is "old characters". Users of traditional characters sometimes refer them as "Full Chinese characters" to distinguish them from simplified Chinese characters; some traditional character users argue that traditional characters are the original form of the Chinese characters and cannot be called "complex". Simplified characters cannot be "standard" because they are not used in all Chinese-speaking regions. Conversely, supporters of simplified Chinese characters object to the description of traditional characters as "standard," since they view the new simplified characters as the contemporary standard used by the vast majority of Chinese speakers, they point out that traditional characters are not traditional as many Chinese characters have been made more elaborate over time. Some people refer to traditional characters as "proper characters" and modernized characters as "simplified-stroke characters" (sim
Mixed-sex education known as mixed-gender education, co-education or coeducation, is a system of education where males and females are educated together. Whereas single-sex education was more common up to the 19th century, mixed-sex education has since become standard in many cultures in Western countries. Single-sex education, remains prevalent in many Muslim countries; the relative merits of both systems have been the subject of debate. The world's oldest co-educational day and boarding school is Dollar Academy, a junior and senior school for males and females from ages 5 to 18 in Scotland, United Kingdom. From its opening in 1818 the school admitted both boys and girls of the parish of Dollar and the surrounding area; the school continues in existence to the present day with around 1,250 pupils. The first co-educational college to be founded was Oberlin Collegiate Institute in Ohio, it opened on December 3, 1833, including 29 men and 15 women. Equal status for women did not arrive until 1837, the first three women to graduate with bachelor's degrees did so in 1840.
By the late 20th century, many institutions of higher learning, for people of one sex had become coeducational. In early civilizations, people were educated informally: within the household; as time progressed, education became more formal. Women had few rights when education started to become a more important aspect of civilization. Efforts of the ancient Greek and Chinese societies focused on the education of males. In ancient Rome, the availability of education was extended to women, but they were taught separately from men; the early Christians and medieval Europeans continued this trend, single-sex schools for the privileged classes prevailed through the Reformation period. In the 16th century, at the Council of Trent, the Roman Catholic church reinforced the establishment of free elementary schools for children of all classes; the concept of universal elementary education, regardless of sex, had been created. After the Reformation, coeducation was introduced in western Europe, when certain Protestant groups urged that boys and girls should be taught to read the Bible.
The practice became popular in northern England and colonial New England, where young children, both male and female, attended dame schools. In the late 18th century, girls were admitted to town schools; the Society of Friends in England, as well as in the United States, pioneered coeducation as they did universal education, in Quaker settlements in the British colonies and girls attended school together. The new free public elementary, or common schools, which after the American Revolution supplanted church institutions, were always coeducational, by 1900 most public high schools were coeducational as well. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, coeducation grew much more accepted. In Great Britain and the Soviet Union, the education of girls and boys in the same classes became an approved practice. In Australia there is a trend towards increased coeducational schooling with new coeducational schools opening, few new single sex schools opening and existing single sex schools combining or opening their doors to the opposite gender.
The first mixed-sex institution of higher learning in China was the Nanjing Higher Normal Institute, renamed National Central University and Nanjing University. For millennia in China, public schools public higher learning schools, were for men. Only schools established by zongzu were for both male and female students; some schools such as Li Zhi's school in Ming Dynasty and Yuan Mei's school in Qing Dynasty enrolled both male and female students. In the 1910s women's universities were established such as Ginling Women's University and Peking Girls' Higher Normal School, but there were no coeducation in higher learning schools. Tao Xingzhi, the Chinese advocator of mixed-sex education, proposed The Audit Law for Women Students at the meeting of Nanjing Higher Normal School held on December seventh, 1919, he proposed that the university recruit female students. The idea was supported by the president Guo Bingwen, academic director Liu Boming, such famous professors as Lu Zhiwei and Yang Xingfo, but opposed by many famous men of the time.
The meeting decided to recruit women students next year. Nanjing Higher Normal School enrolled eight Chinese female students in 1920. In the same year Peking University began to allow women students to audit classes. One of the most notable female students of that time was Jianxiong Wu. In 1949, the People's Republic of China was founded; the Chinese government has provided more equal opportunities for education since and all schools and universities have become mixed-sex. In recent years, many female and/or single-sex schools have again emerged for special vocational training needs but equal rights for education still apply to all citizens. In China Muslim Hui and Muslim Salars are against coeducation, due to Islam, Uyghurs are the only Muslims in China that do not mind coeducation and practice it. Admission to the Sorbonne was opened to girls in 1860; the baccalaureat became gender-blind in 1924, giving equal chances to all girls in applying to any universities. Mixed-sex education became mandatory for primary schools in 1957 and for all universities in 1975.
