Morning glory is the common name for over 1,000 species of flowering plants in the family Convolvulaceae, whose current taxonomy and systematics are in flux. Morning glory species belong to many genera, some of which are: Argyreia Astripomoea Calystegia Convolvulus Ipomoea Lepistemon Merremia Operculina Rivea Stictocardia Most morning glory flowers unravel into full bloom in the early morning; the flowers start to fade a few hours before the "petals" start showing visible curling. They prefer full solar exposure throughout the day, mesic soils; some morning glories, such as Ipomoea muricata, are night-blooming flowers. In some places, such as Australian bushland, some species of morning glories develop thick roots and tend to grow in dense thickets, they can spread by way of long, creeping stems. By crowding out and smothering other plants, morning glory has turned into a serious invasive weed problem. In cultivation, most are treated as perennial plants in frost-free areas and as annual plants in colder climates, but some species tolerate winter cold.
There are some species which are annual, producing many seeds, some perennial species which are propagated by cuttings. Some moonflowers, which flower at night, are in the morning glory family; because of their fast growth, twining habit, attractive flowers, tolerance for poor, dry soils, some morning glories are excellent vines for creating summer shade on building walls when trellised, thus keeping the building cooler and reducing heating and cooling costs. Popular varieties in contemporary western cultivation include'Sunspots','Heavenly Blue', the moonflower, the cypress vine, the cardinal climber; the cypress vine is a hybrid, with the cardinal climber as one parent. Many morning glories will self-seed in the garden, they have a hard seed coat. Germination may be improved by pre-soaking in warm water. Morning glory was first known in China for its medicinal uses, due to the laxative properties of its seeds, it was introduced to the Japanese in the 9th century, they were the first to cultivate it as an ornamental flower.
During the Edo period, it became popular. The Japanese have led the world in developing varieties. Hundreds have evolved, such as a brownish coloured variant known as Danjuro, varieties with such evocative names as'Brocade of Dawn','Moon in the Dusk' and'Wisteria Girl', it has come to symbolize summer in Japanese art. Ancient Mesoamerican civilizations used the morning glory species Ipomoea alba to convert the latex from the Castilla elastica tree and the guayule plant to produce bouncing rubber balls; the sulfur in the morning glory's juice served to vulcanize the rubber, a process predating Charles Goodyear's discovery by at least 3,000 years. Aztec priests in Mexico were known to use the plant's hallucinogenic properties. Ipomoea aquatica, known as water spinach, water morning glory, water convolvulus, ong-choy, kang-kung, or swamp cabbage, is popularly used as a green vegetable in East and Southeast Asian cuisines. In the USA Ipomoea aquatica is a federal noxious weed, can be illegal to grow, possess, or sell without a permit.
However, a market exists for the plant's powerful culinary potential. As of 2005, the state of Texas has acknowledged that water spinach is a prized vegetable in many cultures, has allowed water spinach to be grown for personal consumption, in part because it is known to have been grown in Texas for more than 15 years and has not yet escaped cultivation; because it goes by so many names, it can be slipped through import inspections, it is available in Asian or specialty produce markets. The genus Ipomoea contains the sweet potato. Though the term "morning glory" is not extended to Ipomoea batatas, sometimes it may be referred to as a tuberous morning glory in a horticultural context; some cultivars of Ipomoea batatas are grown for their ornamental value, rather than for the edible tuber. The seeds of many species of morning glory contain ergoline alkaloids such as the psychedelic ergonovine and ergine. Seeds of Ipomoea tricolor and Turbina corymbosa are used as psychedelics; the seeds of morning glory can produce a similar effect to LSD when taken in large doses numbering into the hundreds.
