Espírito Santo is a state in southeastern Brazil. Its capital is Vitória, its largest city is the nearby Vila Velha. With an extensive coastline, the state hosts some of the country's main ports, its beaches are significant tourist attractions; the capital, Vitória, is located on an island, next to Guarapari, which constitutes the state's main metro area. In the northern extremes of Espírito Santo is Itaúnas, in the municipality of Conceição da Barra, a famed tourist location for its sand dunes and forró tradition; the Captaincy of Espírito Santo was carved out of the Captaincy of Bahia in the 18th century, during the colonial rule of Brazil, named after a 16th century captaincy covering the same area of coast. Following the elevation of Brazil to a constituent kingdom of United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves in 1815, prompted by the transfer of the Portuguese Court to Brazil, Espírito Santo was elevated to a province. After the independence of Brazil in 1822, it became a province of the newly-established Empire of Brazil, after Brazil became a republic in 1889, it was granted statehood.
In the early 20th century, its current state symbols were adopted. Espírito Santo's namesake is the Christian Holy Ghost. There is debate as to the origin of the term capixaba, the unofficial demonym for those born in Espírito Santo. "Capixaba" is Tupi for "corn hair" because the blond hair of the European settlers reminded the Amerindian natives of the golden color of corn. A more mainstream explanation is. A third etymology is from the name of a local tribe, borrowed by the Portuguese during the colonial period. "capixaba" referred only to people from Vitória, but in common parlance it came to refer to those born anywhere in the state. The official state demonym, however, is "espírito-santense". Espírito Santo was first inhabited by Amerindians, whose different tribes were semi-nomadic, but there is no recorded history of pre-colonial Brazil; the area was colonized by the Portuguese starting in the 16th century, received African slaves and European immigrants of various origins. The Captaincy of Espírito Santo, a hereditary fief, was granted to Vasco Coutinho by Manuel I of Portugal around three decades after the Portuguese first landed in Brazil in 1500.
He arrived at the captaincy to serve his term on May 23, 1535, bringing a retinue of 60 soldiers, colonists and servants. They settled around the Bay of Vitória; the capital was at first established in Vila Velha, but due to frequent raids by Amerindians, it was moved to the current capital of Vitória, founded on September 8, 1551, on an island near Vila Velha, named Vitória Island. In 1556, after the arrival of European missionaries, the cities Serra, Nova Almeida and Santa Cruz were founded; the captaincy remained under the influence of Coutinho's family for 140 years. It was elevated to province status in 1821, following the 1815 elevation of Brazil to a constituent kingdom of the United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves, prompted by the 1808 transfer of the Portuguese Court to Brazil; the Portuguese court were fleeing the Napoleonic Invasion of Portugal. After the Independence of Brazil in 1822, Espírito Santo's provincial status was kept, it was headed by an appointed provincial president.
Emperor Pedro II, on good terms with the provincial President, visited the Espírito Santo in 1860, during one of his tours of Brazil. In 1889, with the advent of the First Brazilian Republic, Espírito Santo was made one of the states of Brazil. Afonso Cláudio de Freitas Rosa was appointed the first governor of the State by the provisional government, he was followed by four other appointed governors until the first elected governor of Espírito Santo, Alfeu Adolfo Monjardim de Andrade e Almeida, was inaugurated on June 7, 1891. During the Vargas Era, state governors were indirectly elected by Congress. A short period of democracy existed during the Second Brazilian Republic. However, after the 1964 coup d'état, governors were once again chosen by the national assembly. After Cristiano Dias Lopes, Arthur Carlos Gerhard Santos, Élcio Álvares and Eurico Rezende were chosen in this fashion, the military government redemocratized, culminating in the adoption of Brazil's current 1988 Constitution. Democratic elections were held for the filling of every term, up to the incumbent, Renato Casagrande.
