The Tupolev Tu-141 Strizh was a Soviet reconnaissance drone in service with the Soviet Red Army and with a number of its Warsaw Pact and Middle East allies during the late 1970s and 1980s. The Tu-141 was a follow-on to the Tupolev Tu-123 and was a large, medium-range reconnaissance drone. It was designed to undertake reconnaissance missions several hundred kilometers behind the front lines at transonic speeds and it could carry a range of payloads, including film cameras, infrared imagers, EO imagers, and imaging radar. As with previous Tupolev designs, it had a dart-like rear-mounted delta wing, forward-mounted canards, and it was launched from a trailer using a solid-propellant booster, and it landed with the aid of a tail-mounted parachute. The Tu-141 was in Soviet service from 1979–1989, mostly on the borders of the Soviet Union. The TU-141 was pressed back into service by the Ukrainian Air Force for the War in Donbass, unverified reports from the separatist forces claim to have shot down one unit operated by the Ukrainian Air Force.
OKB Tupolev, A History of the Design Bureau and its Aircraft, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Directory, Part 2. Air International, August 1997, Vol 53 No 2 and this article contains material that originally came from the web article Unmanned Aerial Vehicles by Greg Goebel, which exists in the Public Domain. Tupolev Tu-141 on Khodynskoe Pole in Moscow
Zhukovsky, Moscow Oblast
Zhukovsky is a city in Moscow Oblast, located on the Moskva River,40 kilometers southeast of Moscow. The urban-type settlement of Stakhanovo was founded in 1935 from the dacha settlement Otdykh and it was named after Alexey Stakhanov, a famous Soviet miner. On April 23,1947, the settlement was granted town status and renamed Zhukovsky, in honor of the pioneer of aero-, within the framework of administrative divisions, it is incorporated as Zhukovsky City Under Oblast Jurisdiction—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts. As a municipal division, Zhukovsky City Under Oblast Jurisdiction is incorporated as Zhukovsky Urban Okrug, Zhukovsky is a home to the M. M. Gromov Flight Research Institute known as LII and N. Ye. Zhukovsky Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute known as TsAGI—they are two major facilities involved in testing and designing aircraft and these facilities were employers for a great portion of the citys population before perestroika. Also, there is situated the Aeromechanics faculty of MIPT, there are a number smaller, but important enterprises, such as, V. V.
The airline Aviastar-TU has its office in Zhukovsky. There are some aviation design bureaus - Sukhoy, Tupolev, machine-building, woodworking plants, spare parts factory, paper-mill Food industry - Inko, Nestlé, local bread-baking plant. Zhukovsky International Airport is in the city, Zhukovsky is the center of track and field athletics in Moscow Oblast. Most notable athletes born in Zhukovsky are Yuriy Borzakovskiy, Yekaterina Podkopayeva, Andrey Yepishin, Dmitry Bogdanov, in 2005, Meteor Stadium, a new world class athletics stadium was opened. In 2008, President Vladimir Putin signed a decree establishing the National Aircraft Construction Center. Zhukovsky is twinned with, Le Bourget, France Sydals Municipality, Denmark Ulyanovsk, Закон №11/2013-ОЗ от31 января2013 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Московской области», в ред, Закона №72/2015-ОЗ от5 мая2015 г. Вступил в силу на следующий день после официального опубликования, Подмосковье, №24,12 февраля2013 г. Закон №171/2004-ОЗ от15 декабря2004 г, «О статусе и границе городского округа Жуковский», в ред. Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования, Подмосковье, №247,29 декабря2004 г
The Tupolev Tu-143 Reys was a Soviet unmanned reconnaissance aircraft in service with the Soviet Army and a number of its Warsaw Pact and Middle East allies during the late 1970s and 1980s. It contained a reconnaissance pod that was retrieved after flight, the Tu-143 was introduced in 1976 and strongly resembled the Tu-141, but was substantially scaled-down. It was a tactical reconnaissance system and had low-level flight capability. The Tu-143 was truck-launched with JATO boosting, recovered by parachute, the initial version carried film cameras, but versions carried a TV or radiation detection payload, with data relayed to a ground station over a datalink. Some 950 units were produced in the 1970s and 1980s, the Tu-143 was used by Syria in reconnaissance missions over Israel and Lebanon during the 1982 Lebanon War, as well as by Soviet forces in Afghanistan during the Soviet war in Afghanistan. A target drone version, the M-143, was introduced in the mid-1980s.28 kN thrust and it features a centerline pylon for a sensor pod or munitions.