Though the chemical LSA is not legal in some countries, the seeds are found in many gardening stores. These pesticide coating could be dangerous if one has a history of liver disorders and may cause neural damage. For this reason, Terrence McKenna advocated growing and harvesting your own Heavenly Blue Morning Glory seeds to use for this purpose, avoid any possibility of pesticide coatings. Everitt, J. H.. L.. R.. Weeds in South Texas and Northern Mexico. Lubbock: Texas Tech University Press. ISBN 0-89672-614-2. Furst, Peter. Flesh of the Gods. ISBN 978-0-88133-477-7. Schultes, Richard Evans. Hallucinogenic Plants. Elmer W. Smith, illustrator. New York: Golden Press. ISBN 0-307-24362-1. Texts on Wikisource: "Morning Glory". Collier's New Encyclopedia. 1921. "Morning Glory". The New Student's Reference Work. 1914. Erowid Morning Glory Vault Morning Glory Flowers is a book from 1854
Natural Resources Conservation Service
Natural Resources Conservation Service known as the Soil Conservation Service, is an agency of the United States Department of Agriculture that provides technical assistance to farmers and other private landowners and managers. Its name was changed in 1994 during the presidency of Bill Clinton to reflect its broader mission, it is a small agency comprising about 12,000 employees. Its mission is to improve and conserve natural resources on private lands through a cooperative partnership with state and local agencies. While its primary focus has been agricultural lands, it has made many technical contributions to soil surveying and water quality improvement. One example is the Conservation Effects Assessment Project, set up to quantify the benefits of agricultural conservation efforts promoted and supported by programs in the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002. NRCS is the leading agency in this project; the agency was founded through the efforts of Hugh Hammond Bennett, a soil conservation pioneer who worked for the Department of Agriculture from 1903 to 1952.
Bennett's motivation was based on his knowledge of the detrimental effects of soil erosion and the impacts on U. S lands. On September 13, 1933, the Soil Erosion Service was formed in the Department of the Interior, with Bennett as chief; the service was transferred to the Department of Agriculture on March 23, 1935, was shortly thereafter combined with other USDA units to form the Soil Conservation Service by the Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act of 1935. The Soil Conservation Service was in charge of 500 Civilian Conservation Corps camps between 1933 and 1942; the primary purpose of these camps was erosion control. Hugh Bennett continued as chief, a position he held until his retirement in 1952. On October 20, 1994, the agency was renamed to the Natural Resources Conservation Service as part of the Federal Crop Insurance Reform and Department of Agriculture Reorganization Act of 1994. NRCS offers financial assistance to farmers and ranchers; the financial assistance is authorized by the Farm Bill, a law, renewed every five years.
The 2014 Farm Bill consolidated 23 programs into 15. NRCS offers these services to private land owners, conservation districts and other types of organizations. NRCS collects and shares information on the nation's soil, water and plants; the Conservation Title of the Farm Bill provides the funding to agricultural producers, a conservation plan must be included. All of these programs are voluntary; the main programs include: The purpose of EQIP is to provide assistance to landowners to help them improve their soil and related natural resources, including grazing lands and wildlife habitat. Conservation Stewardship Program CSP is targeted to a producers who maintain a higher level of environmental stewardship. Regional Conservation Partnership Program RCPP consolidated four programs from the prior 2008 Farm Bill, it aims at more watershed scale projects, rather than individual farms and ranches. Agricultural Conservation Easement Program ACEP was another consolidation effort of the 2014 Farm Bill, which includes the former Grasslands Reserve Program and Ranch Lands Protection Program, Wetlands Reserve Program.
ACEP includes technical and financial help to maintain or improve land for agriculture or environmental benefits. Landowners volunteer to protect forests in 30 or 10 year contracts; this program hands assisting funds to participants. The objectives of HFRP are to: Promote the recovery of endangered and threatened species under the Endangered Species Act Improve plant and animal biodiversity Enhance carbon sequestration Serves 10 states in the Midwest United States in helping to reduce Nitrate levels in soil due to runoff from fertilized farmland; the project began in 2010 and focused on the Mississippi Basin area. The main goal of the project is to implement better methods of managing water drainage from agricultural uses, in place of letting the water drain as it had done in the past. In October 2011, The National "Managing Water, Harvesting Results" Summit was held to promote the drainage techniques used in hopes of people adopting them nationwide. Includes water supply forecasts and the Surface Water Supply Index for Alaska and other Western states.
