1.
Mathematics
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Mathematics is the study of topics such as quantity, structure, space, and change. There is a range of views among mathematicians and philosophers as to the exact scope, Mathematicians seek out patterns and use them to formulate new conjectures. Mathematicians resolve the truth or falsity of conjectures by mathematical proof, when mathematical structures are good models of real phenomena, then mathematical reasoning can provide insight or predictions about nature. Through the use of abstraction and logic, mathematics developed from counting, calculation, measurement, practical mathematics has been a human activity from as far back as written records exist. The research required to solve mathematical problems can take years or even centuries of sustained inquiry, rigorous arguments first appeared in Greek mathematics, most notably in Euclids Elements. Galileo Galilei said, The universe cannot be read until we have learned the language and it is written in mathematical language, and the letters are triangles, circles and other geometrical figures, without which means it is humanly impossible to comprehend a single word. Without these, one is wandering about in a dark labyrinth, carl Friedrich Gauss referred to mathematics as the Queen of the Sciences. Benjamin Peirce called mathematics the science that draws necessary conclusions, David Hilbert said of mathematics, We are not speaking here of arbitrariness in any sense. Mathematics is not like a game whose tasks are determined by arbitrarily stipulated rules, rather, it is a conceptual system possessing internal necessity that can only be so and by no means otherwise. Albert Einstein stated that as far as the laws of mathematics refer to reality, they are not certain, Mathematics is essential in many fields, including natural science, engineering, medicine, finance and the social sciences. Applied mathematics has led to entirely new mathematical disciplines, such as statistics, Mathematicians also engage in pure mathematics, or mathematics for its own sake, without having any application in mind. There is no clear line separating pure and applied mathematics, the history of mathematics can be seen as an ever-increasing series of abstractions. The earliest uses of mathematics were in trading, land measurement, painting and weaving patterns, in Babylonian mathematics elementary arithmetic first appears in the archaeological record. Numeracy pre-dated writing and numeral systems have many and diverse. Between 600 and 300 BC the Ancient Greeks began a study of mathematics in its own right with Greek mathematics. Mathematics has since been extended, and there has been a fruitful interaction between mathematics and science, to the benefit of both. Mathematical discoveries continue to be made today, the overwhelming majority of works in this ocean contain new mathematical theorems and their proofs. The word máthēma is derived from μανθάνω, while the modern Greek equivalent is μαθαίνω, in Greece, the word for mathematics came to have the narrower and more technical meaning mathematical study even in Classical times
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Computer science
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Computer science is the study of the theory, experimentation, and engineering that form the basis for the design and use of computers. An alternate, more succinct definition of science is the study of automating algorithmic processes that scale. A computer scientist specializes in the theory of computation and the design of computational systems and its fields can be divided into a variety of theoretical and practical disciplines. Some fields, such as computational complexity theory, are highly abstract, other fields still focus on challenges in implementing computation. Human–computer interaction considers the challenges in making computers and computations useful, usable, the earliest foundations of what would become computer science predate the invention of the modern digital computer. Machines for calculating fixed numerical tasks such as the abacus have existed since antiquity, further, algorithms for performing computations have existed since antiquity, even before the development of sophisticated computing equipment. Wilhelm Schickard designed and constructed the first working mechanical calculator in 1623, in 1673, Gottfried Leibniz demonstrated a digital mechanical calculator, called the Stepped Reckoner. He may be considered the first computer scientist and information theorist, for, among other reasons and he started developing this machine in 1834, and in less than two years, he had sketched out many of the salient features of the modern computer. A crucial step was the adoption of a card system derived from the Jacquard loom making it infinitely programmable. Around 1885, Herman Hollerith invented the tabulator, which used punched cards to process statistical information, when the machine was finished, some hailed it as Babbages dream come true. During the 1940s, as new and more powerful computing machines were developed, as it became clear that computers could be used for more than just mathematical calculations, the field of computer science broadened to study computation in general. Computer science began to be established as an academic discipline in the 1950s. The worlds first computer science program, the Cambridge Diploma in Computer Science. The first computer science program in the United States was formed at Purdue University in 1962. Since practical computers became available, many applications of computing have become distinct areas of study in their own rights and it is the now well-known IBM brand that formed part of the computer science revolution during this time. IBM released the IBM704 and later the IBM709 computers, still, working with the IBM was frustrating if you had misplaced as much as one letter in one instruction, the program would crash, and you would have to start the whole process over again. During the late 1950s, the science discipline was very much in its developmental stages. Time has seen significant improvements in the usability and effectiveness of computing technology, modern society has seen a significant shift in the users of computer technology, from usage only by experts and professionals, to a near-ubiquitous user base