Financial issues forced a halt to development at the end of the 1990s, czech Tu-143/VR-3 Rejs in museum with transport vehicle and launcher
The Tupolev Tu-28 was a long-range interceptor aircraft introduced by the Soviet Union in the 1960s. The official designation was Tu-128, but this designation was commonly used in the West. It was the largest and heaviest fighter ever in service, in the 1950s, the Soviet Union sought means to defend against nuclear-armed American bombers possibly penetrating its borders. Contemporary interceptors, even the Yakovlev Yak-28P, were able to only a radius of a few hundred kilometers. Considering both, the numbers required to defend a 5,000 km air front were economically impossible to maintain. This left the Soviet Union able to provide an air defense only for selected valuable areas. The PVO decided to cover the territory, but with a more loose defense. In 1955 it placed a requirement for a large area-defense interceptor, the PVO requirement called for a supersonic aircraft with enormous fuel tanks for both a good patrol time and long range, a capable radar, and the most powerful air-to-air missiles possible.
The first attempt, although unsuccessful, was a 30-tonne Lavochkin La-250 prototype, iosif Nezval of Tupolev Design Bureau led development of the new interceptor aircraft. The work began in 1958, based on a single prototype of the unsuccessful Tu-98 supersonic bomber. The military designation of the interceptor was at first Tu-28, but it was changed in 1963 to Tu-128, the Tu-128 had a broad, low/mid-mounted swept wing carrying the main landing gear in wing-mounted pods, and slab tailplanes. Two Lyulka AL-7F-2 turbojet engines were mounted in the fuselage, the two-man crew of pilot and navigator were seated in tandem. The Tu-128, with its weight of 43 tonnes, was the heaviest fighter to enter service. It was a bomber-interceptor with high wing loading, unsophisticated but reliable avionics and it was not an agile aircraft. It was intended to combat only NATO bombers like the B-52, the interceptor made its initial public appearance in the 1961 Tushino air parade. Western experts, unaware that the bulge on the belly carried testing instruments, the production version lacked the bulge and had a large nose radome housing a radar, known as RP-S Smerch, having a detection range of about 50 km and a lock-on range of about 40 km.
Armament of the Tu-128 was four Bisnovat R-4 air-to-air missiles, usually two of them were R-4Rs with semi-active radar homing and two were R-4T infrared-homing missiles, with the former on the outer pylons and the latter on the inner underwing pylons. There was no internal weapons bay, production of the Tu-128 ended in 1970 with a total of 198 aircraft having been built
The Tupolev Tu-204 is a twin-engined medium-range jet airliner capable of carrying 210 passengers, designed by Tupolev and produced by Aviastar SP and Kazan Aircraft Production Association. First introduced in 1989, it is intended to be equivalent to the Boeing 757, with slightly lower range and payload. It was developed for Aeroflot as a replacement for the medium-range Tupolev Tu-154 trijet, the latest version, with significant upgrades and improvements, is the Tu-204SM, which made its maiden flight on 29 December 2010. The Tu-204 was designed as a family of aircraft incorporating passenger, combi and it is powered by either two Aviadvigatel PS-90 or Rolls-Royce RB211 engines. The Tu-204 is produced at two of the largest Russian aircraft manufacturing plants in Ulyanovsk and Kazan, the Tu-204 cabin is available in several layouts, including the baseline single-class layout seating for 210 passengers and a two- or three-class layout designed for 164–193 passengers. A cargo version of the Tu-204 is being operated by several airlines in Europe.
