A beekeeper is a person who keeps honey bees. Honey bees produce commodities such as honey, pollen and royal jelly, while some beekeepers raise queens and other bees to sell to other farmers and to satisfy scientific curiosity. Beekeepers use honeybees to provide pollination services to fruit and vegetable growers. Many people keep bees as a hobby. Others do it as a sideline to other work or as a commercial operator; these factors affect the number of colonies maintained by the beekeeper. Beekeepers are called honey farmers, apiarists, or less apiculturists; the term beekeeper refers to a person who keeps honey bees in boxes, or other receptacles. Honey bees are not domesticated and the beekeeper does not control the creatures; the beekeeper owns associated equipment. The bees are free to leave as they desire. Bees return to the beekeeper's hive as the hive presents a clean, sheltered abode. Most beekeepers are hobby beekeepers; these people work or own only a few hives. Their main attraction is an interest in natural science.
Honey is a by-product of this hobby. As it requires a significant investment to establish a small apiary and dozens of hours of work with hives and honey equipment, hobby beekeeping is profitable outside of Europe, where the lack of organic bee products sometimes causes buoyant demand for produced honey. A sideline beekeeper relies on another source of income. Sideliners may operate up to as many as 300 colonies of bees, producing 10–20 metric tons of honey worth a few tens of thousands of dollars each year. Commercial beekeepers control thousands of colonies of bees; the most extensive own and operate up to 50,000 colonies of bees and produce millions of pounds of honey. The first major commercial beekeeper was most Petro Prokopovych of Ukraine, operating 6600 colonies in the early 19th century. Moses Quinby was the first commercial beekeeper in the USA, with 1200 colonies by the 1840s. Jim Powers of Idaho, USA, had 30,000 honey producing hives. Miel Carlota operated by partners Arturo Wulfrath and Juan Speck of Mexico operated at least 50,000 hives of honey bees from 1920 to 1960.
Today, Adee Honey Farm in South Dakota, USA, Comvita in New Zealand are among the world's largest beekeeping enterprises. Worldwide, commercial beekeepers number about 5% of the individuals with bees but produce about 60% of the world's honey crop. Commercial beekeeping is on the rise in high-value markets such as pollination in North America and honey production in New Zealand. Most beekeepers produce commodities for sale. Honey is the most valuable commodity sold by beekeepers. Honey-producer beekeepers try to maintain maximum-strength colonies of bees in areas with dense nectar sources, they sell liquid and sometimes comb honey. Beekeepers may sell their commodities retail, as self-brokers, or through commercial packers and distributors. Beeswax, royal jelly, propolis may be significant revenue generators. Taiwanese beekeepers, for example, export tonnes of royal jelly, the high-nutrition food supplement fed to queen honeybees. Modern beekeepers keep honeybees for beeswax production. Beeswax is separated for sale.
Some beekeepers provide a pollination service to other farmers. These beekeepers might not produce any honey for sale. Pollination beekeepers move honey bee hives at night in vast quantities so fruits and vegetables have enough pollinating insects available for maximum levels of production. In 2016, almonds accounted for 86% of all U. S. expenditures on pollination services. For the service of maintaining strong colonies of bees and moving them into crops such as almonds, cherries, blueberries and squash, these beekeepers are paid a cash fee. Queen breeders are specialist beekeepers; the breeders maintain select stock with superior qualities and tend to raise their bees in geographic regions with early springs. These beekeepers may provide extra bees to beekeepers who want to start new operations or expand their farms. Queen breeders use Jenter kits in order to produce large numbers of queen bees and efficiently. Canadian Honey Council British Beekeepers Association
In Greek mythology, the Naiads are a type of female spirit, or nymph, presiding over fountains, springs, streams and other bodies of fresh water. They are distinct from river gods, who embodied rivers, the ancient spirits that inhabited the still waters of marshes and lagoon-lakes, such as pre-Mycenaean Lerna in the Argolis. Naiads were associated with fresh water, as the Oceanids were with saltwater and the Nereids with the Mediterranean, but because the ancient Greeks thought of the world's waters as all one system, which percolated in from the sea in deep cavernous spaces within the earth, there was some overlap. Arethusa, the nymph of a spring, could make her way through subterranean flows from the Peloponnesus, to surface on the island of Sicily; the Greek word is Ναϊάς, plural Ναϊάδες It derives from νάειν, "to flow", or νᾶμα, "running water". "Naiad" has several English pronunciations:. They were the object of archaic local cults, worshipped as essential to humans. Boys and girls at coming-of-age ceremonies dedicated their childish locks to the local naiad of the spring.