NRCS agents collect data from snowpack and mountain sites to predict spring runoff and summer streamflow amounts. These predictions are used in decision making for agriculture, wildlife management and development, several other areas; these predictions are available within the first 5 days of each month from January to June. Is a blanket program which involves conservation efforts on soil and water conservation, as well as management of agricultural wastes and general longterm sustainability. NRCS and related agencies work with landowners, communities, or developers to protect the environment. Serve to guide people to comply with acts such as the Highly Erodible Land and Conservation Compliance Provisions acts; the CTA can cover projects by state and federal governments. Is a program to assist gulf bordering states improve water quality and use sustainable methods of farming and other industry; the program will deliver up to 50 million dollars over 2011-2013 to apply these sustainable methods, as well as wildlife habitat management systems that do not hinder agricultural productivity, prevent future over use of water resources to protect native endangered spe
Alkaloids are a class of occurring organic compounds that contain basic nitrogen atoms. This group includes some related compounds with neutral and weakly acidic properties; some synthetic compounds of similar structure may be termed alkaloids. In addition to carbon and nitrogen, alkaloids may contain oxygen, sulfur and, more other elements such as chlorine and phosphorus. Alkaloids are produced by a large variety of organisms including bacteria, fungi and animals, they can be purified from crude extracts of these organisms by acid-base extraction. Alkaloids have a wide range of pharmacological activities including antimalarial, anticancer, vasodilatory, analgesic and antihyperglycemic activities. Many have found use as starting points for drug discovery. Other alkaloids possess psychotropic and stimulant activities, have been used in entheogenic rituals or as recreational drugs. Alkaloids can be toxic too. Although alkaloids act on a diversity of metabolic systems in humans and other animals, they uniformly evoke a bitter taste.
The boundary between alkaloids and other nitrogen-containing natural compounds is not clear-cut. Compounds like amino acid peptides, nucleotides, nucleic acid and antibiotics are not called alkaloids. Natural compounds containing nitrogen in the exocyclic position are classified as amines rather than as alkaloids; some authors, consider alkaloids a special case of amines. The name "alkaloids" was introduced in 1819 by the German chemist Carl Friedrich Wilhelm Meißner, is derived from late Latin root alkali and the suffix -οειδής – "like". However, the term came into wide use only after the publication of a review article by Oscar Jacobsen in the chemical dictionary of Albert Ladenburg in the 1880s. There is no unique method of naming alkaloids. Many individual names are formed by adding the suffix "ine" to the genus name. For example, atropine is isolated from the plant Atropa belladonna. Where several alkaloids are extracted from one plant their names are distinguished by variations in the suffix: "idine", "anine", "aline", "inine" etc.
There are at least 86 alkaloids whose names contain the root "vin" because they are extracted from vinca plants such as Vinca rosea. Alkaloid-containing plants have been used by humans since ancient times for therapeutic and recreational purposes. For example, medicinal plants have been known in the Mesopotamia at least around 2000 BC; the Odyssey of Homer referred to a gift given to Helen by the Egyptian queen, a drug bringing oblivion. It is believed. A Chinese book on houseplants written in 1st–3rd centuries BC mentioned a medical use of Ephedra and opium poppies. Coca leaves have been used by South American Indians since ancient times. Extracts from plants containing toxic alkaloids, such as aconitine and tubocurarine, were used since antiquity for poisoning arrows. Studies of alkaloids began in the 19th century. In 1804, the German chemist Friedrich Sertürner isolated from opium a "soporific principle", which he called "morphium" in honor of Morpheus, the Greek god of dreams; the term "morphine", used in English and French, was given by the French physicist Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac.
A significant contribution to the chemistry of alkaloids in the early years of its development was made by the French researchers Pierre Joseph Pelletier and Joseph Bienaimé Caventou, who discovered quinine and strychnine. Several other alkaloids were discovered around that time, including xanthine, caffeine, nicotine, colchicine and cocaine; the development of the chemistry of alkaloids was accelerated by the emergence of spectroscopic and chromatographic methods in the 20th century, so that by 2008 more than 12,000 alkaloids had been identified. The first complete synthesis of an alkaloid was achieved in 1886 by the German chemist Albert Ladenburg, he produced coniine by reacting 2-methylpyridine with acetaldehyde and reducing the resulting 2-propenyl pyridine with sodium. Compared with most other classes of natural compounds, alkaloids are characterized by a great structural diversity. There is no uniform classification; when knowledge of chemical structures was lacking, botanical classification of the source plants was relied on.
