Maryland is a state in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, bordering Virginia, West Virginia, the District of Columbia to its south and west. The state's largest city is Baltimore, its capital is Annapolis. Among its occasional nicknames are Old Line State, the Free State, the Chesapeake Bay State, it is named after the English queen Henrietta Maria, known in England as Queen Mary. Sixteen of Maryland's twenty-three counties border the tidal waters of the Chesapeake Bay estuary and its many tributaries, which combined total more than 4,000 miles of shoreline. Although one of the smallest states in the U. S. it features a variety of climates and topographical features that have earned it the moniker of America in Miniature. In a similar vein, Maryland's geography and history combines elements of the Mid-Atlantic and South Atlantic regions of the country. One of the original Thirteen Colonies of Great Britain, Maryland was founded by George Calvert, a Catholic convert who sought to provide a religious haven for Catholics persecuted in England.
In 1632, Charles I of England granted Calvert a colonial charter, naming the colony after his wife, Queen Mary. Unlike the Pilgrims and Puritans, who enforced religious conformity in their settlements, Calvert envisioned a colony where people of different religious sects would coexist under the principle of toleration. Accordingly, in 1649 the Maryland General Assembly passed an Act Concerning Religion, which enshrined this principle by penalizing anyone who "reproached" a fellow Marylander based on religious affiliation. Religious strife was common in the early years, Catholics remained a minority, albeit in greater numbers than in any other English colony. Maryland's early settlements and population centers clustered around rivers and other waterways that empty into the Chesapeake Bay, its economy was plantation-based, centered on the cultivation of tobacco. The need for cheap labor led to a rapid expansion of indentured servants, penal labor, African slaves. In 1760, Maryland's current boundaries took form following the settlement of a long-running border dispute with Pennsylvania.
Maryland was an active participant in the events leading up to the American Revolution, by 1776 its delegates signed the Declaration of Independence. Many of its citizens subsequently played key military roles in the war. In 1790, the state ceded land for the establishment of the U. S. capital of Washington, D. C. Although a slave state, Maryland remained in the Union during the U. S. Civil War, its strategic location giving it a significant role in the conflict. After the war, Maryland took part in the Industrial Revolution, driven by its seaports, railroad networks, mass immigration from Europe. Since the Second World War, the state's population has grown to six million residents, it is among the most densely populated states in the nation; as of 2015, Maryland had the highest median household income of any state, owing in large part to its close proximity to Washington, D. C. and a diversified economy spanning manufacturing, higher education, biotechnology. Maryland has been ranked as one of the best governed states in the country.
The state's central role in American history is reflected by its hosting of some of the highest numbers of historic landmarks per capita. Maryland is comparable in overall area with Belgium, it is the 42nd largest and 9th smallest state and is closest in size to the state of Hawaii, the next smaller state. The next larger state, its neighbor West Virginia, is twice the size of Maryland. Maryland possesses a variety of topography within its borders, contributing to its nickname America in Miniature, it ranges from sandy dunes dotted with seagrass in the east, to low marshlands teeming with wildlife and large bald cypress near the Chesapeake Bay, to rolling hills of oak forests in the Piedmont Region, pine groves in the Maryland mountains to the west. Maryland is bounded on its north by Pennsylvania, on its west by West Virginia, on its east by Delaware and the Atlantic Ocean, on its south, across the Potomac River, by West Virginia and Virginia; the mid-portion of this border is interrupted by District of Columbia, which sits on land, part of Montgomery and Prince George's counties and including the town of Georgetown, Maryland.