In places like Lerna their waters' ritual cleansings were credited with magical medical properties. Animals were ritually drowned there. Oracles might be situated by ancient springs. Naiads could be dangerous: Hylas of the Argo's crew was lost when he was taken by naiads fascinated by his beauty; the naiads were known to exhibit jealous tendencies. Theocritus' story of naiad jealousy was that of a shepherd, the lover of Nomia or Echenais. Salmacis forced the youth Hermaphroditus into a carnal embrace and, when he sought to get away, fused with him; the water nymph associated with particular springs was known all through Europe in places with no direct connection with Greece, surviving in the Celtic wells of northwest Europe that have been rededicated to Saints, in the medieval Melusine. Walter Burkert points out, "When in the Iliad Zeus calls the gods into assembly on Mount Olympus, it is not only the well-known Olympians who come along, but all the nymphs and all the rivers. Robert Graves offered a sociopolitical reading of the common myth-type in which a mythic king is credited with marrying a naiad and founding a city: it was the newly arrived Hellenes justifying their presence.
The loves and rapes of Zeus, according to Graves' readings, record the supplanting of ancient local cults by Olympian ones. So, in the back-story of the myth of Aristaeus, Hypseus, a king of the Lapiths, married Chlidanope, a naiad, who bore him Cyrene. Aristaeus had more than ordinary mortal experience with the naiads: when his bees died in Thessaly, he went to consult them, his aunt Arethusa invited him below the water's surface, where he was washed with water from a perpetual spring and given advice. St. Charles Avenue in New Orleans was known as Nyades Street, is parallel to Dryades Street. Bibliotheca 2.95, 2.11, 2.21, 2.23, 1.61, 1.81, 1.7.6 Homer. Odyssey 13.355, 17.240, Iliad 14.440, 20.380 Ovid. Metamorphoses Hesiod. Theogony Burkert, Greek Religion, Harvard University Press, 1985. ISBN 0-674-36281-0. Robert Graves, The Greek Myths 1955 Edgar Allan Poe, "Sonnet to Science" 1829 Naiad Nymphs
The Apalachicola River is a river 112 mi long in the state of Florida. The river's large watershed, known as the ACF River Basin, drains an area of 19,500 square miles into the Gulf of Mexico; the distance to its farthest head waters in northeast Georgia is 500 miles. Its name comes from the Apalachicola people; the river is formed on the state line between Florida and Georgia, near the town of Chattahoochee, Florida 60 miles northeast of Panama City, by the confluence of the Flint and Chattahoochee rivers. The actual confluence is contained within the Lake Seminole reservoir formed by the Jim Woodruff Dam, it flows south through the forests of the Florida Panhandle, past Bristol. In northern Gulf County, it receives the Chipola River from the west, it flows into an inlet of the Gulf of Mexico, at Apalachicola. The lower 30 mi of the river is surrounded except at the coast; the watershed contains nationally significant forests, with some of the highest biological diversity east of the Mississippi River and rivaling that of the Great Smoky Mountains.
It has significant areas of temperate deciduous forest as well as longleaf pine landscapes and flatwoods. Flooded areas have significant tracts of floodplain forest. All of these southeastern forest types were devastated by logging between 1880 and 1920, the Apalachiola contains some of the finest remaining examples of old growth forest in the southeast; the endangered tree species Florida Torreya is endemic to the region. The highest point within the watershed is Blood Mountain at 4,458 ft, near the headwaters of the Chattahoochee River. Where the river enters the Gulf of Mexico it creates a rich array of wetlands varying in salinity; these seagrass meadows. Over 200,000 acres of this diverse delta complex are included within the Apalachicola National Estuarine Research Reserve. There are dunes with coastal grasslands and interdunal swales; the basin of the Apalachicola River is noted for its tupelo honey, a high-quality monofloral honey, produced wherever the tupelo trees bloom in the southeastern United States.
In a good harvest year, the value of the tupelo honey crop produced by a group of specialized Florida beekeepers approaches $900,000 each spring. During Florida's British colonial period, the river formed the boundary between East Florida and West Florida. Geologically, the river links Gulf Coast with the Appalachian Mountains; some of the remaining important areas of natural habitat along the river include Apalachicola National Forest, Torreya State Park, The Nature Conservancy Apalachicola Bluffs and Ravines Preserve, Tates Hell State Forest, Apalachicola River Wildlife and Environmental Area, as well as the Apalachicola River Water Management Area. It has been suggested that this watershed should be nationally ranked and appreciated as being as significant as the Everglades or Great Smoky Mountains. To raise awareness about the importance of preserving the natural state of the river and its inhabitants, Florida film producer Elam Stoltzfus highlighted this system in a PBS documentary in 2006.
The river forms the boundary between the Eastern and Central time zones in Florida, until it reaches the Jackson River. Thereafter, the Jackson River, which flows to the Gulf of Mexico, is the time zone boundary. List of Florida rivers South Atlantic-Gulf Water Resource Region Voices of the Apalachicola White, P. S. S. P. Wilds, G. A. Thunhorst. 1998. Southeast. Pp. 255–314, In M. J. Mac, P. A. Opler, C. E. Puckett Haecker, P. D. Doran. "Status and Trends of the Nation’s Biological Resources". 2 vols. US Department of the Interior, US Geological Survey, Reston, VA. Boyce, S. G. and W. M. Martin. 1993. The future of the terrestrial communities of the southeastern United States. Pp. 339–366, In W. H. Martin, S. G. Boyce, A. C. Echternacht. Biodiversity of the Southeastern United States, Lowland Terrestrial Communities. Wiley, New York, NY. Light, H. M. M. R. Darst, J. W. Grubbs.. Aquatic habitats in relation to river flow in Florida. Washington, D. C.: U. S. Department of the Interior, U. S. Geological Survey. Florida State University: Apalachicola River Ecological Management Plan Apalachicola River Watershed – Florida DEP Apalachicola River Wildlife and Environmental Area Apalachicola Riverkeeper, an organization focused on the protection of the Apalachicola National Estuarine Research Reserve Apalachicola Bluffs and Ravines Preserve, a Nature Conservancy preserve Northwest Florida Water Management District U.
S. Army Corps of Engineers: Flint-Chatahoochee-Apalachicola basin U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Apalachicola River
North America is a continent within the Northern Hemisphere and all within the Western Hemisphere. It is bordered to the north by the Arctic Ocean, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the west and south by the Pacific Ocean, to the southeast by South America and the Caribbean Sea. North America covers an area of about 24,709,000 square kilometers, about 16.5% of the earth's land area and about 4.8% of its total surface. North America is the third largest continent by area, following Asia and Africa, the fourth by population after Asia and Europe. In 2013, its population was estimated at nearly 579 million people in 23 independent states, or about 7.5% of the world's population, if nearby islands are included. North America was reached by its first human populations during the last glacial period, via crossing the Bering land bridge 40,000 to 17,000 years ago; the so-called Paleo-Indian period is taken to have lasted until about 10,000 years ago. The Classic stage spans the 6th to 13th centuries.