Seating configuration is 3-3 in economy and 2-2 in Business class, the business class cabin has a seat pitch of 810 millimetres. The passenger cabin can be divided into compartments according to class with removable bulkheads, compartments are illuminated by reflected light. Hidden lights located over and under the overhead bins create uniform, overhead bins for passenger baggage and coats are of the closed type. The volume of baggage per passenger is 0.052 cubic metres, in 1994, the first certificate for Tu-204 aircraft was issued. Subsequently issued certificates have extended estimated operational conditions and improved overall aircraft type design and it is currently undergoing the certification process with JAA. The Tu-204-100 variant, certified with PS-90A engines, complies with noise regulations described in Chapter 4 of Supplement 16 to ICAO which means it is quieter, the aircraft was certified to Russian standards AP-25. The Tu-204 is part of a new generation of Russian aircraft, the Tu-204 features many technological innovations such as fly-by-wire control systems, a glass cockpit, supercritical wings with winglets, and is available with Russian or foreign avionics.
The wings and tails are relatively resistant to ice build-up, among todays airliners the Tu-204 is the only one which does not require wing anti-icing systems. During the test flight safety has been confirmed without the system on the bearing surfaces. The Tu-204 is the passenger airline model, and the Tu-204C is the basic freight or cargo model. The most-used models are the -100C and the -120C, certified in January 1995, this initial version is powered by Soloviev PS90 turbofans with 157 kN of thrust, and uses Russian avionics in addition to its Russian engines. The Tu-204-200 is a version with extra fuel for more range
Liquefied natural gas
Liquefied natural gas is natural gas that has been converted to liquid form for ease of storage or transport. It takes up about 1/600th the volume of gas in the gaseous state. It is odorless, colorless and non-corrosive, hazards include flammability after vaporization into a gaseous state and asphyxia. The liquefaction process involves removal of certain components, such as dust, acid gases, helium and heavy hydrocarbons, which could cause difficulty downstream. The natural gas is condensed into a liquid at close to atmospheric pressure by cooling it to approximately −162 °C. LNG achieves a reduction in volume than compressed natural gas so that the energy density of LNG is 2.4 times greater than that of CNG or 60 percent that of diesel fuel. This makes LNG cost efficient to transport long distances where pipelines do not exist. Specially designed cryogenic sea vessels or cryogenic road tankers are used for its transport, LNG is principally used for transporting natural gas to markets, where it is regasified and distributed as pipeline natural gas.
It can be used in natural gas vehicles, although it is common to design vehicles to use compressed natural gas. Its relatively high cost of production and the need to store it in expensive cryogenic tanks have hindered widespread commercial use, despite these drawbacks, on energy basis LNG production is expected to hit 10% of the global crude production by 2020. The heating value depends on the source of gas that is used, the range of heating value can span +/-10 to 15 percent. A typical value of the heating value of LNG is approximately 50 MJ/kg or 21,500 BTU/lb. A typical value of the heating value of LNG is 45 MJ/kg or 19,350 BTU/lb. For the purpose of comparison of different fuels the heating value may be expressed in terms of energy per volume which is known as the energy density expressed in MJ/liter. The density of LNG is roughly 0.41 kg/liter to 0.5 kg/liter, depending on temperature, using the median value of 0.45 kg/liter, the typical energy density values are 22.5 MJ/liter or 20.3 MJ/liter.
