Nabeul Governorate is one of the 24 governorates of Tunisia. It is situated in north-eastern Tunisia, it covers an area of 2,788 km² and has a population of 787,920. The capital is Nabeul. Nabeul is surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea, except the south west side where it is delimited by the three governorates Zaghouan and Ben Arous. Nabeul, the main city of the governorate, was founded in the 5th century BC by the Greeks of Cyrene, serving as a trade port, its name is an Arabised form of the Greek Neapolis'new city'. Nabeul has an arid climate with steppe precipitation and hot arid temperature
Gulf of Tunis
The Gulf of Tunis is a large Mediterranean bay in north-eastern Tunisia, extending for 39 miles from Cape Farina in the west to Cape Bon in the east. Tunis, the capital city of Tunisia, lies at the south-western edge of the Gulf, as have a series of settled places over the last three millennia. Djebel Ressas rises to 795 metres around 15 kilometres south of the southern edge of the Gulf; the central part of the gulf, corresponding to the city of Tunis, which benefits of a well protected area, is favorable to the implementation of an important commercial port. The famous city of Carthage was built on the gulf shores and now the area is dominated by the Tunisian capital Tunis
Kasserine Governorate, sometimes spelt Casrein, is one of the twenty-four governorates of Tunisia. It is in west-central Tunisia on the frontier with Algeria, wholly north of the true centre line but the area is south or west of the bulk of the population of the country, based on Tunisia's greater northern rainfall, it covers an area of 8,260 km² and has a population of 459,232. The capital is Kasserine, at the foot of Jebel ech Chambi, Tunisia's highest mountain, in turn part of the Dorsal Atlas mountains; the mountain and its associated escarpment form its own national park in the province. In Kasserine Governorate exists two of the most famous Roman sites in Tunisia, which are Sbeitla and Haidra; the Triumphal Arch of the Tetrarchy at the entrance to Sbeitla commemorates the four emperors that governed the empire in the year 300, just before the rule of Constantine I. Below the list of governors of Kasserine since its creation: Kasserine Governorate's most popular sport clubs are the Union Sportif of Sbeitla and AS Kasserine
Tataouine Governorate is the southernmost of the twenty-four governorates of Tunisia, the only one to border Algeria and Libya. It is the largest in covering an area of 38,889 km² and has a population of 149,453, nearly tied for second least-populated with Kebili after Tozeur; the capital is Tataouine. This is where George Lucas filmed part of Star Wars, a homophone of the city was chosen to be the home planet of the protagonist's family. Wells from aquifers dot the eastern slopes of the pronounced long escarpment climbing from 100 m to 500 m in elevation two provinces north in the south extreme of Gabes Governorate, passing through a thin strip of Medenine and at the heart of the province ending around a capital city Tripoli, Libya; the ridge attracts variable winter and early spring relief precipitation and little other rain and shares with the rest of the area a hot desert climate with long hot summers throughout, the patchy and infrequent rainfall in winter is greater than the average for the Sahara Desert of which the area forms part.
Half of the escarpment exceeds 500 m in the province, the peak within Tunisia being 631 m near the town of Remada on the main road south of Tatouine leading into mid-eastern Libya. The tripoint of the three countries is close to the Libyan town of Ghadames which has surrounding it three airstrips, one of which constitutes an airport and one of which lies in Algeria. Close to the west or south-west border is El Borma Airport and the province has a second, for defence and rescue, Remada Air Base; the Tataouine Governorate is further divided into 64 sectors. The delegations with populations from the 2004 and 2014 censuses, are listed below: Five municipalities are in Tataouine Governorate: | 5311 || Tataouine || align=right | 66,924 |- | 5312 || Bir Lahmar || align=right | 7,955 |- | 5313 || Ghomrassen || align=right | 9,568 |- | 5314 || Dehiba || align=right | 4,295 |- | 5315 || Remada || align=right | 6,289
A souq or souk is a marketplace or commercial quarter in Western Asian, North African and some Horn African cities. The term souq goes by many alternatives in different parts of the world; the equivalent Persian term is "bazaar". In general a souq is synonymous with a bazaar or marketplace, the term souq is used in Arabic-speaking countries. Evidence for the existence of souqs dates to the 6th century BCE. Souqs were located outside city walls, but as cities became more populated, souqs were moved to the city centre and became covered walkways. Detailed analysis of the evolution of souqs is scant due to the lack of archaeological evidence. In the 18th and 19th centuries, Western interest in Oriental culture led to the publication of many books about daily life in Middle Eastern countries. Souqs and the trappings of trade feature prominently in paintings and engravings, works of fiction and travel writing. Shopping at souq or bazaar is a standard part of daily life throughout the Middle East. Today, souqs tend to be found in a city's medina and are important tourist attractions.