The Pre-Columbian era ended in 1492, the transatlantic migrations—the arrival of European settlers during the Age of Discovery and the Early Modern period. Present-day cultural and ethnic patterns reflect interactions between European colonists, indigenous peoples, African slaves and their descendants. Owing to the European colonization of the Americas, most North Americans speak English, Spanish or French, their culture reflects Western traditions; the Americas are accepted as having been named after the Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci by the German cartographers Martin Waldseemüller and Matthias Ringmann. Vespucci, who explored South America between 1497 and 1502, was the first European to suggest that the Americas were not the East Indies, but a different landmass unknown by Europeans. In 1507, Waldseemüller produced a world map, in which he placed the word "America" on the continent of South America, in the middle of what is today Brazil, he explained the rationale for the name in the accompanying book Cosmographiae Introductio:... ab Americo inventore... quasi Americi terram sive Americam.
For Waldseemüller, no one should object to the naming of the land after its discoverer. He used the Latinized version of Vespucci's name, but in its feminine form "America", following the examples of "Europa", "Asia" and "Africa". Other mapmakers extended the name America to the northern continent, In 1538, Gerard Mercator used America on his map of the world for all the Western Hemisphere; some argue that because the convention is to use the surname for naming discoveries, the derivation from "Amerigo Vespucci" could be put in question. In 1874, Thomas Belt proposed a derivation from the Amerrique mountains of Central America. Marcou corresponded with Augustus Le Plongeon, who wrote: "The name AMERICA or AMERRIQUE in the Mayan language means, a country of perpetually strong wind, or the Land of the Wind, and... the can mean... a spirit that breathes, life itself." The United Nations formally recognizes "North America" as comprising three areas: Northern America, Central America, The Caribbean.
This has been formally defined by the UN Statistics Division. The term North America maintains various definitions in accordance with context. In Canadian English, North America refers to the land mass as a whole consisting of Mexico, the United States, Canada, although it is ambiguous which other countries are included, is defined by context. In the United States of America, usage of the term may refer only to Canada and the US, sometimes includes Greenland and Mexico, as well as offshore islands. In France, Portugal, Romania and the countries of Latin America, the cognates of North America designate a subcontinent of the Americas comprising Canada, the United States, Mexico, Greenland, Saint Pierre et Miquelon, Bermuda. North America has been referred to by other names. Spanish North America was referred to as Northern America, this was the first official name given to Mexico. Geographically the North American continent has many subregions; these include cultural and geographic regions. Economic regions included those formed by trade blocs, such as the North American Trade Agreement bloc and Central American Trade Agreement.
Linguistically and culturally, the continent could be divided into Latin America. Anglo-America includes most of Northern America and Caribbean islands with English-speaking populations; the southern North American continent is composed of two regions. These are the Caribbean; the north of the continent maintains recognized regions as well. In contrast to the common definition of "North America", which encompasses the whole continent, the term "North America" is sometimes used to refer only to Mexico, the United States, Greenland; the term Northern America refers to the northern-most countries and territories of North America: the United States, Bermuda, St. Pierre and Miquelon and Greenland. Although the term does not refer to a unifie
A beehive is an enclosed, man-made structure in which some honey bee species of the subgenus Apis live and raise their young. Though the word beehive is used to describe the nest of any bee colony and professional literature distinguishes nest from hive. Nest is used to discuss colonies which house themselves in natural or artificial cavities or are hanging and exposed. Hive is used to describe an man-made structure to house a honey bee nest. Several species of Apis live in colonies, but for honey production the western honey bee and the eastern honey bee are the main species kept in hives; the nest's internal structure is a densely packed group of hexagonal prismatic cells made of beeswax, called a honeycomb. The bees use the cells to house the brood. Beehives serve several purposes: production of honey, pollination of nearby crops, housing supply bees for apitherapy treatment, to try to mitigate the effects of colony collapse disorder. In America, hives are transported so that bees can pollinate crops in other areas.