This classification is now considered obsolete. More recent classifications are based on similarity of the carbon biochemical precursor. However, they require compromises in borderline cases. Alkaloids are divided into the following major groups: "True alkaloids" contain nitrogen in the heterocycle and originate from amino acids, their characteristic examples are atropine and morphine. This group a
An invasive species is a species, not native to a specific location, that has a tendency to spread to a degree believed to cause damage to the environment, human economy or human health. The criteria for invasive species has been controversial, as divergent perceptions exist among researchers as well as concerns with the subjectivity of the term "invasive". Several alternate usages of the term have been proposed; the term as most used applies to introduced species that adversely affect the habitats and bioregions they invade economically, environmentally, or ecologically. Such invasive species may be either plants or animals and may disrupt by dominating a region, wilderness areas, particular habitats, or wildland–urban interface land from loss of natural controls; this includes non-native invasive plant species labeled as exotic pest plants and invasive exotics growing in native plant communities. It has been used in this sense by government organizations as well as conservation groups such as the International Union for Conservation of Nature and the California Native Plant Society.
The European Union defines "Invasive Alien Species" as those that are, outside their natural distribution area, secondly, threaten biological diversity. The term is used by land managers, researchers, horticulturalists and the public for noxious weeds; the kudzu vine, Andean pampas grass, yellow starthistle are examples. An alternate usage broadens the term to include indigenous or "native" species along with non-native species, that have colonized natural areas. Deer are an example, considered to be overpopulating their native zones and adjacent suburban gardens, by some in the Northeastern and Pacific Coast regions of the United States. Sometimes the term is used to describe a non-native or introduced species that has become widespread. However, not every introduced. A nonadverse example is the common goldfish, found throughout the United States, but achieves high densities. Notable examples of invasive species include European rabbits, grey squirrels, domestic cats and ferrets. Dispersal and subsequent proliferation of species is not an anthropogenic phenomenon.
There are many mechanisms by which species from all Kingdoms have been able to travel across continents in short periods of time such as via floating rafts, or on wind currents. Charles Darwin, a British naturalist, performed many experiments to better understand long distance seed dispersal, was able to germinate seeds from insect frass, faeces of waterfowl, dirt clods on the feet of birds, all of which may have traveled significant distances under their own power, or be blown off course by thousands of miles. Invasion of long-established ecosystems by organisms from distant bio-regions is a natural phenomenon, accelerated via hominid-assisted migration although this has not been adequately directly measured; the definition of "native" is controversial in that there is no way to determine nativity. For example, the ancestors of Equus ferus evolved in North America and radiated to Eurasia before becoming locally extinct. Upon returning to North America in 1493 during their hominid-assisted migration, it is debatable as to whether they were native or exotic to the continent of their evolutionary ancestors.
Scientists include species and ecosystem factors among the mechanisms that, when combined, establish invasiveness in a newly introduced species. While all species compete to survive, invasive species appear to have specific traits or specific combinations of traits that allow them to outcompete native species. In some cases, the competition is about rates of reproduction. In other cases, species interact with each other more directly. Researchers disagree about the usefulness of traits as invasiveness markers. One study found that of a list of invasive and noninvasive species, 86% of the invasive species could be identified from the traits alone. Another study found invasive species tended to have only a small subset of the presumed traits and that many similar traits were found in noninvasive species, requiring other explanations. Common invasive species traits include the following: Fast growth Rapid reproduction High dispersal ability Phenotype plasticity Tolerance of a wide range of environmental conditions Ability to live off of a wide range of food types Association with humans Prior successful invasionsTypically, an introduced species must survive at low population densities before it becomes invasive in a new location.