The Arabic word is a loan from Aramaic "šūqā", itself a loanword from the Akkadian "sūqu". The spelling souk entered European languages through French during the French occupation of the Arab countries Morocco and Tunisia in the 19th and 20th centuries. Thus, the word "souq" most refers to Arabic/North African traditional markets. Other spellings of this word involving the letter "Q" were developed using English and thus refer to Western Asian/Arab traditional markets, as British colonialism was present there during the 19th and 20th centuries. In Modern Standard Arabic the term al-sooq refers to markets in both the physical sense and the abstract economic sense. In northern Morocco, the Spanish corruption socco is used as in the Grand Socco and Petit Socco of Tangiers. In the sub-continent, a different corruption,'chowk', is used in place of souq; the term is used generically to designate the market in any Western Asian city, but may be used in Western cities those with a Muslim community. Documentary sources point to permanent marketplaces in Middle Eastern cities from as early as 550 BCE.
A souq was an open-air marketplace. Souqs were held outside cities at locations where incoming caravans stopped and merchants displayed their goods for sale. Souqs were established at caravanserai, places where a caravan or caravans arrived and remained for rest and refreshments. Since this might be infrequent, souqs extended beyond buying and selling goods to include major festivals involving various cultural and social activities. Any souq may serve a social function as being a place for people to meet in, in addition to its commercial function; these souqs or bazaars formed networks, linking major cities with each other in which goods, culture and information could be exchanged. From around the 10th century, as major cities increased in size, the souq or marketplace shifted to the center of urban cities where it spread out along the city streets in a linear pattern. Around this time, permanent souqs became covered marketplaces. In tribal areas, where seasonal souks operated, neutrality from tribal conflicts was declared for the period of operation of a souq to permit the unhampered exchange of surplus goods.
Some of the seasonal markets were held at specific times of the year and became associated with particular types of produce such as Suq Hijr in Bahrain, noted for its dates while Suq'Adan was known for its spices and perfumes. In spite of the centrality of the Middle Eastern market place little is known due to the lack of archaeological evidence. Souqs A temporary, seasonal souq is held at a set time that might be yearly, monthly or weekly; the oldest souqs were set up annually, were general festivals held outside cities. For example, Souq Ukadh was held yearly in pre-Islamic times in an area between Mecca and Ta’if during the sacred month of Dhu al-Qi'dah. While a busy market, it was more famous for its poetry competitions, judged by prominent poets such as Al-Khansa and Al-Nabigha. An example of an Islamic annual souq is Al Mirbid just outside Basra famed for its poetry competitions in addition to its storytelling activities. Temporary souqs tended to become known for specific types of produce.
For example, Suq Hijr in Bahrain was noted for its dates while Suq'Adan was known for its spices and perfumes. Political and social changes have left only the small seasonal souqs outside villages and small towns selling livestock and agricultural products. Weekly markets have continued to function throughout the Arab world. Most of them are named from the day of the week on which they are held, they have open spaces designated for their use inside cities. Examples of surviving markets are the Wednesday Market in Amman that specializes in the sale of used products, the Ghazl market held every Friday in Baghdad specializing in pets. Permanent souqs are more occurring, but less
Tunisia is a country in the Maghreb region of North Africa, covering 163,610 square kilometres. Its northernmost point, Cape Angela, is the northernmost point on the African continent, it is bordered by Algeria to the west and southwest, Libya to the southeast, the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east. Tunisia's population was 11.435 million in 2017. Tunisia's name is derived from its capital city, located on its northeast coast. Geographically, Tunisia contains the eastern end of the Atlas Mountains, the northern reaches of the Sahara desert. Much of the rest of the country's land is fertile soil, its 1,300 kilometres of coastline include the African conjunction of the western and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Basin and, by means of the Sicilian Strait and Sardinian Channel, feature the African mainland's second and third nearest points to Europe after Gibraltar. Tunisia is a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic, it is considered to be the only democratic sovereign state in the Arab world.
It has a high human development index. It has an association agreement with the European Union. In addition, Tunisia is a member state of the United Nations and a state party to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. Close relations with Europe – in particular with France and with Italy – have been forged through economic cooperation and industrial modernization. In ancient times, Tunisia was inhabited by Berbers. Phoenician immigration began in the 12th century BC. A major mercantile power and a military rival of the Roman Republic, Carthage was defeated by the Romans in 146 BC; the Romans, who would occupy Tunisia for most of the next eight hundred years, introduced Christianity and left architectural legacies like the El Djem amphitheater. After several attempts starting in 647, the Muslims conquered the whole of Tunisia by 697, followed by the Ottoman Empire between 1534 and 1574; the Ottomans held sway for over three hundred years. The French colonization of Tunisia occurred in 1881.