During the first three centuries of Portuguese colonialism, the main cash crop was sugarcane, until coffee, in high demand in Europe, overtook it in the mid 19th century. During the colonial era, there were periods of gold rush when agriculture was neglected, leading to food shortages, but not much gold was found in Espírito Santo as in the neighbouring states of São Paulo and Minas Gerais. Another reason for the subdued expansion was the colonial administration's prohibition of the laying roads leading into Minas Gerais, as it was feared gold would be smuggled through the state. With 46,180 square kilometers, it is about the size of Estonia, or half the size of Portugal, has a variety of habitats including coastal planes, mountainous forests and many others; the volcanic islands of Trindade and Martim Vaz, 715 kilometers east of Vitória in the southern Atlantic Ocean, are part of Espírito Santo. This Brazilian state is in the east of the southeas
Indigenous peoples in Brazil
Indigenous peoples in Brazil or Indigenous Brazilians, comprise a large number of distinct ethnic groups who have inhabited what is now the country of Brazil since prior to the European contact around 1500. Unlike Christopher Columbus, who thought he had reached the East Indies, the Portuguese, most notably Vasco da Gama, had reached India via the Indian Ocean route when they reached Brazil; the word índios was by established to designate the people of the New World and continues to be used today in the Portuguese language to designate these people, while a person from India is called indiano in order to distinguish the two. At the time of European contact, some of the indigenous people were traditionally semi-nomadic tribes who subsisted on hunting, fishing and migrant agriculture. Many of the estimated 2,000 nations and tribes which existed in the 16th century suffered extinction as a consequence of the European settlement and many were assimilated into the Brazilian population; the indigenous population was killed by European diseases, declining from a pre-Columbian high of millions to some 300,000, grouped into 200 tribes.
However, the number could be much higher if the urban indigenous populations are counted in all the Brazilian cities today. A somewhat dated linguistic survey found 188 living indigenous languages with 155,000 total speakers. On January 18, 2007, FUNAI reported that it had confirmed the presence of 67 different uncontacted tribes in Brazil, up from 40 in 2005. With this addition, Brazil has now surpassed New Guinea as the country having the largest number of uncontacted peoples in the world. Brazilian indigenous people have made substantial and pervasive contributions to the world's medicine with knowledge used today by pharmaceutical corporations and cultural development—such as the domestication of tobacco and cassava. In the last IBGE census, 817,000 Brazilians classified themselves as indigenous. Questions about the original settlement of the Americas has produced a number of hypothetical models; the origins of these indigenous people are still a matter of dispute among archaeologists. Anthropological and genetic evidence indicates that most Amerindian people descended from migrant people from North Asia who entered the Americas across the Bering Strait or along the western coast of North America in at least three separate waves.
In Brazil most native tribes who were living in the land by 1500 are thought to be descended from the first Siberian wave of migrants, who are believed to have crossed the Bering Land Bridge at the end of the last Ice Age, between 13,000 and 17,000 years before the present. A migrant wave would have taken some time after initial entry to reach present-day Brazil entering the Amazon River basin from the Northwest.. An analysis of Amerindian Y-chromosome DNA indicates specific clustering of much of the South American population; the micro-satellite diversity and distributions of the Y lineage specific to South America indicates that certain Amerindian populations have been isolated since the initial colonization of the region. According to an autosomal genetic study from 2012, Native Americans descend from at least three main migrant waves from East Asia. Most of it is traced back to a single ancestral population, called'First Americans'. However, those who speak Inuit languages from the Arctic inherited half of their ancestry from a second East Asian migrant wave.
And those who speak Na-dene, on the other hand, inherited a tenth of their ancestry from a third migrant wave. The initial settling of the Americas was followed by a rapid expansion southwards, by the coast, with little gene flow especially in South America. One exception to this are the Chibcha speakers, whose ancestry comes from both North and South America. Another study, focused on the mtDNA, revealed that the indigenous people of the Americas have their maternal ancestry traced back to a few founding lineages from East Asia, which would have arrived via the Bering strait. According to this study, it is probable that the ancestors of the Native Americans would have remained for a time in the region of the Bering Strait, after which there would have been a rapid movement of settling of the Americas, taking the founding lineages to South America. Linguistic studies have backed up genetic studies, with ancient patterns having been found between the languages spoken in Siberia and those spoken in the Americas.