At low population densities, it can be difficult for the introduced species to reproduce and maintain itself in a new location, so a species might reach a location multiple times before it becomes established. Repeated patterns of human movement, such as ships sailing to and from ports or cars driving up and down highways offer repeated opportunities for establishment. An introduced species might become invasive if it can outcompete native species for resources such as nutrients, physical space, water, or food. If these species evolved under great competition or predation the new environment may host fewer able competitors, allowing the invader to proliferate quickly. Ecosystems which are being used to their fullest capacity by native species can be modeled as zero-sum systems in which any gain for the invader is a loss for the native. However, su
Mary, mother of Jesus
Mary was a 1st-century BC Galilean Jewish woman of Nazareth, the mother of Jesus, according to the New Testament and the Quran. The gospels of Matthew and Luke in the New Testament and the Quran describe Mary as a virgin; the miraculous conception took place when she was betrothed to Joseph. She accompanied Joseph to Bethlehem; the Gospel of Luke begins its account of Mary's life with the Annunciation, when the angel Gabriel appeared to Mary and announced her divine selection to be the mother of Jesus. According to canonical gospel accounts, Mary was present at the crucifixion and is depicted as a member of the early Christian community in Jerusalem. According to Catholic and Orthodox teachings, at the end of her earthly life her body was raised directly into Heaven. Mary has been venerated since early Christianity, is considered by millions to be the most meritorious saint of the religion, she is claimed to have miraculously appeared to believers many times over the centuries. The Eastern and Oriental Orthodox, Catholic and Lutheran churches believe that Mary, as mother of Jesus, is the Mother of God.
There is significant diversity in the Marian beliefs and devotional practices of major Christian traditions. The Catholic Church holds distinctive Marian dogmas, namely her status as the Mother of God, her Immaculate Conception, her perpetual virginity, her Assumption into heaven. Many Protestants minimize Mary's role within Christianity, basing their argument on the relative brevity of biblical references. Mary has a revered position in Islam, where one of the longer chapters of the Quran is devoted to her. Mary's name in the original manuscripts of the New Testament was based on her original Aramaic name מרים, translit. Maryam or Mariam; the English name Mary comes from the Greek Μαρία, a shortened form of Μαριάμ. Both Μαρία and Μαριάμ appear in the New Testament. In Christianity, Mary is referred to as the Virgin Mary, in accordance with the belief that she conceived Jesus miraculously through the Holy Spirit without her husband's involvement. Among her many other names and titles are the Blessed Virgin Mary, Saint Mary, the Mother of God, the Theotokos, Our Lady, Queen of Heaven, although the title "Queen of Heaven" was a name for a pagan goddess being worshipped during the prophet Jeremiah's lifetime.
Titles in use vary among Anglicans, Catholics, Protestants and other Christians. The three main titles for Mary used by the Orthodox are Theotokos, Aeiparthenos as confirmed in the Second Council of Constantinople in 553, Panagia. Catholics use a wide variety of titles for Mary, these titles have in turn given rise to many artistic depictions. For example, the title Our Lady of Sorrows has inspired such masterpieces as Michelangelo's Pietà; the title Theotokos was recognized at the Council of Ephesus in 431. The direct equivalents of title in Latin are Deipara and Dei Genetrix, although the phrase is more loosely translated into Latin as Mater Dei, with similar patterns for other languages used in the Latin Church. However, this same phrase in Greek, in the abbreviated form ΜΡ ΘΥ, is an indication attached to her image in Byzantine icons; the Council stated that the Church Fathers "did not hesitate to speak of the holy Virgin as the Mother of God". Some Marian titles have a direct scriptural basis.
For instance, the title "Queen Mother" has been given to Mary since she was the mother of Jesus, sometimes referred to as the "King of Kings" due to his ancestral descent from King David. Other titles have arisen from special appeals, or occasions for calling on Mary. To give a few examples, Our Lady of Good Counsel, Our Lady of Navigators, Our Lady Undoer of Knots fit this description. In Islam, she is known as mother of Isa, she is referred to by the honorific title sayyidatuna, meaning "our lady". A related term of endearment is Siddiqah, meaning "she who confirms the truth" and "she who believes sincerely completely". Another title for Mary is Qānitah, which signifies both constant submission to God and absorption in prayer and invocation in Islam, she is called "Tahira", meaning "one, purified" and representing her status as one of two humans in creation to not be touched by Satan at any point. The Gospel of Luke mentions Mary the most identifying her by name twelve times, all of these in the infancy narrative.