St. Paul's Co-educational College was the first mixed-sex secondary school in Hong Kong, it was founded in 1915 as St. Paul's Girls' College. At the end of World War II it was temporarily merged with St. Paul's College, a boys' school; when classes at the campus of St. Paul'
Kowloon Tong is an area of Hong Kong located in Kowloon West. The majority of the area is in the Kowloon City District, it is located south of north of Boundary Street. It is popular among Hong Kong's upper class because of its schools and architecture. In addition, this area is noted for its love hotels and nursing homes. Within Kowloon West, it is administratively divided between Kowloon City District and Sham Shui Po District. Notable landmarks in Kowloon Tong include: Beacon Hill — a hill with a height of 457 m, several residential developments. Festival Walk — a large shopping centre operated by Swire Group and CITIC, now owned by Maple Tree. Broadcast Drive — a road where all of Hong Kong's free-to-air TV stations, Hong Kong's oldest radio station, Commercial Radio Hong Kong are headquartered. Kowloon Tong was a small village located in present-day Police Sport Association near Boundary Street, south of Woh Chai Hill; the area allowed cultivation based on rivers running down from Beacon Hill.
In the 1920s, the Hong Kong Government developed the area of east of Kowloon Tong and Kowloon Tsai on both sides of Kowloon–Canton Railway into a low density residential area. The residential area is thus known as Kowloon Tong; the area's roads and streets are named after counties in England. It was the home of a large number of wealthy English businessmen; the name of Kowloon Tsai is preserved in the hill west of the former village of Kowloon Tsai. Kowloon Tong is notoriously remembered as the site of martial artist Bruce Lee's death on Friday, July 20, 1973; the two biggest radio companies in Hong Kong, Commercial Radio Hong Kong and Radio Television Hong Kong, are both located in Broadcast Drive, Kowloon Tong. Minibus route 29A serves Broadcast Drive from MTR Kowloon Tong Station; the Hong Kong Baptist University and the City University of Hong Kong are located in Kowloon Tong. Many leading local English medium of instruction primary and secondary schools on the Kowloon peninsula are located in the area, including Kowloon True Light Middle School, Kowloon Tong School, Maryknoll Convent School, La Salle College and the Beacon Hill School.
Other well known international schools in the area include the American International School, Yew Chung International School, Concordia International School, Australian International School, the Delia School of Canada. Kowloon Tong is served by the MTR's East Rail Kwun Tong Line at Kowloon Tong Station. Passengers may change here between the two lines; the stretch of Waterloo Road through Kowloon Tong forms part of Hong Kong's Route 1. It leads into the Lion Rock Tunnel, as such serves as an important artery for traffic heading into and out of the New Territories. Yau Ma Tei is accessible via Waterloo Road. Streets in Kowloon Tong include: Boundary Street in Kowloon Tong Waterloo Road in Kowloon Tong York Road One Beacon Hill Parc Oasis Village Gardens KindergartenKentville Kindergarten St. Nicolas English Kindergarten York International Kindergarten Tutor Time International Nursery & Kindergarten SDM-Chatsworth International KindergartenInternational schoolsAmerican International School Australian International School Hong Kong Yew Chung International SchoolPrimary schoolsAlliance Primary School, Kowloon Tong Kowloon Tong Government Primary School Kowloon Tong School Secondary schoolsHoly Family Canossian School Kowloon True Light Middle School Kowloon Tong School United Christian College Kowloon Tsai Kowloon City Mong Kok Media related to Kowloon Tong at Wikimedia Commons List of buildings and areas in Hong Kong
Education in Hong Kong
Education in Hong Kong is modelled on that of the United Kingdom the English system. It is overseen by the Social Welfare Department. In the 2013/14 school year, there are 569 primary schools, 514 secondary day schools and 61 special schools; the academic year begins mid-year starting in September. Small village Chinese schools were observed by the British missionaries when they arrived circa 1843. Anthony Sweeting believes those small village schools existed in Chek Chue, Shek Pai Wan, Heung Kong Tsai and Wong Nai Chong on Hong Kong Island, although proof is no longer available. One of the earliest schools with reliable records was Li Ying College established in 1075 in present-day New Territories. By 1860 Hong Kong had 20 village schools. Chinese who were wealthy did not educate their children in Hong Kong, but instead sent them to major Chinese cities, such as Canton, for traditional Chinese education; the changes came with the arrival of the British in 1841. At first Hong Kong's education came from Protestant and Catholic missionaries who provided social services.
