Tunisia is a country in the Maghreb region of North Africa, covering 163,610 square kilometres. Its northernmost point, Cape Angela, is the northernmost point on the African continent, it is bordered by Algeria to the west and southwest, Libya to the southeast, the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east. Tunisia's population was 11.435 million in 2017. Tunisia's name is derived from its capital city, located on its northeast coast. Geographically, Tunisia contains the eastern end of the Atlas Mountains, the northern reaches of the Sahara desert. Much of the rest of the country's land is fertile soil, its 1,300 kilometres of coastline include the African conjunction of the western and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Basin and, by means of the Sicilian Strait and Sardinian Channel, feature the African mainland's second and third nearest points to Europe after Gibraltar. Tunisia is a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic, it is considered to be the only democratic sovereign state in the Arab world.
It has a high human development index. It has an association agreement with the European Union. In addition, Tunisia is a member state of the United Nations and a state party to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. Close relations with Europe – in particular with France and with Italy – have been forged through economic cooperation and industrial modernization. In ancient times, Tunisia was inhabited by Berbers. Phoenician immigration began in the 12th century BC. A major mercantile power and a military rival of the Roman Republic, Carthage was defeated by the Romans in 146 BC; the Romans, who would occupy Tunisia for most of the next eight hundred years, introduced Christianity and left architectural legacies like the El Djem amphitheater. After several attempts starting in 647, the Muslims conquered the whole of Tunisia by 697, followed by the Ottoman Empire between 1534 and 1574; the Ottomans held sway for over three hundred years. The French colonization of Tunisia occurred in 1881.
Tunisia gained independence with Habib Bourguiba and declared the Tunisian Republic in 1957. In 2011, the Tunisian Revolution resulted in the overthrow of President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, followed by parliamentary elections; the country voted for parliament again on 26 October 2014, for President on 23 November 2014. The word Tunisia is derived from Tunis; the present form of the name, with its Latinate suffix -ia, evolved from French Tunisie. in turn associated with the Berber root ⵜⵏⵙ, transcribed tns, which means "to lay down" or "encampment". It is sometimes associated with the Punic goddess Tanith, ancient city of Tynes; the French derivative Tunisie was adopted in some European languages with slight modifications, introducing a distinctive name to designate the country. Other languages remained untouched, such as Spanish Túnez. In this case, the same name is used for both country and city, as with the Arabic تونس, only by context can one tell the difference. Before Tunisia, the territory's name was Ifriqiya or Africa, which gave the present-day name of the continent Africa.
Farming methods reached the Nile Valley from the Fertile Crescent region about 5000 BC, spread to the Maghreb by about 4000 BC. Agricultural communities in the humid coastal plains of central Tunisia were ancestors of today's Berber tribes, it was believed in ancient times that Africa was populated by Gaetulians and Libyans, both nomadic peoples. According to the Roman historian Sallust, the demigod Hercules died in Spain and his polyglot eastern army was left to settle the land, with some migrating to Africa. Persians became the Numidians; the Medes settled and were known as Mauri Moors. The Numidians and Moors belonged to the race from; the translated meaning of Numidian is Nomad and indeed the people were semi-nomadic until the reign of Masinissa of the Massyli tribe. At the beginning of recorded history, Tunisia was inhabited by Berber tribes, its coast was settled by Phoenicians starting as early as the 12th century BC. The city of Carthage was founded in the 9th century BC by Phoenicians. Legend says that Dido from Tyre, now in modern-day Lebanon, founded the city in 814 BC, as retold by the Greek writer Timaeus of Tauromenium.