The energy density of LNG is approximately 2.4 times greater than that of CNG which makes it economical to transport natural gas by ship in the form of LNG. The energy density of LNG is comparable to propane and ethanol but is only 60 percent that of diesel and 70 percent that of gasoline, experiments on the properties of gases started early in the seventeenth century. By the middle of the seventeenth century Robert Boyle had derived the relationship between the pressure and the volume of gases
The Tupolev Tu-22 was the first supersonic bomber to enter production in the Soviet Union. Manufactured by Tupolev, the Tu-22 entered service with the Soviet military in the 1960s, the last examples were retired during the 1990s. Produced in comparatively small numbers, the aircraft was a disappointment, in their service life, Tu-22s were used as launch platforms for the Soviet Kh-22 standoff missile, and as reconnaissance aircraft. Tu-22s were sold to nations, including Libya and Iraq. The Tu-22 was one of the few Soviet bombers to see combat, Libyan Tu-22s were used against Tanzania and Chad, the Tu-22 was intended originally as a supersonic replacement for the Tupolev Tu-16 bomber. Preliminary design of an aircraft to meet this requirement, designated Samolyot 105 by Tupolev, was started in 1954 and it made its maiden flight from Zhukovsky on 21 June 1958, flown by test pilot Yuri Alasheev. The availability of powerful engines, and the TsAGI discovery of the Area rule for minimizing transonic aerodynamic drag, resulted in the construction of a revised prototype.
This first flew on 7 September 1959 and it initially received the NATO reporting name Bullshot, which was deemed to be inappropriate, which was deemed to be too complimentary, and finally the Blinder. Soviet crews called it shilo because of its shape, the Tu-22 entered service in 1962, but it experienced considerable problems, resulting in widespread unserviceability and several crashes. Amongst its many faults was a tendency for skin aerodynamic heating at supersonic speed, distorting the control rods, even after some of its problems had been resolved, the Blinder was never easy to fly, and it was maintenance-intensive. Among its unpleasant characteristics was a design that allowed rudder reversal at high deflections. When the stick had been neutralized following such an event, the deformation of the wing did not necessarily disappear but could persist and result in an almost uncontrollable aircraft. As a consequence, Tu-16 pilots transitioning to the single-pilot Tu-22 suddenly found themselves having to perform all the piloting tasks, many, if not most of these pilots were unable to complete their training for this reason.
Eventually, pilots were selected from the ranks of the Su-17 Fitter crews, by the time the Tu-22B entered service, it was already obvious that its operational usefulness was limited. Despite its speed, it was inferior to the Tu-16 with respect to combat radius, weapon load, Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev believed that ballistic missiles were the way of the future, and bombers like the Tu-22 were in danger of cancellation. As a result, only 15 Tu-22Bs were built, a combat-capable aerial reconnaissance version, the Tu-22R, was developed along with the bomber, entering service in 1962. The Tu-22R could be fitted with a refueling probe that was subsequently fitted to most Tu-22s. 127 Tu-22Rs were built,62 of which went to the AVMF for maritime patrol use, a trainer version of the Blinder, the Tu-22U, was fielded at the same time, it had a raised cockpit for an instructor pilot
Tupolev is a Russian aerospace and defence company, headquartered in Basmanny District, Central Administrative Okrug, Moscow. Known officially as Joint Stock Company Tupolev, it is the successor of the Tupolev OKB or Tupolev Design Bureau headed by the Soviet aerospace engineer A. N, the company celebrated its 90th anniversary on October 22,2012. The Russian government merged Tupolev with Mikoyan, Irkut, the capabilities of PSC Tupolev include development and overhaul for both civil and military aerospace products such as aircraft and weapons systems. It is active with missile and naval aviation technologies, more than 18,000 Tupolev aircraft were produced for the USSR and the Eastern Bloc. Tupolev OKB was founded by Andrei Tupolev in 1922 and its facilities are tailored for aeronautics research and aircraft design only, manufacturing is handled by other firms. It researched all-metal airplanes during the 1920s, based directly on the work already done by Hugo Junkers during World War I. The first successful all-metal airplane was built with sheet steel by the German engineer Hugo Junkers in 1915.