This land was ceded to the United States Federal Government in 1790 to form the District of Columbia.. The Chesapeake Bay nearly bisects the state and the counties east of the bay are known collectively as the Eastern Shore. Most of the state's waterways are part of the Chesapeake Bay watershed, with the exceptions of a tiny portion of extreme western Garrett County, the eastern half of Worcester County, a small portion of the state's northeast corner. So prominent is the Chesapeake in Maryland's geography and economic life that there has been periodic agitation to change the state's official nickname to the "Bay State", a nickname, used by Massachusetts for decades; the highest point in Maryland, with an elevation of 3,360 feet, is Hoye Crest on Backbone Mountain, in the southwest corner of Garrett County, near the bo
Centreville is an incorporated town in Queen Anne's County, United States. Incorporated in 1794, it is the county seat of Queen Anne's County; the population was 4,285 at the 2010 census. The ZIP code is 21617 and the area code is 410; the local telephone exchange is 758. It hosts the Queen Anne's County Fair each summer and was home to three franchises during the existence of the Eastern Shore Baseball League—the Colts, Red Sox, Orioles; the book Red Kayak by Priscilla Cummings is set in Centreville. Centreville is located at 39°2′46″N 76°3′52″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 2.45 square miles, all land. The climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters. According to the Köppen climate classification system, Centreville has a humid subtropical climate, abbreviated "Cfa" on climate maps; as of the census of 2010, there were 4,285 people, 1,568 households, 1,102 families residing in the town. The population density was 1,749.0 inhabitants per square mile.
There were 1,694 housing units at an average density of 691.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 85.0% White, 10.6% African American, 0.3% Native American, 1.4% Asian, 0.5% from other races, 2.3% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.7% of the population. There were 1,568 households of which 38.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.6% were married couples living together, 11.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 3.3% had a male householder with no wife present, 29.7% were non-families. 25.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.60 and the average family size was 3.12. The median age in the town was 39.5 years. 27.5% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the town was 47.6% male and 52.4% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,970 people, 807 households, 497 families residing in the town; the population density was 937.9 people per square mile.
There were 866 housing units at an average density of 412.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 78.68% White, 19.24% African American, 0.10% Native American, 0.56% Asian, 0.15% from other races, 1.27% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.81% of the population. There were 807 households out of which 27.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.4% were married couples living together, 16.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 38.4% were non-families. 32.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.25 and the average family size was 2.84. In the town, the age distribution of the population shows 21.7% under the age of 18, 5.9% from 18 to 24, 28.6% from 25 to 44, 21.8% from 45 to 64, 22.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females, there were 88.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 79.7 males.
The median income for a household in the town was $41,100, the median income for a family was $55,595. Males had a median income of $37,011 versus $25,625 for females; the per capita income for the town was $20,630. About 8.1% of families and 15.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17.3% of those under age 18 and 17.4% of those age 65 or over. Centreville's name was derived from the relocation of the county seat in 1782 from Queenstown to a more central part of the county. Saint Paul's Parish was established on the site that would become known as Centreville, Maryland, it was 100 years in 1782, that the Maryland State Assembly passed an Act to relocate both the courthouse and all government functions of the county to Centreville from Queenstown, making Centreville the new county seat. However, it took a decade for the change to take place. A plantation called Chesterfield was chosen as the land to use for the new town which would hold the county's courthouse. Once the town and court house were completed, on the first of June 1796, the county court, "ordered to be ‘taken and deemed to be the proper Court House of Queen Anne's County’".
In 1782, the Queen Anne's county courthouse was moved from its original location in Queenstown, Maryland to an area that would, twelve years be named Centreville. The building's location, at the head of the Corsica River, encouraged population growth in the area. Centreville became an incorporated town in 1794. At the same time, the town laid out, including four streets that remain today: MD 213, S. Liberty St. N. Commerce St. Water St.. Once Centreville was home to Queen Anne's county government and officials decided it was appropriate to name the new town in accordance with the new location. Centreville was chosen because of its prime location on the Corsica River. Easy access to shipping and naval waters allowed the town to flourish and to become an important Maryland location. Today, Centreville is the largest town in Queen Anne's county, with a population of 2,097. 2017 has become an all time high for the small town, with a population of 4,767. The Maryland Municipal League's Website, "The Association of Cities and Towns", notes that Centreville's, "istory is reflected in the diverse architecture seen along the streets o
Eastern Shore of Maryland
The Eastern Shore of Maryland is a part of the U. S. state of Maryland that lies predominantly on the east side of the Chesapeake Bay and consists of nine counties. As of the 2010 census, its population was 449,226, with just under 8 percent of Marylanders living in the region; the term "Eastern Shore" distinguishes a territorial part of the State of Maryland from the Western Shore of Maryland, land west of the Chesapeake Bay. The Eastern Shore consists of nine Maryland counties on the Chesapeake Bay's eastern side—or eastern side of the Susquehanna River, with Delaware to the east and north, the Atlantic Ocean on the east, Virginia's own Eastern Shore on the south. Maryland's and Virginia's Eastern Shore and all of Delaware form the Delmarva Peninsula; the counties comprising the Eastern Shore are Caroline, Dorchester, Queen Anne's, Talbot and Worcester counties. To the south, the Calvert-Scarborough Line separates Maryland from Virginia. A modern Worcester County highway map shows this location.