The settlers of Carthage brought their culture and religion from Phoenicia, now present-day Lebanon and adjacent areas. After the series of wars with Greek city-states of Sicily in the 5th century BC, Carthage rose to power and became the dominant civilization in the Western Mediterranean; the people of Carthage worshipped a pantheon of Middle Eastern gods including Tanit. Tanit's symbol, a simple female figure with extended arms and long dress, is a popular icon found in ancient sites; the founders of Carthage established a Tophet, altered in Roman times. A Carthaginian invasion of Italy led by Hannibal during the Second Punic War, one of a series of wars with Rome, nearly crippled the rise of Roman power. From the conclusion of the Second Punic War in 202 BC, Carthage functioned as a client state of the Roman Republic for another 50 years. F
Guillermo Rigondeaux Ortiz is a Cuban professional boxer. He has held multiple super bantamweight world championships, including the lineal title since 2013, the unified WBA, WBO, Ring magazine titles between 2013 and 2017; as of March 2019, Rigondeaux is ranked as the world's best active super bantamweight by The Ring and the Transnational Boxing Rankings Board, the seventh best active featherweight by BoxRec. Possessing one of the greatest amateur records of all time, Rigondeaux won consecutive gold medals in the bantamweight division at the 2000 and 2004 Summer Olympics, he is a seven-time Cuban national champion at bantamweight, finishing his amateur career with a record of nearly 475 fights with 12 losses. After Rigondeaux's defection in 2009, he turned professional and remained undefeated for nine years. Rigondeaux has been lauded by boxing trainer Freddie Roach as being "probably the greatest talent I've seen." He is known for his exceptionally fast hand speed, punching power, counterpunching abilities, defensive elusiveness.
2000 Defeated Moez Zemzeni KO 1 Defeated Kazumasa Tsujimoto RSC 3 Defeated Agasi Agaguloglu 14-5 Defeated Clarence Vinson 18-6 Defeated Raimkul Malakhbekov 18-122004 Round of 32: Defeated Liu Yuan of China – PTS Round of 16: Defeated Mehar Ullah of Pakistan – RSC 3 Quarterfinals: Defeated Gennady Kovalev of Russia – PTS Semifinals: Defeated Bahodirjon Sooltonov of Uzbekistan – PTS Gold Medal Match: Defeated Worapoj Petchkoom of Thailand – PTS 2000 Cuban national amateur champion - bantamweight 2001 Cuban national amateur champion - bantamweight 2001 World amateur champion - bantamweight Defeated Kazumasa Tsujimoto RSC 2 Defeated Reidar Walstad RSC 2 Defeated Artur Mikaelian 24-8 Defeated Sergey Danilchenko 15-6 Defeated Aghasi Mammadov 30-24 2002 Cuban national amateur champion - bantamweight 2002 World Cup champion - bantamweight Defeated Justin Kane RSC 1 Defeated Keren Gurgen RSC 1 Defeated Chotipat Wongprates 13-2 Defeated Toljen Kanatov 7-6 2003 Cuban national amateur champion - bantamweight 2003 competed as a bantamweight at World championships in Bangkok, Thailand.
Results were: Defeated Andrzej Liczik 15-1 Lost to Aghasi Mammadov 13-16 2003 Bantamweight gold medalist at Pan-American games in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic Defeated Argenis Mendez 17-2 Defeated Alexander Espinoza RSC 2 Defeated Andrew Kooner 22-2 Defeated Abner Mares 17-7 2004 Cuban national amateur champion - bantamweight 2005 Cuban national amateur champion - bantamweight 2005 World amateur champion at bantamweight in competition held in Mianyang, PR China Defeated Vladislav Sokolov RTD 2 Defeated Ougonchulun Batkhuu RSC Defeated Bahodirjon Sooltonov RSC 3 Defeated Ali Hallab 37-23 Defeated Rustamhodza Rahimov 19-9 2005 Bantamweight gold medalist at World Cup in Moscow, Russia. Defeated Worapoj Petchkoom 34-16 Defeated Zsolt Bedák 28-11 Defeated Murat Aiyrmasov 34-7 Defeated Maksim Khalikov 37-21 2006 Cuban national amateur champion 2006 Bantamweight gold medalist at Central American Games in Cartagena, Colombia Defeated Juan Velasquez 10-1 Defeated Jhonatan Romero walk-over Defeated Arturo Santos Reyes 14-3 2006 Bantamweight gold medalist at Nations Cup in Baku, Azerbaijan Defeated Mirzhan Rakhimzhanov 28-10 Defeated Rau'shee Warren 21-17 Defeated Elshad Guliyev walk-over Defeated Ali Aliyev RSC 3 On July 22, 2007, Rigondeaux and teammate Erislandy Lara failed to appear for their scheduled bouts at the Pan American Games in Brazil.