With the never-completed Junkers J3 of 1916, used strictly as a design study and this factory was turned over to Tupolev in 1925. Russian sources usually refrain from making the link between Junkers and Tupolev, Tupolev was an able designer, but his first generation aircraft were heavily influenced by his early connection to Junkers. Tupolevs design approach in these two airplanes defined for many years the trends of heavy development and military. During World War II, the twin-engined, all-metal Tu-2 was one of the best front-line bombers of the Soviets, several variants of it were produced in large numbers from 1942. During the war it used wooden rear fuselages due to a shortage of metal and this was succeeded by the development of the jet-powered Tu-16 bomber, which used a sweptback wing for good subsonic performance. As turbojets were not fuel efficient enough to provide truly intercontinental range, the Soviets elected to design a new bomber, the Tu-20, more commonly referred to as the Tu-95.
It, was based on the fuselage and structural design of the Tu-4 and it became the definitive Soviet intercontinental bomber, with intercontinental range and jet-like performance. In many respects the Soviet equivalent of the Boeing B-52 Stratofortress, it served as a bomber and in many alternate roles, including reconnaissance. The Tu-16 was developed into the civil Tu-104, the Tu-95 became the basis of the unique Tu-114 medium-to-long-range airliner, the fastest turboprop aircraft ever. One common feature found in many large subsonic Tupolev jet aircraft is large pods extending rearward from the edge of the wings. These allow the aircraft to have landing gears made up of many large low-pressure tires, for example, the Tu-154 airliner, the Soviet equivalent of the Boeing 727, has 14 tyres, the same number as Boeings far larger 777–200
In physics, cryogenics is the study of the production and behaviour of materials at very low temperatures. It is not well-defined at what point on the temperature scale refrigeration ends and cryogenics begins, but scientists assume a gas to be cryogenic if it can be liquefied at or below −150 °C. The U. S. National Institute of Standards and Technology has chosen to consider the field of cryogenics as that involving temperatures below −180 °C or −292.00 °F or 93.15 K. A person who studies elements that have been subjected to cold temperatures is called a cryogenicist. Cryogenicists use the Kelvin or Rankine temperature scales present in nature, Cryogenics The branches of physics and engineering that involve the study of very low temperatures, how to produce them, and how materials behave at those temperatures. Cryobiology The branch of biology involving the study of the effects of low temperatures on organisms, cryoconservation of animal genetic resources The conservation of genetic material with the intention of conserving a breed.
Cryosurgery The branch of surgery applying very low temperatures to destroy malignant tissue, cryoelectronics The field of research regarding superconductivity at low temperatures. Cryotronics The practical application of cryoelectronics, Cryonics Cryopreserving humans and animals with the intention of future revival. Cryogenics is sometimes used to mean Cryonics in popular culture. The word cryogenics stems from Greek kρύο – cold + genic – having to do with production, Cryogenic fluids with their boiling point in kelvins Liquefied gases, such as liquid nitrogen and liquid helium, are used in many cryogenic applications. Liquid nitrogen is the most commonly used element in cryogenics and is legally purchasable around the world, Liquid helium is commonly used and allows for the lowest attainable temperatures to be reached. These liquids may be stored in Dewar flasks, which are double-walled containers with a vacuum between the walls to reduce heat transfer into the liquid. Typical laboratory Dewar flasks are spherical, made of glass and protected in a metal outer container, Dewar flasks for extremely cold liquids such as liquid helium have another double-walled container filled with liquid nitrogen.