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Philosophy
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Philosophy is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language. The term was coined by Pythagoras. Philosophical methods include questioning, critical discussion, rational argument and systematic presentation, classic philosophical questions include, Is it possible to know anything and to prove it. However, philosophers might also pose more practical and concrete questions such as, is it better to be just or unjust. Historically, philosophy encompassed any body of knowledge, from the time of Ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle to the 19th century, natural philosophy encompassed astronomy, medicine and physics. For example, Newtons 1687 Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy later became classified as a book of physics, in the 19th century, the growth of modern research universities led academic philosophy and other disciplines to professionalize and specialize. In the modern era, some investigations that were part of philosophy became separate academic disciplines, including psychology, sociology. Other investigations closely related to art, science, politics, or other pursuits remained part of philosophy, for example, is beauty objective or subjective. Are there many scientific methods or just one, is political utopia a hopeful dream or hopeless fantasy. Major sub-fields of academic philosophy include metaphysics, epistemology, ethics, aesthetics, political philosophy, logic, philosophy of science, since the 20th century, professional philosophers contribute to society primarily as professors, researchers and writers. Traditionally, the term referred to any body of knowledge. In this sense, philosophy is related to religion, mathematics, natural science, education. This division is not obsolete but has changed, Natural philosophy has split into the various natural sciences, especially astronomy, physics, chemistry, biology and cosmology. Moral philosophy has birthed the social sciences, but still includes value theory, metaphysical philosophy has birthed formal sciences such as logic, mathematics and philosophy of science, but still includes epistemology, cosmology and others. Many philosophical debates that began in ancient times are still debated today, colin McGinn and others claim that no philosophical progress has occurred during that interval. Chalmers and others, by contrast, see progress in philosophy similar to that in science, in one general sense, philosophy is associated with wisdom, intellectual culture and a search for knowledge. In that sense, all cultures and literate societies ask philosophical questions such as how are we to live, a broad and impartial conception of philosophy then, finds a reasoned inquiry into such matters as reality, morality and life in all world civilizations. Socrates was an influential philosopher, who insisted that he possessed no wisdom but was a pursuer of wisdom
4.
Medieval Latin
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Despite the clerical origin of many of its authors, medieval Latin should not be confused with Ecclesiastical Latin. There is no consensus on the exact boundary where Late Latin ends. Medieval Latin had a vocabulary, which freely borrowed from other sources. Greek provided much of the vocabulary of Christianity. The various Germanic languages spoken by the Germanic tribes, who invaded southern Europe, were major sources of new words. Germanic leaders became the rulers of parts of the Roman Empire that they conquered, other more ordinary words were replaced by coinages from Vulgar Latin or Germanic sources because the classical words had fallen into disuse. Latin was also spread to such as Ireland and Germany. Works written in the lands, where Latin was a language with no relation to the local vernacular, also influenced the vocabulary. English words like abstract, subject, communicate, matter, probable, the high point of the development of medieval Latin as a literary language came with the Carolingian renaissance, a rebirth of learning kindled under the patronage of Charlemagne, king of the Franks. On the other hand, strictly speaking there was no form of medieval Latin. Every Latin author in the period spoke Latin as a second language, with varying degrees of fluency, and syntax, grammar. For instance, rather than following the classical Latin practice of placing the verb at the end. Unlike classical Latin, where esse was the auxiliary verb, medieval Latin writers might use habere as an auxiliary, similar to constructions in Germanic. The accusative and infinitive construction in classical Latin was often replaced by a clause introduced by quod or quia. This is almost identical, for example, to the use of que in similar constructions in French. In every age from the late 8th century onwards, there were learned writers who were familiar enough with classical syntax to be aware that these forms and usages were wrong, however the use of quod to introduce subordinate clauses was especially pervasive and is found at all levels. That resulted in two features of Medieval Latin compared with Classical Latin. First, many attempted to show off their knowledge of Classical Latin by using rare or archaic constructions
5.