Italian missionaries began to provide boy-only education to British and Chinese youth in 1843. By 1861 Frederick Stewart became "The Founder of Hong Kong Education" for integrating a modern western-style education model into the Colonial Hong Kong school system. In 1862, the first government school, Queen's College was set up, with Stewart serving as the first Headmaster. One of the much contested debates was whether schools should offer Vernacular education, teaching in Chinese. Education was considered a luxury for the rich; the first school to open the floodgate of western medical practice into East Asia was the Hong Kong College of Medicine for Chinese. The London Missionary Society and Sir James Cantlie started the Hong Kong College of Medicine for Chinese in 1887. In addition, the London Missionary Society founded Ying Wa Girls' School in 1900. Belilios Public School was a girls' secondary school founded in 1890 – the first government school in Hong Kong that provided bilingual education in English and Chinese.
The push for Chinese education in a British system did not begin until the rise of social awareness of the Chinese community following the 1919 May Fourth Movement and 1934 New Life Movement in China. Educating the poor did not become a priority until they accounted for the majority of the population. Financial issues were addressed in the 1970s. A small group of South Asian Hongkongers marched through Central demanding more schooling in the English language on 3 June 2007. Pre-school education in Hong Kong is not free and fees are payable by pupils' parents. However, parents whose children have the right of abode in Hong Kong can pay for part of their fees with a voucher from the government under the Pre-primary Education Voucher Scheme. In 2013, the amount of subsidy under the PEVS is $16,800; every child in Hong Kong, without any reasonable excuse, is required by law to attend a primary school after the child has attained the age of 6. It is required to attend a secondary school after primary education and is completed before he/she attains the age of 19.
However, a child who has completed Form 3 of secondary education and whose parent can produce evidence to the satisfaction of the Permanent Secretary for Education, shall not apply. Education in the public sector is free. Secondary education is separated into senior years. In junior years, the curriculum is a broad one where history and science are studied alongside subjects that have been studied at primary schools. In senior years, this becomes more selective and students have a choice over what and how much is to be studied. All schools but PLK Vicwood KT Chong Sixth Form College and its feeder junior secondary college have both sessions. Commerce stream in secondary schools are considered vocational in nature. Students in the Commerce stream would enter the workplace to gain practical work experience by this point. Further education pursuit in Hong Kong Institute of Vocational Education or universities abroad are common; the Manpower Development Committee advises the government on co-ordination and promotion of the sector.
In addition, the Vocational Training Council ensures the level of standard is met through the "Apprentice Ordinance". The VTC operate three skills-centres for people with disabilities. Secondary schools in Hong Kong are going to be cut down to only two years due to the switch in the government. International institutions provide both secondary education in Hong Kong. International institutions like schools within the English Schools Foundation, Li Po Chun United World College, Hong Kong International School, American International School Hong Kong, Chinese International School, Victoria Shanghai Academy German Swiss International School, Canadian International School, Hong Kong Japanese School, French International School, Yew Chung International School, Po Leung Kuk Choi Kai Yau School, Singapore International School and Harrow International School Hong Kong teach with English as the primary language, with some sections bilingual in German and Chinese. International school students take Hong Kong public exams.