Dewar flasks are named after their inventor, James Dewar, the man who first liquefied hydrogen, thermos bottles are smaller vacuum flasks fitted in a protective casing. Cryogenic barcode labels are used to mark dewar flasks containing these liquids, Cryogenic transfer pumps are the pumps used on LNG piers to transfer liquefied natural gas from LNG carriers to LNG storage tanks, as are cryogenic valves. The field of cryogenics advanced during World War II when scientists found that metals frozen to low temperatures showed more resistance to wear, based on this theory of cryogenic hardening, the commercial cryogenic processing industry was founded in 1966 by Ed Busch. This evolved in the late 1990s into the treatment of other parts, such as liquid nitrogen, are further used for specialty chilling and freezing applications. Some chemical reactions, like those used to produce the active ingredients for the popular statin drugs, special cryogenic chemical reactors are used to remove reaction heat and provide a low temperature environment
Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7. It was first discovered and isolated by Scottish physician Daniel Rutherford in 1772, although Carl Wilhelm Scheele and Henry Cavendish had independently done so at about the same time, Rutherford is generally accorded the credit because his work was published first. Nitrogen is the lightest member of group 15 of the periodic table, the name comes from the Greek πνίγειν to choke, directly referencing nitrogens asphyxiating properties. It is an element in the universe, estimated at about seventh in total abundance in the Milky Way. At standard temperature and pressure, two atoms of the element bind to form dinitrogen, a colourless and odorless diatomic gas with the formula N2, dinitrogen forms about 78% of Earths atmosphere, making it the most abundant uncombined element. Nitrogen occurs in all organisms, primarily in amino acids, in the nucleic acids, the human body contains about 3% nitrogen by mass, the fourth most abundant element in the body after oxygen and hydrogen.
The nitrogen cycle describes movement of the element from the air, into the biosphere and organic compounds, many industrially important compounds, such as ammonia, nitric acid, organic nitrates, and cyanides, contain nitrogen. The extremely strong bond in elemental nitrogen, the second strongest bond in any diatomic molecule. Synthetically produced ammonia and nitrates are key industrial fertilisers, and fertiliser nitrates are key pollutants in the eutrophication of water systems. Apart from its use in fertilisers and energy-stores, nitrogen is a constituent of organic compounds as diverse as Kevlar used in high-strength fabric, Nitrogen is a constituent of every major pharmacological drug class, including antibiotics. Many notable nitrogen-containing drugs, such as the caffeine and morphine or the synthetic amphetamines. Nitrogen compounds have a long history, ammonium chloride having been known to Herodotus. They were well known by the Middle Ages, alchemists knew nitric acid as aqua fortis, as well as other nitrogen compounds such as ammonium salts and nitrate salts.
The mixture of nitric and hydrochloric acids was known as aqua regia, celebrated for its ability to dissolve gold, the discovery of nitrogen is attributed to the Scottish physician Daniel Rutherford in 1772, who called it noxious air. Though he did not recognise it as a different chemical substance, he clearly distinguished it from Joseph Blacks fixed air. The fact that there was a component of air that does not support combustion was clear to Rutherford, Nitrogen was studied at about the same time by Carl Wilhelm Scheele, Henry Cavendish, and Joseph Priestley, who referred to it as burnt air or phlogisticated air. Nitrogen gas was inert enough that Antoine Lavoisier referred to it as air or azote, from the Greek word άζωτικός. In an atmosphere of nitrogen, animals died and flames were extinguished
The Tupolev Tu-22M is a supersonic, variable-sweep wing, long-range strategic and maritime strike bomber developed by the Tupolev Design Bureau. According to some sources, the bomber was believed to be designated Tu-26 at one time, during the Cold War, the Tu-22M was operated by the Soviet Air Force in a strategic bombing role, and by the Soviet Naval Aviation in a long-range maritime anti-shipping role. Significant numbers remain in service with the Russian Air Force, in 1962, with the introduction of the Tu-22, it became increasingly clear that the aircraft was considerably inadequate in its role as a bomber. In addition to widespread unserviceability and maintenance issues, the Tu-22’s handling characteristics proved to be dangerous and its landing speed was some 100 km/h greater than previous bombers and it had a tendency to pitch up and strike its tail upon landing. It was difficult to fly, and had poor all-round visibility, in 1962, Tupolev commenced work on major update of the Tu-22.