It was announced that Rigondeaux was to turn professional, joining fellow 2004 Cuban Olympians Odlanier Solis, Yuriorkis Gamboa and Yan Barthelemy, who defected earlier in 2007. As with the other Cuban defectors, Rigondeaux signed a promotional deal with Ahmet Oener and ARENA Box-Promotion. However, on August 2, Rigondeaux and Lara were taken into police custody in Brazil, stating that they wanted to return home to Cuba. However, Cuban leader Fidel Castro stated that Rigondeaux and Lara could not box again for the Cuban team. In February 2009, Rigondeaux defected again via Mexico City to Miami, signed with Arena Box-Promotion. On February 23, 2009, Rigondeaux was announced to have defected along with 2004 Olympic Silver Medalist Yudel Johnson, Yordanis Despaigne and Yunier Dorticos, he would train in the same gym as Yuriorkis Gamboa, Erislandy Lara and Odlanier Solis and would continue his career as a professional once he completed all the residency requirements. He left behind a 7-year-old son and a 17-year-old stepson in Cuba.
He was reportedly staying in the home of countryman and featherweight contender Yuriorkis Gamboa. Rigondeaux won his professional debut on May 22 with a third-round TKO over Juan Noriega in Miami. Although he did not maintain a busy punch volume, Rigondeaux still landed hard shots. Noriega countered Rigondeaux's punches and the referee found the opportunity to stop the fight after Rigondeaux connected with a solid right to the head. On July 17 he won his second pro fight against Robert Guillen by first round knock out. Rigondeaux wasn't active but he hit Guillen with a great hard counter punch to the body which left him rolling on the canvas in pain. On September 18, Rigondeaux beat Giovanni Andrade by 3rd round TKO to win the
Australia the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area; the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north. The population of 25 million is urbanised and concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, its largest city is Sydney; the country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane and Adelaide. Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians for about 60,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, it is documented. After the European exploration of the continent by Dutch explorers in 1606, who named it New Holland, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain in 1770 and settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788, a date which became Australia's national day; the population grew in subsequent decades, by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored and an additional five self-governing crown colonies established.
On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy, comprising six states and ten territories. Being the oldest and driest inhabited continent, with the least fertile soils, Australia has a landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometres. A megadiverse country, its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east and mountain ranges in the south-east. A gold rush began in Australia in the early 1850s, its population density, 2.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, remains among the lowest in the world. Australia generates its income from various sources including mining-related exports, telecommunications and manufacturing. Indigenous Australian rock art is the oldest and richest in the world, dating as far back as 60,000 years and spread across hundreds of thousands of sites. Australia is a developed country, with the world's 14th-largest economy.
It has a high-income economy, with the world's tenth-highest per capita income. It is a regional power, has the world's 13th-highest military expenditure. Australia has the world's ninth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 26% of the population. Having the third-highest human development index and the eighth-highest ranked democracy globally, the country ranks in quality of life, education, economic freedom, civil liberties and political rights, with all its major cities faring well in global comparative livability surveys. Australia is a member of the United Nations, G20, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, World Trade Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Pacific Islands Forum and the ASEAN Plus Six mechanism; the name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis, a name used for a hypothetical continent in the Southern Hemisphere since ancient times. When Europeans first began visiting and mapping Australia in the 17th century, the name Terra Australis was applied to the new territories.