A number of patents have been issued for beehive designs. Honey bees use rock cavities and hollow trees as natural nesting sites. In warmer climates they may build exposed hanging nests. Members of other subgenera have exposed aerial combs; the nest is composed of multiple honeycombs, parallel to each other, with a uniform bee space. It has a single entrance. Western honey bees prefer nest cavities 45 litres in volume and avoid those smaller than 10 or larger than 100 litres. Western honey bees show several nest-site preferences: the height above ground is between 1 metre and 5 metres, entrance positions tend to face downward, Equatorial-facing entrances are favored, nest sites over 300 metres from the parent colony are preferred. Bees occupy nests for several years; the bees smooth the bark surrounding the nest entrance, coat the cavity walls with a thin layer of hardened plant resin called propolis. Honeycombs are attached to the walls along the cavity tops and sides, but small passageways are left along the comb edges.
The basic nest architecture for all honeybees is similar: honey is stored in the upper part of the comb. The peanut-shaped queen cells are built at the lower edge of the comb. Bees were kept in man-made hives in Egypt in antiquity; the walls of the Egyptian sun temple of Nyuserre Ini from the 5th Dynasty, dated earlier than 2422 BC, depict workers blowing smoke into hives as they remove honeycombs. Inscriptions detailing the production of honey are found on the tomb of Pabasa from the 26th Dynasty, describe honey stored in jars, cylindrical hives; the archaeologist Amihai Mazar cites 30 intact hives that were discovered in the ruins of the city of Rehov. This is evidence that an advanced honey industry existed in Palestine 4,000 years ago; the beehives, made of straw and unbaked clay, were found in orderly rows, with a total of 150 hives, many broken. Ezra Marcus from the University of Haifa said the discovery provided a glimpse of ancient beekeeping seen in texts and ancient art from the Near East.
An altar decorated with fertility figurines was found alongside the hives and may indicate religious practices associated with beekeeping. While beekeeping predates these ruins, this is the oldest apiary yet discovered. Traditional beehives provided an enclosure for the bee colony; because no internal structures were provided for the bees, the bees created their own honeycomb within the hives. The comb is cross-attached and cannot be moved without destroying it; this is sometimes called a fixed-frame hive to differentiate it from the modern movable-frame hives. Harvest destroyed the hives, though there were some adaptations using extra top baskets which could be removed when the bees filled them with honey; these were supplanted with box hives of varying dimensions, with or without frames, replaced by newer modern equipment. Honey from traditional hives was extracted by pressing – crushing the wax honeycomb to squeeze out the honey. Due to this harvesting, traditional beehives provided more beeswax, but far less honey, than a modern hive.
Four styles of traditional beehives include. Mud hives are still used in Siberia; these are long cylinders made from a mixture of unbaked mud and dung. Clay tiles were the customary homes of kept bees in the eastern end of the Mediterranean. Long cylinders of baked clay were used in ancient Egypt, the Middle East and to some extent in Greece and Malta, they sometimes were used singly, but more stacked in rows to provide some shade, at least for those not on top. Keepers would smoke one end to drive the bees to the other end. Skeps, baskets placed open-end-down, have been used to house bees for some 2000 years, they were made from wicker plastered with mud and dung but from the Middle Ages they were made of straw. In northern and western Europe, skeps were made of coils of straw. In its simplest form, there is a single entrance at the bottom of the skep. Again, there is no internal structure provided for the bees and the colony must produce its own honeycomb, attached to the inside of the skep. Skeps have two disadvantages.