British students take GCSE, IGCSE and after, the International Baccalaureate. US students take APs. There is a tendency of international schools to stop taking the IGCSE and follow the International Baccalaureate for their Middle Years Programme called MYP. International school students enter universities through non-JUPAS direct entry. International students apply on a per school
Vancouver is a coastal seaport city in western Canada, located in the Lower Mainland region of British Columbia. As the most populous city in the province, the 2016 census recorded 631,486 people in the city, up from 603,502 in 2011; the Greater Vancouver area had a population of 2,463,431 in 2016, making it the third-largest metropolitan area in Canada. Vancouver has the highest population density in Canada with over 5,400 people per square kilometre, which makes it the fifth-most densely populated city with over 250,000 residents in North America behind New York City, San Francisco, Mexico City according to the 2011 census. Vancouver is one of the most ethnically and linguistically diverse cities in Canada according to that census. 30% of the city's inhabitants are of Chinese heritage. Vancouver is classed as a Beta global city. Vancouver is named as one of the top five worldwide cities for livability and quality of life, the Economist Intelligence Unit acknowledged it as the first city ranked among the top-ten of the world's most well-living cities for five consecutive years.
Vancouver has hosted many international conferences and events, including the 1954 British Empire and Commonwealth Games, UN Habitat I, Expo 86, the World Police and Fire Games in 1989 and 2009. In 2014, following thirty years in California, the TED conference made Vancouver its indefinite home. Several matches of the 2015 FIFA Women's World Cup were played in Vancouver, including the final at BC Place; the original settlement, named Gastown, grew up on clearcuts on the west edge of the Hastings Mill logging sawmill's property, where a makeshift tavern had been set up on a plank between two stumps and the proprietor, Gassy Jack, persuaded the curious millworkers to build him a tavern, on July 1, 1867. From that first enterprise, other stores and some hotels appeared along the waterfront to the west. Gastown became formally laid out as a registered townsite dubbed Granville, B. I.. As part of the land and political deal whereby the area of the townsite was made the railhead of the Canadian Pacific Railway, it was renamed "Vancouver" and incorporated shortly thereafter as a city, in 1886.
By 1887, the Canadian Pacific transcontinental railway was extended westward to the city to take advantage of its large natural seaport to the Pacific Ocean, which soon became a vital link in a trade route between the Orient / East Asia, Eastern Canada, Europe. As of 2014, Port Metro Vancouver is the third-largest port by tonnage in the Americas, 27th in the world, the busiest and largest in Canada, the most diversified port in North America. While forestry remains its largest industry, Vancouver is well known as an urban centre surrounded by nature, making tourism its second-largest industry. Major film production studios in Vancouver and nearby Burnaby have turned Greater Vancouver and nearby areas into one of the largest film production centres in North America, earning it the nickname "Hollywood North"; the city takes its name from George Vancouver, who explored the inner harbour of Burrard Inlet in 1792 and gave various places British names. The family name "Vancouver" itself originates from the Dutch "Van Coevorden", denoting somebody from the city of Coevorden, Netherlands.
The explorer's ancestors came to England "from Coevorden", the origin of the name that became "Vancouver". Archaeological records indicate that Aboriginal people were living in the "Vancouver" area from 8,000 to 10,000 years ago; the city is located in the traditional and presently unceded territories of the Squamish and Tseil-Waututh peoples of the Coast Salish group. They had villages in various parts of present-day Vancouver, such as Stanley Park, False Creek, Point Grey and near the mouth of the Fraser River. Europeans became acquainted with the area of the future Vancouver when José María Narváez of Spain explored the coast of present-day Point Grey and parts of Burrard Inlet in 1791—although one author contends that Francis Drake may have visited the area in 1579; the explorer and North West Company trader Simon Fraser and his crew became the first-known Europeans to set foot on the site of the present-day city. In 1808, they travelled from the east down the Fraser River as far as Point Grey.
The Fraser Gold Rush of 1858 brought over 25,000 men from California, to nearby New Westminster on the Fraser River, on their way to the Fraser Canyon, bypassing what would become Vancouver. Vancouver is among British Columbia's youngest cities. A sawmill established at Moodyville in 1863, began the city's long relationship with logging, it was followed by mills owned by Captain Edward Stamp on the south shore of the inlet. Stamp, who had begun logging in the Port Alberni area, first attempted to run a mill at Brockton Point, but difficult currents and reefs forced the relocation of the operation in 1867 to a point near the foot of Dunlevy Street; this mill, known as the Hastings Mill, became the nucleus. The mill's central role in the city waned after the arrival of the Canadian Pacific Railway in the 1880s, it remained important to the local economy until it closed in the 1920s. The settlement which came to be called Gastown grew around