Until the early 19th century, Australia was best known as "New Holland", a name first applied by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1644 and subsequently anglicised. Terra Australis still saw occasional usage, such as in scientific texts; the name Australia was popularised by the explorer Matthew Flinders, who said it was "more agreeable to the ear, an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of the earth". The first time that Australia appears to have been used was in April 1817, when Governor Lachlan Macquarie acknowledged the receipt of Flinders' charts of Australia from Lord Bathurst. In December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office. In 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known by that name; the first official published use of the new name came with the publication in 1830 of The Australia Directory by the Hydrographic Office. Colloquial names for Australia include "Oz" and "the Land Down Under". Other epithets include "the Great Southern Land", "the Lucky Country", "the Sunburnt Country", "the Wide Brown Land".
The latter two both derive from Dorothea Mackellar's 1908 poem "My Country". Human habitation of the Australian continent is estimated to have begun around 65,000 to 70,000 years ago, with the migration of people by land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now Southeast Asia; these first inhabitants were the ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. Aboriginal Australian culture is one of the oldest continual civilisations on earth. At the time of first European contact, most Indigenous Australians were hunter-gatherers with complex economies and societies. Recent archaeological finds suggest. Indigenous Australians have an oral culture with spiritual values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the Dreamtime; the Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, obtained their livelihood from seasonal horticulture and the resources of their reefs and seas. The northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited s
Athletics at the 2000 Summer Olympics – Men's 400 metres
The Men's 400 metres event at the 2000 Summer Olympics as part of the athletics programme was held at Stadium Australia from 22 to 25 September 2000. The top three runners in each of the initial nine heats automatically qualified for the second round; the next five fastest runners from across the heats qualified. Those 32 runners competed in 4 heats in the second round, with the top fours runners from each heat qualifying for the semifinals. There were two semifinals, only the top four from each heat advanced to the final. All times shown are in seconds. Q denotes qualification by place in heat. Q denotes qualification by overall place. DNS denotes did not start. DNF denotes did not finish. DQ denotes disqualification. NR denotes national record. OR denotes Olympic record. WR denotes world record. PB denotes personal best. SB denotes season best. Overall Results Round 1 Overall Results Round 2 Overall Results Semi-Finals Source: Official Report of the 2000 Sydney Summer Olympics available at https://web.archive.org/web/20080522105330/http://www.la84foundation.org/5va/reports_frmst.htm
Boxing at the 2000 Summer Olympics
The boxing competition at the 2000 Summer Olympics in Sydney was held at the Sydney Convention and Exhibition Centre in Darling Harbour. The event was only open to men and bouts were contested over four rounds of two minutes each. Five judges scored the fighters in real time and the boxer with the most points at the end was the winner. Like other Olympic combat sports, two bronze medals are awarded; as a result, the quarter-final equates to a bronze medal match, a semi-final to a silver medal match, the final to a gold medal match. 48 medals are therefore available. Men competed in the following twelve events: Light flyweight Flyweight Bantamweight Featherweight Lightweight Light welterweight Welterweight Light middleweight Middleweight Light heavyweight Heavyweight Super heavyweight 310 boxers from 77 nations participated in the 2000 Summer Olympics. Official Olympic Report Official Results – Boxing Results on Amateur Boxing Archived 22 June 2006 at the Wayback Machine
Sydney is the state capital of New South Wales and the most populous city in Australia and Oceania. Located on Australia's east coast, the metropolis surrounds Port Jackson and extends about 70 km on its periphery towards the Blue Mountains to the west, Hawkesbury to the north, the Royal National Park to the south and Macarthur to the south-west. Sydney is made up of 40 local government areas and 15 contiguous regions. Residents of the city are known as "Sydneysiders"; as of June 2017, Sydney's estimated metropolitan population was 5,230,330 and is home to 65% of the state's population. Indigenous Australians have inhabited the Sydney area for at least 30,000 years, thousands of engravings remain throughout the region, making it one of the richest in Australia in terms of Aboriginal archaeological sites. During his first Pacific voyage in 1770, Lieutenant James Cook and his crew became the first Europeans to chart the eastern coast of Australia, making landfall at Botany Bay and inspiring British interest in the area.