To get the honey b
In the fields of horticulture and botany, the term deciduous means "falling off at maturity" and "tending to fall off", in reference to trees and shrubs that seasonally shed leaves in the autumn. The term deciduous means "the dropping of a part, no longer needed" and the "falling away after its purpose is finished". In plants, it is the result of natural processes. "Deciduous" has a similar meaning when referring to animal parts, such as deciduous antlers in deer, deciduous teeth in some mammals. Wood from deciduous trees is used in a variety of ways in several industries including lumber for furniture and flooring, bowling pins and baseball bats and furniture, cabinets and paneling. In botany and horticulture, deciduous plants, including trees and herbaceous perennials, are those that lose all of their leaves for part of the year; this process is called abscission. In some cases leaf loss coincides with winter -- namely in polar climates. In other parts of the world, including tropical and arid regions, plants lose their leaves during the dry season or other seasons, depending on variations in rainfall.
The converse of deciduous is evergreen, where foliage is shed on a different schedule from deciduous trees, therefore appearing to remain green year round. Plants that are intermediate may be called semi-deciduous. Other plants are semi-evergreen and lose their leaves before the next growing season, retaining some during winter or dry periods; some trees, including a few species of oak, have desiccated leaves that remain on the tree through winter. Many deciduous plants flower during the period when they are leafless, as this increases the effectiveness of pollination; the absence of leaves improves wind transmission of pollen for wind-pollinated plants and increases the visibility of the flowers to insects in insect-pollinated plants. This strategy is not without risks, as the flowers can be damaged by frost or, in dry season regions, result in water stress on the plant. There is much less branch and trunk breakage from glaze ice storms when leafless, plants can reduce water loss due to the reduction in availability of liquid water during cold winter days.
Leaf drop or abscission involves complex physiological changes within plants. The process of photosynthesis degrades the supply of chlorophylls in foliage; when autumn arrives and the days are shorter or when plants are drought-stressed, deciduous trees decrease chlorophyll pigment production, allowing other pigments present in the leaf to become apparent, resulting in non-green colored foliage. The brightest leaf colors are produced when days grow short and nights are cool, but remain above freezing; these other pigments include carotenoids that are yellow and orange. Anthocyanin pigments produce red and purple colors, though they are not always present in the leaves. Rather, they are produced in the foliage in late summer, when sugars are trapped in the leaves after the process of abscission begins. Parts of the world that have showy displays of bright autumn colors are limited to locations where days become short and nights are cool. In other parts of the world, the leaves of deciduous trees fall off without turning the bright colors produced from the accumulation of anthocyanin pigments.
The beginnings of leaf drop starts when an abscission layer is formed between the leaf petiole and the stem. This layer is formed in the spring during active new growth of the leaf; the cells are sensitive to a plant hormone called auxin, produced by the leaf and other parts of the plant. When auxin coming from the leaf is produced at a rate consistent with that from the body of the plant, the cells of the abscission layer remain connected; the elongation of these cells break the connection between the different cell layers, allowing the leaf to break away from the plant. It forms a layer that seals the break, so the plant does not lose sap. A number of deciduous plants remove nitrogen and carbon from the foliage before they are shed and store them in the form of proteins in the vacuoles of parenchyma cells in the roots and the inner bark. In the spring, these proteins are used as a nitrogen source during the growth of new leaves or flowers. Plants with deciduous foliage have advantages and disadvantages compared to plants with evergreen foliage.
Since deciduous plants lose their leaves to conserve water or to better survive winter weather conditions, they must regrow new foliage during the next suitable growing season. Evergreens suffer greater water loss during the winter and they can experience greater predation pressure when small. Losing leaves in winter may reduce damage from insects. Removing leaves reduces cavitation which can damage xylem vessels in plants; this allows deciduous plants to have xylem vessels with larger diameters and therefore a greater rate of transpiration during the summer growth period
The eudicots, Eudicotidae or eudicotyledons are a clade of flowering plants, called tricolpates or non-magnoliid dicots by previous authors. The botanical terms were introduced in 1991 by evolutionary botanist James A. Doyle and paleobotanist Carol L. Hotton to emphasize the evolutionary divergence of tricolpate dicots from earlier, less specialized, dicots; the close relationships among flowering plants with tricolpate pollen grains was seen in morphological studies of shared derived characters. These plants have a distinct trait in their pollen grains of exhibiting three colpi or grooves paralleling the polar axis. Molecular evidence confirmed the genetic basis for the evolutionary relationships among flowering plants with tricolpate pollen grains and dicotyledonous traits; the term means "true dicotyledons", as it contains the majority of plants that have been considered dicots and have characteristics of the dicots. The term "eudicots" has subsequently been adopted in botany to refer to one of the two largest clades of angiosperms, monocots being the other.