Initially, the bureau planned to add a wing and uprated engines into the updated design. The design was tested at TsAGI’s wind tunnels at Zhukovsky, during this time, traditionally a designer of fighter aircraft, developed the T-4, a four-engine titanium aircraft with canards. A response to the XB-70, it was to have a speed of 3,200 km/h. Not to be outdone, whose expertise is with bombers, compared to the T-4, it was an evolutionary design, and thus its appeal laid in its simplicity and low cost. However, the Soviet government was sceptical about the need to approve the development of a replacement aircraft so soon after the Tu-22 had just entered service, the aircraft was designated Tu-22M, given the OKB code Aircraft 45, and an internal designation of AM. Their effort was successful as the government approved the design on 28 November 1967, and decreed the development of the main weapon. The T-4 itself would make its first flight in 1972, but was cancelled, US intelligence had been aware of the existence of the aircraft since 1969, and the first satellite photograph of the bomber would be taken in 1970.
The existence of the aircraft was a shock to US intelligence as Nikita Khrushchev, the result was a new swing wing aircraft named Samolyot 145, derived from the Tupolev Tu-22, with some features borrowed from the abortive Tu-98. The Tu-22M was based on the Tu-22s weapon system and used its Kh-22 missile, the Tu-22M designation was used to help get approval for the bomber within the Soviet military and government system. The Tu-22M designation was used by the Soviet Union during the SALT II arms control negotiations, some suggested that the designation was deliberately deceptive, and intended to hide the Tu-22Ms performance. Other sources suggest the deception was internal to make it easier to get budgets approved, according to some sources, the Backfire-B/C production variants were believed to be designated Tu-26 by Russia, although this is disputed by many others. The US State and Defense Departments have used the Tu-22M designation for the Backfire, production of all Tu-22M variants totalled 497 including pre-production aircraft.
The two prototypes Tu-22M0 were delivered to Long Range Aviation’s 42nd Combat Training Centre at Dyagilevo air base, near Ryazan, the aircraft began practice sorties in March
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991. It was nominally a union of national republics, but its government. The Soviet Union had its roots in the October Revolution of 1917 and this established the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic and started the Russian Civil War between the revolutionary Reds and the counter-revolutionary Whites. In 1922, the communists were victorious, forming the Soviet Union with the unification of the Russian, Ukrainian, following Lenins death in 1924, a collective leadership and a brief power struggle, Joseph Stalin came to power in the mid-1920s. Stalin suppressed all opposition to his rule, committed the state ideology to Marxism–Leninism. As a result, the country underwent a period of rapid industrialization and collectivization which laid the foundation for its victory in World War II and postwar dominance of Eastern Europe. Shortly before World War II, Stalin signed the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact agreeing to non-aggression with Nazi Germany, in June 1941, the Germans invaded the Soviet Union, opening the largest and bloodiest theater of war in history.
Soviet war casualties accounted for the highest proportion of the conflict in the effort of acquiring the upper hand over Axis forces at battles such as Stalingrad. Soviet forces eventually captured Berlin in 1945, the territory overtaken by the Red Army became satellite states of the Eastern Bloc. The Cold War emerged by 1947 as the Soviet bloc confronted the Western states that united in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization in 1949. Following Stalins death in 1953, a period of political and economic liberalization, known as de-Stalinization and Khrushchevs Thaw, the country developed rapidly, as millions of peasants were moved into industrialized cities. The USSR took a lead in the Space Race with Sputnik 1, the first ever satellite, and Vostok 1. In the 1970s, there was a brief détente of relations with the United States, the war drained economic resources and was matched by an escalation of American military aid to Mujahideen fighters. In the mid-1980s, the last Soviet leader, Mikhail Gorbachev, sought to reform and liberalize the economy through his policies of glasnost.
The goal was to preserve the Communist Party while reversing the economic stagnation, the Cold War ended during his tenure, and in 1989 Soviet satellite countries in Eastern Europe overthrew their respective communist regimes. This led to the rise of strong nationalist and separatist movements inside the USSR as well, in August 1991, a coup détat was attempted by Communist Party hardliners. It failed, with Russian President Boris Yeltsin playing a role in facing down the coup. On 25 December 1991, Gorbachev resigned and the twelve constituent republics emerged from the dissolution of the Soviet Union as independent post-Soviet states