In 1788, the First Fleet of convicts, led by Arthur Phillip, founded Sydney as a British penal colony, the first European settlement in Australia. Phillip named the city Sydney in recognition of 1st Viscount Sydney. Penal transportation to New South Wales ended soon after Sydney was incorporated as a city in 1842. A gold rush occurred in the colony in 1851, over the next century, Sydney transformed from a colonial outpost into a major global cultural and economic centre. After World War II, it experienced mass migration and became one of the most multicultural cities in the world. At the time of the 2011 census, more than 250 different languages were spoken in Sydney. In the 2016 Census, about 35.8% of residents spoke a language other than English at home. Furthermore, 45.4% of the population reported having been born overseas, making Sydney the 3rd largest foreign born population of any city in the world after London and New York City, respectively. Despite being one of the most expensive cities in the world, the 2018 Mercer Quality of Living Survey ranks Sydney tenth in the world in terms of quality of living, making it one of the most livable cities.
It is classified as an Alpha+ World City by Globalization and World Cities Research Network, indicating its influence in the region and throughout the world. Ranked eleventh in the world for economic opportunity, Sydney has an advanced market economy with strengths in finance and tourism. There is a significant concentration of foreign banks and multinational corporations in Sydney and the city is promoted as Australia's financial capital and one of Asia Pacific's leading financial hubs. Established in 1850, the University of Sydney is Australia's first university and is regarded as one of the world's leading universities. Sydney is home to the oldest library in Australia, State Library of New South Wales, opened in 1826. Sydney has hosted major international sporting events such as the 2000 Summer Olympics; the city is among the top fifteen most-visited cities in the world, with millions of tourists coming each year to see the city's landmarks. Boasting over 1,000,000 ha of nature reserves and parks, its notable natural features include Sydney Harbour, the Royal National Park, Royal Botanic Garden and Hyde Park, the oldest parkland in the country.
Built attractions such as the Sydney Harbour Bridge and the World Heritage-listed Sydney Opera House are well known to international visitors. The main passenger airport serving the metropolitan area is Kingsford-Smith Airport, one of the world's oldest continually operating airports. Established in 1906, Central station, the largest and busiest railway station in the state, is the main hub of the city's rail network; the first people to inhabit the area now known as Sydney were indigenous Australians having migrated from northern Australia and before that from southeast Asia. Radiocarbon dating suggests human activity first started to occur in the Sydney area from around 30,735 years ago. However, numerous Aboriginal stone tools were found in Western Sydney's gravel sediments that were dated from 45,000 to 50,000 years BP, which would indicate that there was human settlement in Sydney earlier than thought; the first meeting between the native people and the British occurred on 29 April 1770 when Lieutenant James Cook landed at Botany Bay on the Kurnell Peninsula and encountered the Gweagal clan.
He noted in his journal that they were somewhat hostile towards the foreign visitors. Cook was not commissioned to start a settlement, he spent a short time collecting food and conducting scientific observations before continuing further north along the east coast of Australia and claiming the new land he had discovered for Britain. Prior to the arrival of the British there were 4,000 to 8,000 native people in Sydney from as many as 29 different clans; the earliest British settlers called the natives Eora people. "Eora" is the term the indigenous population used to explain their origins upon first contact with the British. Its literal meaning is "from this place". Sydney Cove from Port Jackson to Petersham was inhabited by the Cadigal clan; the principal language groups were Darug and Dharawal. The earliest Europeans to visit the area noted that the indigenous people were conducting activities such as camping and fishing, using trees for bark and food, collecting shells, cooking fish. Britain—before that, England—and Ireland had for a long time been sending their convicts across the Atlantic to the American colonies.