Two 2015 autosomal DNA genetic studies confirmed the Siberian origins of the Natives of the Americas. However an ancient signal of shared ancestry with the Natives of Australia and Melanesia was detected among the Natives of the Amazon region; the migration coming out of Siberia would have happened 23,000 years ago. According to a 2016 study, focused on mtDNA lineages, "a small population entered the Americas via a coastal route around 16.0 ka, following previous isolation in eastern Beringia for ~2.4 to 9 thousand years after separation from eastern Siberian populations. Following a rapid movement throughout the Americas, limited gene flow in South America resulted in a marked phylogeographic structure of populations, which persisted through time. All of the ancient mitochondrial lineages detected in this study were absent from modern data sets, suggesting a high extinction rate. To investigate this further, we applied a novel principal components multiple logistic regression test to
A cacique is a leader of an indigenous group, derived from the Taíno word kasikɛ for the pre-Columbian tribal chiefs in the Bahamas, the Greater Antilles, the northern Lesser Antilles. In the colonial era, Spaniards extended the word as a title for the leaders of all indigenous groups that they encountered in the Western Hemisphere. In Spanish America, Brazil and Portugal, the term has come to mean a political boss or leader who exercises significant power in the political system known as caciquismo. Cacique comes from the Taíno word kassiquan, meaning "to keep house". In Taíno culture, the cacique rank was established through democratic means, his importance in the tribe was determined by the size of his tribe rather than his warlord skills since the Taínos were a peaceable culture. They enjoyed several privileges for their standing: they lived in a larger rectangular hut in the centre of the village, rather than the circular huts of other villagers, they had a special sitting place for the areytos and the ceremonial ball game.
Spaniards extended the usage of cacique to refer to leaders at the town or village level in all indigenous groups in Spanish America. Caribbean caciques who did not oppose the Spanish were co-opted into being intermediaries between the Spanish and their communities, but their cooperation was transitional and most revolted, resulting in their deaths in battle or by execution. Two famous early colonial-era caciques are Hatuey and Enriquillo who are now national heroes in Cuba and the Dominican Republic. At the base of the monument to Hatuey the historical plaque reads: "To the memory of Chief Hatuey, unforgettable native, precursor of the Cuban fight for freedom, he offered his life, glorifying his ideals while tormented by the flames on 2/2/1512. Monuments Delegation of Yara, 1999". Hatuey was a historical character in the 2010 film Even the Rain. In central Mexico in the colonial era, the Spanish more utilized the leaders of the much more hierarchically organized indigenous peoples to function as intermediaries in the system of colonial rule.
The hierarchy and nomenclature of indigenous leadership there might survive internally within communities, but the Spaniards' designation of caciques did not correspond to the hereditary indigenous system of leadership. Elite indigenous men willing to cooperate with the colonial rule replaced those with hereditary and traditional claims to leadership; the Spanish recognized the indigenous nobility as nobles within newly established colonial system, caciques' status along with their families was reinforced by their being allowed to hold the Spanish noble honorific don and doña. Some caciques had entailed; the records of many of these Mexican estates are held in the Mexican national archives in a section Vínculos. The establishment of Spanish-style town government was used as a mechanism to replace traditional rule. Spanish manipulation of cabildo elections. In some areas the traditional, members hereditary lineages became office holders on the town councils. By the late colonial era in central Mexico, the term cacique had lost its dynastic meaning in many areas.
In a 1769 appeal to the Viceroy of New Spain by a cacique family for restoration of its privileges, they were enumerated: that the cacique should be seated separately from commoners at public functions. With Mexican independence in 1821, the special privileges of colonial-era caciques were abolished. In the Andean region the local term kuraka was used as an alternative to cacique, in contrast the rest of the Spanish Colonial Americas. After conquering the Inca Empire the Spaniards in the Peruvian viceroyalty had allowed the kurakas or caciques to maintain their titles of nobility and perquisites of local rule so long as they were loyal to the Spanish monarch. In the late eighteenth century, a massive uprising, the Tupac Amaru rebellion called the "Great Rebellion", was led by Tupac Amaru II, a kuraka who claimed to be a descendant of the Inca royal line, namely to the last Emperor Thupaq Amaru. At independence in 1825, Simón Bolívar abolished noble titles, but the power and prestige of the kurakas was in decline following the Great Rebellion.
Kuraka rebellions were made since the beginning of the Spanish colonial rule, kurakas from different backgrounds and places of the Andes led uprisings on multiple occasions, being the Tupac Amaru II rebellion, which came after 250 years of colonial rule, the largest of them and the major rebellion in the history of Spain's American empire kuraka revolts would continue years and decades after Tupac Amaru II's uprising such as the Tupac Katari uprising or the Mateo Pumakawa insurrection made during the South American Wars of Independence. An extension of the term cacique, Caciquismo can refer to a political system dominated by the power of local political bosses, the caciques. In the post-independence period in Mexico, the term retained its meaning of "indi
Indigenous territory (Brazil)
In Brazil, an indigenous territory or indigenous land is an area inhabited and possessed by indigenous people. The Brazilian Constitution recognises the inalienable right of indigenous peoples to lands they "traditionally occupy" and automatically confers them permanent possession of these lands. In practice, however, a formal process of demarcation is required for a TI to gain full protection, this has entailed protracted legal battles. After demarcation, they are subject to illegal invasions by settlers and mining and logging companies. There are 672 indigenous territories in Brazil, covering about 13% of the country's land area. Critics of the system say that this is out of proportion with the number of indigenous people in Brazil, about 0.41% of the population. As of 2016, there are 702 indigenous territories in Brazil, covering 1,172,995 km2 – 14% of the country's land area. For historical reasons—Portuguese colonisation started from the coast—most of these are concentrated in the country's interior Amazônia.
There are only three federated units without any TIs: the states of Rio Grande do Norte and Piauí, the Federal District. The process of demarcating indigenous territories was established in the 1973 Statute of the Indian and has been revised several times, most in 1996. Under the current legal framework, the initial identification and definition of potential TIs is the responsibility of FUNAI, the government body in charge of indigenous affairs, who commission an ethnographic and geographical survey of the area and publish a proposal; this proposal must be approved by the Ministry of Justice, who consider FUNAI's proposal and any objections from other interested parties with respect to the Constitution. If approved, FUNAI begins physically demarcating the new TI and the National Institute for Colonization and Agrarian Reform undertakes the resettlement of any non-indigenous occupants. Final approval, or homologation, for the demarcation a TI is issued by the President of the Republic, after which it is registered.
The Statute of the Indian specified that all indigenous lands should be demarcated by 1978, the 1988 Constitution set a five-year deadline. However, demarcation is still ongoing; the process is delayed by legal disputes arising from the objections of non-indigenous settlers and commercial interests in the proposed TI. This has been common since 1996, when a change in the law required an explicit period to be set aside in the demarcation process for the hearing of complaints. In 2008 the Supreme Federal Court issued a high-profile decision in favour of the continued territorial integrity of Raposa Serra do Sol in Roraima. Non-indigenous rice farmers had protested their deportation from the TI, arguing that the reserve undermined Brazil's national integrity and the state's economic development, proposing that it be broken up; the ruling established a legal precedent that affected more than 100 similar cases that were before the Supreme Court at the time. Land ownership is a contentious issue in Brazil.
In the 1990s, as much as 45% of the available farmland in the country was controlled by 1% of the population. Some advocates of land reform have therefore criticised the amount of land reserved for indigenous peoples, who make up just 0.2% of the national population. According to this view the 1988 Constitution's approach towards indigenous peoples' right to land is overly idealist, a return to a more integrationist policy is favoured. In the Raposa Serra do Sol dispute, non-indigenous rice farmers and their advocates charged TIs with hindering economic development in sparsely populated states such as Roraima, where a large proportion of the land is reserved for indigenous peoples despite commercial pressures to develop it for agricultural use. Instituto Socioambiental, a Brazilian indigenous rights group, argue that the disparity between indigenous population and land ownership is justified because their traditional subsistence patterns are more land extensive than modern agriculture, because many TIs include large areas of agriculturally unproductive land or are environmentally degraded due to recent incursions.
Opponents of indigenous territories claim that they undermine national sovereignty. The promotion of indigenous rights by NGOs is seen as reflecting an "internationalisation of the Amazon", contrary to Brazil's economic interests. Elements in the military have expressed concern that because many TIs occupy border regions they pose a threat to national security – although both the army and police are allowed full access; the current system of indigenous territories has been criticised by proponents of indigenous rights, who say that the process of demarcation is too slow and that FUNAI lacks the resources to properly protect them from encroachment once registered
Porto Seguro is a city located in the far south of Bahia, Brazil. The city has an estimated population of 145,431, covers 2,287 square kilometres, has a population density of 52.7 residents per square kilometer. The area that includes Porto Seguro and neighboring Santa Cruz Cabrália and Prado holds a distinctive place in Brazilian history: in 1500 it was the first landing point of Portuguese navigators, principally Pedro Álvares Cabral; the crime rate is considered high, as is the case in all Bahia State The weather is always hot and humid in the summer, though reaching 40°C, mild in the winter, averaging 25°C with a minimum of 19°C. During July and November the probability of rain is greater. Porto Seguro is divided into five districts Porto Seguro, it contains the 894 hectares Rio dos Frades Wildlife Refuge, created in 2007 to protect the mouth of the Frades River. The municipality contains part of the Corumbau Marine Extractive Reserve, a protected offshore fishing area of 89,597 hectares.
The city is now considered one of the most important destinations of Brazil, receiving tourists from Brazil, Argentina and Chile. The city and surrounding area have some luxury hotels and hundreds of smaller hotels, as well as an airport well connected with the major Brazilian cities. Apart from tourism, other important activities are agriculture, reforestation with eucalyptus trees and trade and services; the city offers one of the most famous Carnival parties in Bahia. “Electric Trios”, dancing “blocos” and “cordões” drag thousands of tourists along the "Passarela do Álcool" Passageway and to beach bars. Historical Downtown Area The historical site in the Cidade Alta area is a National Heritage Monument put under government trust by federal decree since 1973, it was one of the first towns in Brazil and played an important role during the first years of European colonization. It includes three churches and around 40 buildings, restored by the state government for the 500th anniversary celebration of Brazilian discovery.
Monte Pascoal National Park Created in 1961 to preserve the place where Brazil was discovered by Portuguese warriors. It includes swamp areas, salt marshes, river marshes, a coastline around the rocky, round hill, considered the first point of land to be seen by the Portuguese traveler Pedro Álvares Cabral’s crew, it extends over an area of 144.8 square kilometres, including the Pataxó tribe’s indigenous protection land. Besides its historical importance, it offers protection to one of the last stretches of Atlantic forest in the Northeastern area of Brazil; the area is aimed at preserving valuable woods such as Brazil wood, still hosts many species of animals threatened by extinction, including the collared sloth and black bear. Recife de Fora Sea Park It was the first city-owned park in Brazil. During low tide, visitors can view a wide range of coral reefs and many sea species. Glória Hillock These are ruins of what many consider to be the São Francisco Church, where Ynaiá, an Indian woman who died for the love of a crewmember of Portuguese navigator Gonçalo Coelho's fleet, was buried.
The São Francisco Church is said to be the first one built in Brazil in baroque style in 1504, whose ruins date to 1730. The Nossa Senhora da Penha Matrix Church Located on Pero de Campos Tourinho Square, in Cidade Alta, it was built at the end of the 18th century, it comprises a nave, a main chapel, a sacristy, a bell tower. Jaqueira Indigenous Protection Reservation A huge jackfruit tree trunk, tumbled down by nature itself, represents the return to one’s origins and acts as a historical and cultural reference to honor the ancestral fathers and mothers of Pataxó families who moved into this 8.27 square kilometres Indian protection area. Their huts, spread around original Atlantic Forest woods, retain the original formats, giving visitors the impression of being back 500 years in time to pre-Columbian Brazil; the Discovery Outdoors Museum An outdoors, natural museum, whose “art galleries” are its beaches and natural trails and whose “collection” is a set of geographical formations and traditional villages, disposed as art works in permanent exhibition, engraved in ancient media, which are spread along the 130 square kilometres length of Bahia’s historical southern coastline.
Porto Seguro Airport was opened in 1982. Its passenger terminal was simple and small. In 1997, the airport was reopened, having received a new passenger terminal, new aircraft parking lot, extension of runway to operate large aircraft. In 2010 the airport had some major renovations preparing the city to host several of the International football teams who had a training camp in Porto Seguro for the World Cup 2014. Saiba Tudo Acesse: Porto Seguro - Bahia
Brazil the Federative Republic of Brazil, is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers and with over 208 million people, Brazil is the world's fifth-largest country by area and the fifth most populous. Its capital is Brasília, its most populated city is São Paulo; the federation is composed of the union of the 26 states, the Federal District, the 5,570 municipalities. It is the largest country to have Portuguese as an official language and the only one in the Americas. Bounded by the Atlantic Ocean on the east, Brazil has a coastline of 7,491 kilometers, it borders all other South American countries except Ecuador and Chile and covers 47.3% of the continent's land area. Its Amazon River basin includes a vast tropical forest, home to diverse wildlife, a variety of ecological systems, extensive natural resources spanning numerous protected habitats; this unique environmental heritage makes Brazil one of 17 megadiverse countries, is the subject of significant global interest and debate regarding deforestation and environmental protection.
Brazil was inhabited by numerous tribal nations prior to the landing in 1500 of explorer Pedro Álvares Cabral, who claimed the area for the Portuguese Empire. Brazil remained a Portuguese colony until 1808, when the capital of the empire was transferred from Lisbon to Rio de Janeiro. In 1815, the colony was elevated to the rank of kingdom upon the formation of the United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves. Independence was achieved in 1822 with the creation of the Empire of Brazil, a unitary state governed under a constitutional monarchy and a parliamentary system; the ratification of the first constitution in 1824 led to the formation of a bicameral legislature, now called the National Congress. The country became a presidential republic in 1889 following a military coup d'état. An authoritarian military junta came to power in 1964 and ruled until 1985, after which civilian governance resumed. Brazil's current constitution, formulated in 1988, defines it as a democratic federal republic. Due to its rich culture and history, the country ranks thirteenth in the world by number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
Brazil is considered an advanced emerging economy. It has the ninth largest GDP in the world by nominal, eight and PPP measures, it is one of the world's major breadbaskets, being the largest producer of coffee for the last 150 years. It is classified as an upper-middle income economy by the World Bank and a newly industrialized country, with the largest share of global wealth in Latin America. Brazil is a regional power and sometimes considered a great or a middle power in international affairs. On account of its international recognition and influence, the country is subsequently classified as an emerging power and a potential superpower by several analysts. Brazil is a founding member of the United Nations, the G20, BRICS, Union of South American Nations, Organization of American States, Organization of Ibero-American States and the Community of Portuguese Language Countries, it is that the word "Brazil" comes from the Portuguese word for brazilwood, a tree that once grew plentifully along the Brazilian coast.
In Portuguese, brazilwood is called pau-brasil, with the word brasil given the etymology "red like an ember", formed from brasa and the suffix -il. As brazilwood produces a deep red dye, it was valued by the European textile industry and was the earliest commercially exploited product from Brazil. Throughout the 16th century, massive amounts of brazilwood were harvested by indigenous peoples along the Brazilian coast, who sold the timber to European traders in return for assorted European consumer goods; the official Portuguese name of the land, in original Portuguese records, was the "Land of the Holy Cross", but European sailors and merchants called it the "Land of Brazil" because of the brazilwood trade. The popular appellation eclipsed and supplanted the official Portuguese name; some early sailors called it the "Land of Parrots". In the Guarani language, an official language of Paraguay, Brazil is called "Pindorama"; this was the name the indigenous population gave to the region, meaning "land of the palm trees".
Some of the earliest human remains found in the Americas, Luzia Woman, were found in the area of Pedro Leopoldo, Minas Gerais and provide evidence of human habitation going back at least 11,000 years. The earliest pottery found in the Western Hemisphere was excavated in the Amazon basin of Brazil and radiocarbon dated to 8,000 years ago; the pottery was found near Santarém and provides evidence that the tropical forest region supported a complex prehistoric culture. The Marajoara culture flourished on Marajó in the Amazon delta from 800 CE to 1400 CE, developing sophisticated pottery, social stratification, large populations, mound building, complex social formations such as chiefdoms. Around the time of the Portuguese arrival, the territory of current day Brazil had an estimated indigenous population of 7 million people semi-nomadic who subsisted on hunting, fishing and migrant agriculture; the indigenous population of Brazil comprised several large indigenous ethnic groups. The Tupí people were subdivided into the Tupiniquins and Tupinambás, there were many subdivisions of the other gro
Salvador known as São Salvador da Bahia de Todos os Santos is the capital of the Brazilian state of Bahia. With 2.9 million people, it is the largest city proper in the Northeast Region and the 4th largest city proper in the country, after São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Brasília. Founded by the Portuguese in 1549 as the first capital of Brazil, Salvador is one of the oldest colonial cities in the Americas. A sharp escarpment divides its Lower Town from its Upper Town by some 85 meters; the Elevador Lacerda, Brazil's first elevator, has connected the two since 1873. The Pelourinho district of the upper town, still home to many examples of Portuguese colonial architecture and historical monuments, was named a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1985; the city's cathedral is the see of the primate of Brazil and its Carnival celebration has been reckoned as the largest party in the world. Salvador was the first slave port in the Americas and the African influence of the slaves' descendants makes it a center of Afro-Brazilian culture.
The city is noted for its cuisine, music and architecture. Porto da Barra Beach in Barra has been named one of the best beaches in the world. Itaipava Arena Fonte Nova was the site of the city's games during the 2014 Brazilian World Cup and 2013 Confederations Cup. Salvador forms the heart of the Recôncavo, Bahia's rich agricultural and industrial maritime district, continues to be a major Brazilian port, its metropolitan area, housing 3 899 533 people forms the wealthiest one in Brazil's Northeast Region. Salvador lies on a small triangular peninsula that separates the Bay of All Saints, the largest bay in Brazil, from the Atlantic Ocean, it was first reached by Gaspar de Lemos in 1501, just one year after Cabral's purported discovery of Brazil. During his second voyage for Portugal, the Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci sighted the bay on All Saints' Day 1502 and, in honor of the date and his parish church in Florence, he named it the Bay of the Holy Savior of All the Saints; the first European to settle nearby was Diogo Álvares Correia, shipwrecked off the end of the peninsula in 1509.
He lived among marrying Guaibimpara and others. In 1531, Martim Afonso de Sousa led an expedition from Mount St Paul and, in 1534, Francisco Pereira Coutinho, the first captain of Bahia, established the settlement of Pereira in modern Salvador's Ladeira da Barra neighborhood. Mistreatment of the Tupinambá by the settlers caused them to turn hostile and the Portuguese were forced to flee to Porto Seguro c. 1546. An attempted restoration of the colony the next year ended in cannibalism; the present city was established as the fortress of São Salvador da Bahia de Todos os Santos in 1549 by Portuguese settlers under Tomé de Sousa, Brazil's first governor-general. It is one of the oldest cities founded by Europeans in the Americas. From a cliff overlooking the Bay of All Saints, it served as Brazil's first capital and became a major port for its slave trade and sugarcane industry. Salvador was long divided into an upper and a lower city, divided by a sharp escarpment some 85 meters high; the upper city formed the administrative and primary residential districts while the lower city was the commercial center, with a port and market.
In the Roman Catholic Church and the rest of the Portuguese Empire were administered as part of the Diocese of Funchal in Portugal but, in 1551, Salvador became the seat of the first Roman Catholic diocese erected in Brazil. The first parish church was the mud-and-thatch Church of Our Lady of Help erected by the Jesuits, which served as the first cathedral of the diocese until the Jesuits finished construction of the original basilica on the Terreiro de Jesus in 1553, its bishop was made independent of the Archdiocese of Lisbon at the request of King Pedro II in 1676. In 1572, the Governorate of Brazil was divided into the separate governorates of Bahia in the north and Rio de Janeiro in the south; these were reunited as Brazil six years then redivided from 1607 to 1613. By that time, Portugal had become temporarily united with Spain and was ruled from Madrid by its kings. In 1621, King Philip III replaced the Governorate of Brazil with the states of Brazil, still based in Salvador and now controlling the south, the Maranhão, centered on São Luís and controlled what is now northern Brazil.
As Spain was prosecuting a war against the independence of the Dutch, the Dutch East and West India companies tried to conquer Brazil from them. Salvador played a strategically vital role against Dutch Brazil, but was captured and sacked by a West India Company fleet under Jacob Willekens and Piet Hein on 10 May 1624. Johan van Dorth administered the colony before his assassination; the city was recaptured by a Luso-Spanish fleet under Fadrique Álvarez de Toledo y Mendoza on 1 May 1625. John Maurice's two subsequent attempts to retake the town in April and May of 1638 were unsuccessful. In 1763, the colonial administration elevated to a viceroyalty. Salvador remained the heart of the Recôncavo, Bahia's rich agricultural maritime district, but was outside Brazil's early modernization; the area formed a center of royal Portuguese support against heir apparent Pedro I's declaration of independence from Eu