Octuple scull
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An octuple scull is a racing shell or a rowing boat used in the sport of competitive rowing. The octuple is directed by a coxswain and propelled by eight rowers who move the boat by sculling with two oars, one in each hand, like a coxed eight, an octuple is typically 65.2 feet long and weighs 211.2 pounds. Racing boats are long, narrow, and broadly semi-circular in cross-section in order to drag to a minimum. They usually have a fin towards the rear, to prevent roll. Originally made from wood, shells are now almost always made from a material for strength. The riggers in sculling apply the forces symmetrically to each side of the boat, when there are eight rowers in a boat, each with only one sweep oar and rowing on opposite sides, the combination is referred to as a coxed eight. In sweep oared racing the rigging means the forces are staggered alternately along the boat, the symmetrical forces in sculling make the boat more efficient and so the octuple scull is faster than the coxed eight. Thames Ditton Regatta,11, Final, Junior Octuple Sculls Plate – Hampton Court
6.
Twelve-tone technique
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All 12 notes are thus given more or less equal importance, and the music avoids being in a key. Over time, the technique increased greatly in popularity and eventually became widely influential on 20th century composers, many important composers who had originally not subscribed to or even actively opposed the technique, such as Aaron Copland and Igor Stravinsky, eventually adopted it in their music. Schoenberg himself described the system as a Method of composing with twelve tones which are related only with one another and it is commonly considered a form of serialism. Schoenbergs countryman and contemporary Josef Matthias Hauer also developed a system using unordered hexachords or tropes—but with no connection to Schoenbergs twelve-tone technique. Other composers have created systematic use of the scale. The twelve tone technique was preceded by freely atonal pieces of 1908–23 which, though free, the twelve-tone technique was also preceded by nondodecaphonic serial composition used independently in the works of Alexander Scriabin, Igor Stravinsky, Béla Bartók, Carl Ruggles, and others. Oliver Neighbour argues that Bartók was the first composer to use a group of twelve notes consciously for a structural purpose, essentially, Schoenberg and Hauer systematized and defined for their own dodecaphonic purposes a pervasive technical feature of modern musical practice, the ostinato. In Hauers breakthrough piece Nomos, Op. Schoenbergs idea in developing the technique was for it to replace those structural differentiations provided formerly by tonal harmonies, Some of these composers extended the technique to control aspects other than the pitches of notes, thus producing serial music. Some even subjected all elements of music to the serial process, the basis of the twelve-tone technique is the tone row, an ordered arrangement of the twelve notes of the chromatic scale. There are four postulates or preconditions to the technique which apply to the row, on which a work or section is based, no note is repeated within the row. The row may be subjected to interval-preserving transformations -—that is, it may appear in inversion, retrograde, or retrograde-inversion, the row in any of its four transformations may begin on any degree of the chromatic scale, in other words it may be freely transposed. A particular transformation together with a choice of transpositional level is referred to as a set form or row form, every row thus has up to 48 different row forms. However, not all prime series will yield so many variations because transposed transformations may be identical to each other. A simple case is the chromatic scale, the retrograde inversion of which is identical to the prime form. In the above example, as is typical, the retrograde inversion contains three points where the sequence of two pitches are identical to the prime row, thus the generative power of even the most basic transformations is both unpredictable and inevitable. Motivic development can be driven by such internal consistency, note that rules 1–4 above apply to the construction of the row itself, and not to the interpretation of the row in the composition. While a row may be expressed literally on the surface as thematic material, it need not be, however, individual composers have constructed more detailed systems in which matters such as these are also governed by systematic rules. The tone row chosen as the basis of the piece is called the prime series, untransposed, it is notated as P0
7.