Tunisia gained independence with Habib Bourguiba and declared the Tunisian Republic in 1957. In 2011, the Tunisian Revolution resulted in the overthrow of President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, followed by parliamentary elections; the country voted for parliament again on 26 October 2014, for President on 23 November 2014. The word Tunisia is derived from Tunis; the present form of the name, with its Latinate suffix -ia, evolved from French Tunisie. in turn associated with the Berber root ⵜⵏⵙ, transcribed tns, which means "to lay down" or "encampment". It is sometimes associated with the Punic goddess Tanith, ancient city of Tynes; the French derivative Tunisie was adopted in some European languages with slight modifications, introducing a distinctive name to designate the country. Other languages remained untouched, such as Spanish Túnez. In this case, the same name is used for both country and city, as with the Arabic تونس, only by context can one tell the difference. Before Tunisia, the territory's name was Ifriqiya or Africa, which gave the present-day name of the continent Africa.
Farming methods reached the Nile Valley from the Fertile Crescent region about 5000 BC, spread to the Maghreb by about 4000 BC. Agricultural communities in the humid coastal plains of central Tunisia were ancestors of today's Berber tribes, it was believed in ancient times that Africa was populated by Gaetulians and Libyans, both nomadic peoples. According to the Roman historian Sallust, the demigod Hercules died in Spain and his polyglot eastern army was left to settle the land, with some migrating to Africa. Persians became the Numidians; the Medes settled and were known as Mauri Moors. The Numidians and Moors belonged to the race from; the translated meaning of Numidian is Nomad and indeed the people were semi-nomadic until the reign of Masinissa of the Massyli tribe. At the beginning of recorded history, Tunisia was inhabited by Berber tribes, its coast was settled by Phoenicians starting as early as the 12th century BC. The city of Carthage was founded in the 9th century BC by Phoenicians. Legend says that Dido from Tyre, now in modern-day Lebanon, founded the city in 814 BC, as retold by the Greek writer Timaeus of Tauromenium.
The settlers of Carthage brought their culture and religion from Phoenicia, now present-day Lebanon and adjacent areas. After the series of wars with Greek city-states of Sicily in the 5th century BC, Carthage rose to power and became the dominant civilization in the Western Mediterranean; the people of Carthage worshipped a pantheon of Middle Eastern gods including Tanit. Tanit's symbol, a simple female figure with extended arms and long dress, is a popular icon found in ancient sites; the founders of Carthage established a Tophet, altered in Roman times. A Carthaginian invasion of Italy led by Hannibal during the Second Punic War, one of a series of wars with Rome, nearly crippled the rise of Roman power. From the conclusion of the Second Punic War in 202 BC, Carthage functioned as a client state of the Roman Republic for another 50 years. F
Carthage is a commune in Tunis Governorate, Tunisia. It is named for, includes in its area, the archaeological site of Carthage. Established in 1919, Carthage municipality is some 15 km to the east-northeast of Tunis, situated between the towns of Sidi Bou Said to the north and Le Kram to the south, it is reached from Tunis by the R23 road via La Goulette, or by the N9 road via Tunis-Carthage Airport. The population as of January 2013 was estimated at 21,276 attracting the more wealthy residents; the Carthage Palace is located on the coast. Carthage has six train stations of the TGM line between Le Kram and Sidi Bou Said: Carthage Salammbo, Carthage Byrsa, Carthage Dermech, Carthage Hannibal, Carthage Présidence and Carthage Amilcar. Roman Carthage was destroyed following the Muslim invasion of 698, it remained undeveloped for more than a thousand years, until the establishment of the French protectorate of Tunisia in 1881; the cathedral of St. Louis of Carthage was built on Byrsa hill in 1884.
In 1885, Pope Leo XIII acknowledged the revived Archdiocese of Carthage as the primatial see of Africa and Charles Lavigerie as primate. European-style villas were built along the beach beginning in 1906; the municipality was created by a decree of 15 June 1919. Construction on the Tunis-Carthage Airport, funded by France, began in 1944, in 1948 the airport become the main hub for Tunisair. In the 1950s the Lycée Français de Carthage was established to serve French families in Carthage. In 1961 it was given to the Tunisian government as part of the Independence of Tunisia, so the nearby Collège Maurice Cailloux in La Marsa an annex of the Lycée Français de Carthage, was renamed to the Lycée Français de La Marsa and began serving the lycée level, it is the Lycée Gustave Flaubert. After Tunisian independence in 1956, the Tunis conurbation extended around the airport, Carthage is now a suburb of Tunis. In February 1985, Ugo Vetere, the mayor of Rome, Chedly Klibi, the mayor of Carthage, signed a symbolic treaty "officially" ending the conflict between their cities, extended by the lack of a peace treaty for more than 2,100 years.
The office of mayor was held by Chedli Klibi from 1963 to 1990, by Fouad Mebazaa from 1995 to 1998 and by Sami Tarzi from 2003 to 2011, by Azedine Beschaouch from 2011. The monumental Malik ibn Anas mosque (also El Abidine mosque. Ancient Carthage Carthage History of Carthage