That trade was ended with the Declaration of Independence by the United States in 1776. Britain decided in 1786 to found a new penal outpost in the territory discovered by Cook some 16 years ear
Tunisia at the 2016 Summer Olympics
Tunisia competed at the 2016 Summer Olympics in Rio de Janeiro, from 5 to 21 August 2016. Since the nation's official debut in 1960, Tunisian athletes have appeared in every edition of the Summer Olympic Games, except the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow because of the nation's partial support for the US-led boycott; the Tunisian Olympic Committee fielded a team of 61 athletes, 40 men and 21 women, to compete in 17 sports at the Games. It was the nation's second-largest delegation sent to the Olympics smaller by 22 athletes than in London four years earlier. Men's handball was the only team-based sport. Among the sports represented by the nation's athletes, Tunisia made its Olympic debut in beach volleyball, as well as returning to table tennis after a twelve-year absence; the Tunisian roster was highlighted by two accomplished Olympians from London 2012: long-distance swimmer Oussama Mellouli and steeplechaser Habiba Ghribi. At 32 years old and headed to his fifth Games, Mellouli emerged himself as Tunisia's most successful Olympian of all time, with three medals, the first swimmer to dominate at both the pool and open water in Olympic history.
Because of his successes, Mellouli was selected to carry the nation's flag at the opening ceremony. Meanwhile, Ghribi, a three-time Olympian, established a historic milestone for her country in London, when she became the first Tunisian woman to earn an Olympic medal. Apart from Mellouli and Ghribi, 18 Tunisian athletes competed in London, including fencing sisters Azza and Sarra Besbes, tennis players Malek Jaziri and Ons Jabeur, three-time Olympic judoka Nihal Chikhrouhou and Houda Miled, race walker Hassanine Sebei, freestyle wrestler Marwa Amri. Tunisia returned home from Rio de Janeiro with three bronze medals. Moreover, it matched the overall tally achieved in London four years earlier. Among the medalists were Amri, three-time Olympic fencer Inès Boubakri, taekwondo fighter Oussama Oueslati. Tunisian athletes have so far achieved qualifying standards in the following athletics events:Seven athletes were named to Tunisia's track and field team for the Games, with Habiba Ghribi looking to defend her Olympic title in the women's 3000 m steeplechase.
KeyNote–Ranks given for track events are within the athlete's heat only Q = Qualified for the next round q = Qualified for the next round as a fastest loser or, in field events, by position without achieving the qualifying target NR = National record N/A = Round not applicable for the event Bye = Athlete not required to compete in round Men Track & road eventsWomen Track & road events Tunisia has entered two boxers to compete in each of the following weight classes into the Olympic boxing tournament. Bilel Mhamdi and Hassen Chaktami had claimed their Olympic spots at the 2016 African Qualification Tournament in Yaoundé, Cameroon. Tunisia has qualified three boats for the following distances into the Olympic canoeing regatta through the 2016 African Sprint Qualifying Tournament. Qualification Legend: FA = Qualify to final. Tunisia has entered five fencers into the Olympic competition. Two-time Olympian Ines Boubakri had claimed a spot on the Tunisian team in the women's foil by finishing among the top 14 in the FIE Adjusted Official Rankings, while sisters Azza and Sarra Besbes and debutant Mohamed Ayoub Ferjani did the same feat as the highest-ranked fencer coming from the Africa zone.
Ferjani's brother Farès rounded out the Tunisian roster by virtue of a top finish in the men's sabre at the African Zonal Qualifier in Algiers, Algeria. SummaryKey: ET – After extra time P – Match decided by penalty-shootout. Tunisia men's handball team qualified for the Olympics by virtue of a top two finish at the first meet of the Olympic Qualification Tournament in Gdańsk. Team roster The following is the Tunisian roster in the men's handball tournament of the 2016 Summer Olympics. Head coach: Hafedh Zouabi Group play Tunisia has qualified a total of four judokas for the following weight classes at the Games. Hela Ayari, Faicel Jaballah, two-time Olympian Nihal Chikhrouhou were ranked among the top 22 eligible judokas for men and top 14 for women in the IJF World Ranking List of May 30, 2016, while Houda Miled at women's middleweight earned a continental quota spot from the African region, as the highest-ranked Tunisian judoka outside of direct qualifying position. Tunisia has qualified one boat each in the men's single sculls and the women's lightweight double sculls for the Games at the 2015 African Continental Qualification Regatta in Tunis.
Qualification Legend: FA=Final A. MenWomenMixedM = Medal race.