Complex number
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A complex number is a number that can be expressed in the form a + bi, where a and b are real numbers and i is the imaginary unit, satisfying the equation i2 = −1. In this expression, a is the part and b is the imaginary part of the complex number. If z = a + b i, then ℜ z = a, ℑ z = b, Complex numbers extend the concept of the one-dimensional number line to the two-dimensional complex plane by using the horizontal axis for the real part and the vertical axis for the imaginary part. The complex number a + bi can be identified with the point in the complex plane, a complex number whose real part is zero is said to be purely imaginary, whereas a complex number whose imaginary part is zero is a real number. In this way, the numbers are a field extension of the ordinary real numbers. As well as their use within mathematics, complex numbers have applications in many fields, including physics, chemistry, biology, economics, electrical engineering. The Italian mathematician Gerolamo Cardano is the first known to have introduced complex numbers and he called them fictitious during his attempts to find solutions to cubic equations in the 16th century. Complex numbers allow solutions to equations that have no solutions in real numbers. For example, the equation 2 = −9 has no real solution, Complex numbers provide a solution to this problem. The idea is to extend the real numbers with the unit i where i2 = −1. According to the theorem of algebra, all polynomial equations with real or complex coefficients in a single variable have a solution in complex numbers. A complex number is a number of the form a + bi, for example, −3.5 + 2i is a complex number. The real number a is called the part of the complex number a + bi. By this convention the imaginary part does not include the unit, hence b. The real part of a number z is denoted by Re or ℜ. For example, Re = −3.5 Im =2, hence, in terms of its real and imaginary parts, a complex number z is equal to Re + Im ⋅ i. This expression is known as the Cartesian form of z. A real number a can be regarded as a number a + 0i whose imaginary part is 0
8.
Probability theory
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Probability theory is the branch of mathematics concerned with probability, the analysis of random phenomena. It is not possible to predict precisely results of random events, two representative mathematical results describing such patterns are the law of large numbers and the central limit theorem. As a mathematical foundation for statistics, probability theory is essential to human activities that involve quantitative analysis of large sets of data. Methods of probability theory also apply to descriptions of complex systems given only partial knowledge of their state, a great discovery of twentieth century physics was the probabilistic nature of physical phenomena at atomic scales, described in quantum mechanics. Christiaan Huygens published a book on the subject in 1657 and in the 19th century, initially, probability theory mainly considered discrete events, and its methods were mainly combinatorial. Eventually, analytical considerations compelled the incorporation of continuous variables into the theory and this culminated in modern probability theory, on foundations laid by Andrey Nikolaevich Kolmogorov. Kolmogorov combined the notion of space, introduced by Richard von Mises. This became the mostly undisputed axiomatic basis for modern probability theory, most introductions to probability theory treat discrete probability distributions and continuous probability distributions separately. The more mathematically advanced measure theory-based treatment of probability covers the discrete, continuous, consider an experiment that can produce a number of outcomes. The set of all outcomes is called the space of the experiment. The power set of the space is formed by considering all different collections of possible results. For example, rolling an honest die produces one of six possible results, one collection of possible results corresponds to getting an odd number. Thus, the subset is an element of the set of the sample space of die rolls. In this case, is the event that the die falls on some odd number, If the results that actually occur fall in a given event, that event is said to have occurred. Probability is a way of assigning every event a value between zero and one, with the requirement that the event made up of all possible results be assigned a value of one, the probability that any one of the events, or will occur is 5/6. This is the same as saying that the probability of event is 5/6 and this event encompasses the possibility of any number except five being rolled. The mutually exclusive event has a probability of 1/6, and the event has a probability of 1, discrete probability theory deals with events that occur in countable sample spaces. Modern definition, The modern definition starts with a finite or countable set called the sample space, which relates to the set of all possible outcomes in classical sense, denoted by Ω
9.