The Gospel of Matthew mentions her by name six times, five of these in the infancy narrative and only once outside the infancy narrative. The Gospel of Mark names her once and mentions her as Jesus' mother without naming her in 3:31 and 3:32; the Gospel of John never mentions her by name. Described as Jesus' mother, she makes two appearances, she is first seen at the wedding at Cana. The second reference, listed only in this gospel, has her standing near the cross of Jesus together with Mary Magdalene, Mary of Clopas (or Cleophas
Cuba the Republic of Cuba, is a country comprising the island of Cuba as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos. Cuba is located in the northern Caribbean where the Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Ocean meet, it is east of the Yucatán Peninsula, south of both the U. S. state of Florida and the Bahamas, west of Haiti and north of both Jamaica and the Cayman Islands. Havana is capital; the area of the Republic of Cuba is 110,860 square kilometres. The island of Cuba is the largest island in Cuba and in the Caribbean, with an area of 105,006 square kilometres, the second-most populous after Hispaniola, with over 11 million inhabitants; the territory, now Cuba was inhabited by the Ciboney Taíno people from the 4th millennium BC until Spanish colonisation in the 15th century. From the 15th century, it was a colony of Spain until the Spanish–American War of 1898, when Cuba was occupied by the United States and gained nominal independence as a de facto United States protectorate in 1902.
As a fragile republic, in 1940 Cuba attempted to strengthen its democratic system, but mounting political radicalization and social strife culminated in a coup and subsequent dictatorship under Fulgencio Batista in 1952. Open corruption and oppression under Batista's rule led to his ousting in January 1959 by the 26th of July Movement, which afterwards established communist rule under the leadership of Fidel Castro. Since 1965, the state has been governed by the Communist Party of Cuba; the country was a point of contention during the Cold War between the Soviet Union and the United States, a nuclear war nearly broke out during the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962. Cuba is one of few Marxist–Leninist socialist states, where the role of the vanguard Communist Party is enshrined in the Constitution. Independent observers have accused the Cuban government of numerous human rights abuses, including arbitrary imprisonment. Culturally, Cuba is considered part of Latin America, it is a multiethnic country whose people and customs derive from diverse origins, including the aboriginal Taíno and Ciboney peoples, the long period of Spanish colonialism, the introduction of African slaves and a close relationship with the Soviet Union in the Cold War.
Cuba is a sovereign state and a founding member of the United Nations, the G77, the Non-Aligned Movement, the African and Pacific Group of States, ALBA and Organization of American States. The country is a middle power in world affairs, it has one of the world's only planned economies, its economy is dominated by the exports of sugar, tobacco and skilled labor. According to the Human Development Index, Cuba has high human development and is ranked the eighth highest in North America, though 67th in the world, it ranks in some metrics of national performance, including health care and education. It is the only country in the world to meet the conditions of sustainable development put forth by the WWF. Historians believe the name Cuba comes from the Taíno language, however "its exact derivation unknown"; the exact meaning of the name is unclear but it may be translated either as'where fertile land is abundant', or'great place'. Fringe theory writers who believe that Christopher Columbus was Portuguese state that Cuba was named by Columbus for the town of Cuba in the district of Beja in Portugal.
Before the arrival of the Spanish, Cuba was inhabited by three distinct tribes of indigenous peoples of the Americas. The Taíno, the Guanahatabey and the Ciboney people; the ancestors of the Ciboney migrated from the mainland of South America, with the earliest sites dated to 5,000 BP. The Taíno arrived from Hispanola sometime in the 3rd century A. D; when Columbus arrived they were the dominant culture in Cuba, having an estimated population of 150,000. The Taíno were farmers, while the Ciboney were farmers as well as hunter-gatherers. After first landing on an island called Guanahani, Bahamas, on 12 October 1492, Christopher Columbus commanded his three ships: La Pinta, La Niña and the Santa María, to land on Cuba's northeastern coast on 28 October 1492. Columbus claimed the island for the new Kingdom of Spain and named it Isla Juana after Juan, Prince of Asturias. In 1511, the first Spanish settlement was founded by Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar at Baracoa. Other towns soon followed, including San Cristobal de la Habana, founded in 1515, which became the capital.