The remaining angiosperms include magnoliids and what are sometimes referred to as basal angiosperms or paleodicots, but these terms have not been or adopted, as they do not refer to a monophyletic group. The other name for the eudicots is tricolpates, a name which refers to the grooved structure of the pollen. Members of the group have tricolpate pollen; these pollens have three or more pores set in furrows called colpi. In contrast, most of the other seed plants produce monosulcate pollen, with a single pore set in a differently oriented groove called the sulcus; the name "tricolpates" is preferred by some botanists to avoid confusion with the dicots, a nonmonophyletic group. Numerous familiar plants are eudicots, including many common food plants and ornamentals; some common and familiar eudicots include members of the sunflower family such as the common dandelion, the forget-me-not and other members of its family, buttercup and macadamia. Most leafy trees of midlatitudes belong to eudicots, with notable exceptions being magnolias and tulip trees which belong to magnoliids, Ginkgo biloba, not an angiosperm.
The name "eudicots" is used in the APG system, of 1998, APG II system, of 2003, for classification of angiosperms. It is applied to a monophyletic group, which includes most of the dicots. "Tricolpate" is a synonym for the "Eudicot" monophyletic group, the "true dicotyledons". The number of pollen grain furrows or pores helps classify the flowering plants, with eudicots having three colpi, other groups having one sulcus. Pollen apertures are any modification of the wall of the pollen grain; these modifications include thinning and pores, they serve as an exit for the pollen contents and allow shrinking and swelling of the grain caused by changes in moisture content. The elongated apertures/ furrows in the pollen grain are called colpi, along with pores, are a chief criterion for identifying the pollen classes; the eudicots can be divided into two groups: the basal eudicots and the core eudicots. Basal eudicot is an informal name for a paraphyletic group; the core eudicots are a monophyletic group.
A 2010 study suggested the core eudicots can be divided into two clades, Gunnerales and a clade called "Pentapetalae", comprising all the remaining core eudicots. The Pentapetalae can be divided into three clades: Dilleniales superrosids consisting of Saxifragales and rosids superasterids consisting of Santalales, Berberidopsidales and asteridsThis division of the eudicots is shown in the following cladogram: The following is a more detailed breakdown according to APG IV, showing within each clade and orders: clade Eudicots order Ranunculales order Proteales order Trochodendrales order Buxales clade Core eudicots order Gunnerales order Dilleniales clade Superrosids order Saxifragales clade Rosids order Vitales clade Fabids order Fabales order Rosales order Fagales order Cucurbitales order Oxalidales order Malpighiales order Celastrales order Zygophyllales clade Malvids order Geraniales order Myrtales order Crossosomatales order Picramniales order Malvales order Brassicales order Huerteales order Sapindales clade Superasterids order Berberidopsidales order Santalales order Caryophyllales clade Asterids order Cornales order Ericales clade Campanulids order Aquifoliales order Asterales order Escalloniales order Bruniales order Apiales order Dipsacales order Paracryphiales clade Lamiids order Solanales order Lamiales order Vahliales order Gentianales order Boraginales order Garryales order Metteniusales order Icacinales Eudicots at the Encyclopedia of Life Eudicots, Tree of Life Web Project Dicots Plant Life Forms