Permutation
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These differ from combinations, which are selections of some members of a set where order is disregarded. For example, written as tuples, there are six permutations of the set, namely and these are all the possible orderings of this three element set. As another example, an anagram of a word, all of whose letters are different, is a permutation of its letters, in this example, the letters are already ordered in the original word and the anagram is a reordering of the letters. The study of permutations of finite sets is a topic in the field of combinatorics, Permutations occur, in more or less prominent ways, in almost every area of mathematics. For similar reasons permutations arise in the study of sorting algorithms in computer science, the number of permutations of n distinct objects is n factorial, usually written as n. which means the product of all positive integers less than or equal to n. In algebra and particularly in group theory, a permutation of a set S is defined as a bijection from S to itself and that is, it is a function from S to S for which every element occurs exactly once as an image value. This is related to the rearrangement of the elements of S in which each element s is replaced by the corresponding f, the collection of such permutations form a group called the symmetric group of S. The key to this structure is the fact that the composition of two permutations results in another rearrangement. Permutations may act on structured objects by rearranging their components, or by certain replacements of symbols, in elementary combinatorics, the k-permutations, or partial permutations, are the ordered arrangements of k distinct elements selected from a set. When k is equal to the size of the set, these are the permutations of the set, fabian Stedman in 1677 described factorials when explaining the number of permutations of bells in change ringing. Starting from two bells, first, two must be admitted to be varied in two ways which he illustrates by showing 12 and 21 and he then explains that with three bells there are three times two figures to be produced out of three which again is illustrated. His explanation involves cast away 3, and 1.2 will remain, cast away 2, and 1.3 will remain, cast away 1, and 2.3 will remain. He then moves on to four bells and repeats the casting away argument showing that there will be four different sets of three, effectively this is an recursive process. He continues with five bells using the casting method and tabulates the resulting 120 combinations. At this point he gives up and remarks, Now the nature of these methods is such, in modern mathematics there are many similar situations in which understanding a problem requires studying certain permutations related to it. There are two equivalent common ways of regarding permutations, sometimes called the active and passive forms, or in older terminology substitutions and permutations, which form is preferable depends on the type of questions being asked in a given discipline. The active way to regard permutations of a set S is to them as the bijections from S to itself. Thus, the permutations are thought of as functions which can be composed with each other, forming groups of permutations
10.
Cartesian product
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In Set theory, a Cartesian product is a mathematical operation that returns a set from multiple sets. That is, for sets A and B, the Cartesian product A × B is the set of all ordered pairs where a ∈ A and b ∈ B, products can be specified using set-builder notation, e. g. A table can be created by taking the Cartesian product of a set of rows, If the Cartesian product rows × columns is taken, the cells of the table contain ordered pairs of the form. More generally, a Cartesian product of n sets, also known as an n-fold Cartesian product, can be represented by an array of n dimensions, an ordered pair is a 2-tuple or couple. The Cartesian product is named after René Descartes, whose formulation of analytic geometry gave rise to the concept, an illustrative example is the standard 52-card deck. The standard playing card ranks form a 13-element set, the card suits form a four-element set. The Cartesian product of these sets returns a 52-element set consisting of 52 ordered pairs, Ranks × Suits returns a set of the form. Suits × Ranks returns a set of the form, both sets are distinct, even disjoint. The main historical example is the Cartesian plane in analytic geometry, usually, such a pairs first and second components are called its x and y coordinates, respectively, cf. picture. The set of all such pairs is thus assigned to the set of all points in the plane, a formal definition of the Cartesian product from set-theoretical principles follows from a definition of ordered pair. The most common definition of ordered pairs, the Kuratowski definition, is =, note that, under this definition, X × Y ⊆ P, where P represents the power set. Therefore, the existence of the Cartesian product of any two sets in ZFC follows from the axioms of pairing, union, power set, let A, B, C, and D be sets. × C ≠ A × If for example A =, then × A = ≠ = A ×, the Cartesian product behaves nicely with respect to intersections, cf. left picture. × = ∩ In most cases the above statement is not true if we replace intersection with union, cf. middle picture. Other properties related with subsets are, if A ⊆ B then A × C ⊆ B × C, the cardinality of a set is the number of elements of the set. For example, defining two sets, A = and B =, both set A and set B consist of two elements each. Their Cartesian product, written as A × B, results in a new set which has the following elements, each element of A is paired with each element of B. Each pair makes up one element of the output set, the number of values in each element of the resulting set is equal to the number of sets whose cartesian product is being taken,2 in this case