The native Taíno were forced to work under the encomienda system, which resembled a feudal system in Medieval Europe. Within a century the indigenous people were wiped out due to multiple factors Eurasian infectious diseases, to which they had no natural resistance, aggravated by harsh conditions of the repressive colonial subjugation. In 1529, a measles outbreak in Cuba killed two-thirds of those few natives who had survived smallpox. On 18 May 1539, Conquistador Hernando de Soto departed from Havana at the head of some 600 followers into a vast expedition through the Southeastern United States, starting at La Florida, in search of gold, treasure and power. On 1 September 1548, Dr. Gonzalo Perez de Angulo was appointed governor of Cuba, he arrived in Santiago, Cuba on 4 November 1549 and declared the liberty of all natives. He became Cuba's first permanent governor to reside in Havana instead of Santiago, he built Havana's first church made of maso
Ornamental plants are plants that are grown for decorative purposes in gardens and landscape design projects, as houseplants, cut flowers and specimen display. The cultivation of ornamental plants is called floriculture, which forms a major branch of horticulture. Ornamental plants are grown for the display of aesthetic features including: flowers, scent, overall foliage texture, fruit and bark, aesthetic form. In some cases, unusual features may be considered to be of interest, such as the prominent thorns of Rosa sericea and cacti. In all cases, their purpose is for the enjoyment of gardeners and the public institutions. Certain trees may be called ornamental trees; this term is used when they are used as part of a garden, park, or landscape setting, for instance for their flowers, their texture, form and shape, other aesthetic characteristics. In some countries trees in'utilitarian' landscape use such as screening, roadside plantings are called amenity trees. Ornamental grasses are grasses grown as ornamental plants.
Many ornamental grasses are true grasses, however several other families of grass-like plants are marketed as ornamental grasses. These include the sedges, rushes and cat-tails. All are monocotyledons with narrow leaves and parallel veins. Most are herbaceous perennials, though many are evergreen and some develop woody tissues. Ornamental grasses are popular in many countries, they bring striking linear form, color and sound to the garden, throughout the year. Ornamental grasses are popular in many colder hardiness zones for their resilience to cold temperatures and aesthetic value throughout fall and winter seasons. For plants to be considered ornamental, they require specific pruning by a gardener. For instance, many plants cultivated for topiary and bonsai would only be considered to be ornamental by virtue of the regular pruning carried out on them by the gardener, they may cease to be ornamental if the work was abandoned. Ornamental plants and trees are distinguished from utilitarian and crop plants, such as those used for agriculture and vegetable crops, for forestry or as fruit trees.
This does not preclude any particular type of plant being grown both for ornamental qualities in the garden, for utilitarian purposes in other settings. Thus lavender is grown as an ornamental plant in gardens, but may be grown as a crop plant for the production of lavender oil; the term ornamental plant is used here in the same sense that it is used in the horticultural trades. The term corresponds to'garden plant', though the latter is much less precise, as any plant may be grown in a garden. Ornamental plants are plants, rather than functional ones. While some plants are both ornamental and functional, people use the term “ornamental plants” to refer to plants which have no value beyond being attractive, although many people feel that this is value enough. Ornamental plants are the keystone of ornamental gardening, they come in a range of shapes and colors suitable to a broad array of climates and gardening needs; some ornamental plants are grown for showy foliage. Their foliage may be deciduous, turning bright orange and yellow before dropping off in the fall, or evergreen, in which case it stays green year-round.
Some ornamental foliage has a striking appearance created by lacy leaves or long needles, while other ornamentals are grown for distinctively colored leaves, such as silvery-gray ground covers and bright red grasses, among many others. Other ornamental plants are cultivated for their blooms. Flowering ornamentals are a key aspect of many gardens, with many flower gardeners preferring to plant a variety of flowers so that the garden is continuously in flower through the spring and summer. Depending on the types of plants being grown, the flowers may be subtle and delicate, or large and showy, with some ornamental plants producing distinctive aromas which paint a palette of scents in addition to colors. Media related to Ornamental plants at Wikimedia Commons