While comprising different boundaries than in the 17th-18th century, the Eastern Shore's geographic definition was set once everyone agreed on where Watkins Point—on the western side of the peninsula—is and where the Bay's shoreline began. In 1668, Philip obtained Virginia recognition of Maryland's claims to present-day Somerset County, surveying a dividing line between the two colonies with Surveyor General of Virginia, Edmund Scarborough. Meanwhile, he negotiated treaties with Lower Eastern Shore Indian tribes harassing English settlers; these treaties defined standards of conduct for Indian-English relations, establishing an overall peace in the region. The northern limit is harder to locate; some dispute Cecil County as a true Shore territory due to I-95's presence with its surrounding developments, proximity to and influence from nearby urban areas like Philadelphia and Wilmington, a position straddling the Elk River–leaving 50% west of the Shore. Like New Castle County, Cecil County is crossed by the fall line, a geologic division where the rockier highlands of the Piedmont region meet the Atlantic coastal plain, a flat, sandy area that forms the coast.
The coastal plain includes the Delmarva Peninsula and hence the Eastern Shore of Maryland. The geology of Delmarva is an inseparable part of the Eastern Shore, which has few rocky outcrops south of Kent County; the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal crosses from Back Creek on the Elk River to Delaware. While it was a shallow canal with locks after its construction in 1829, it was deepened in the early 20th century to sea level, physically separates the Delmarva Peninsula from the rest of the United States. Maryland south of the canal is considered the Eastern Shore by residents; the term Western Shore is used by Eastern Shore residents to describe all the counties of Maryland west of the Chesapeake Bay, but those of the Baltimore-Washington metropolitan area and Southern Maryland. The north-south section of the Mason–Dixon line forms the border between Maryland and Delaware; the border was marked every mile by a stone, every five miles by a "crownstone". The line is not quite due north and south, but is as straight as survey methods of the 1760s could make it.
It was surveyed as a compromise solution to a century-long wrangle between the Penn and Calvert families of England. If the Chesapeake Bay/Delaware Bay watershed divide had been taken as the borderline, Delaware would be about half its current size. Although this has received less attention than other parts of Eastern Shore culture, commercial east-west ties between Delaware towns and Maryland towns were culturally significant in Colonial and Early American periods despite the border line. Trade with Philadelphia was conducted by overland routes to Delaware towns like Smyrna. Agricultural products and milled grain were taken up the Delaware River by "shallop men" in small vessels called shallops; these cultural connections continue to this day. Ocean City is a modern resort on what was once called the "seaside" or "seaboard side." It is on a long north-south sandspit, a barrier island. William Claiborne was granted land in 1629 and named the land "Kent County". In 1631, he sailed north up the Chesapeake Bay from its south and west side to the area known today as Kent Island.
There he made a fortified settlement, considered to be the first English settlement within the Province of Maryland. Talbot County was formed in 1662. Cecil County was formed in 1674, by proclamation of the Governor, from eastern portions of Baltimore County and the northern portion of Kent County. Wicomico County was formed in 1867, as the 9th and last county, created from Somerset and Worcester counties. 1642 Kent County-In 1642, the governor and council appointed commissioners for the Isle and County of Kent. This act appears to have led to the establishment of Kent County, name after England. 1661 Talbot County- named for Lady Grace Talbot, the wife of Sir Robert Talbot, an Irish statesman, the sister of Cecilius Calvert, 2nd Baron Baltimore. 1666 Somerset County-named for Mary, Lady Somerset, the wife of Sir John Somerset and daughter of Thomas Arundell, 1st Baron Arundell of Wardour. 1669 Dorchester County-Named for the Earl of Dorset, a family friend of the Calverts. 1674 Cecil County. 1706 Queen Anne's County- formed from northern parts of Talbot and southern portions of Kent.
Name after Queen Anne o
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti