A drum brake is a brake that uses friction caused by a set of shoes or pads that press outward against a rotating cylinder-shaped part called a brake drum. The term drum brake means a brake in which shoes press on the inner surface of the drum; when shoes press on the outside of the drum, it is called a clasp brake. Where the drum is pinched between two shoes, similar to a conventional disc brake, it is sometimes called a pinch drum brake, though such brakes are rare. A related type called a band brake uses a flexible belt or "band" wrapping around the outside of a drum; the modern automobile drum brake was first used in a car made by Maybach in 1900, although the principle was only patented in 1902 by Louis Renault. He used woven asbestos lining for the drum brake lining, as no alternative dissipated heat like the asbestos lining, though Maybach had used a less sophisticated drum brake. In the first drum brakes and rods or cables operated the shoes mechanically. From the mid-1930s, oil pressure in a small wheel cylinder and pistons operated the brakes, though some vehicles continued with purely mechanical systems for decades.
Some designs have two wheel cylinders. As the shoes in drum brakes wear, brakes required regular manual adjustment until the introduction of self-adjusting drum brakes in the 1950s. Drums are prone to brake fading with repeated use. In 1953, Jaguar fielded three cars equipped with disc brakes at Le Mans, where they won, in large part due to their superior braking over drum-equipped rivals; this spelled the beginning of the crossover of drum brakes to disc brakes in passenger cars. From the 1960s to the 1980s, disc brakes replaced drum brakes on the front wheels of cars. Now all cars use disc brakes on the front wheels, many use disc brakes on all four wheels. In the United States, the Jeep CJ-5 was the final automobile to use front drum brakes when it was phased out in 1984. However, drum brakes are still used for handbrakes, as it has proven difficult to design a disc brake suitable for holding a parked car. Moreover, it is easy to fit a drum handbrake inside a disc brake so that one unit serves as both service brake and handbrake.
Early brake shoes contained asbestos. When working on brake systems of older cars, care must be taken not to inhale any dust present in the brake assembly; the United States Federal Government began to regulate asbestos production, brake manufacturers had to switch to non-asbestos linings. Owners complained of poor braking with the replacements. A majority of daily-driven older vehicles have been fitted with asbestos-free linings. Many other countries limit the use of asbestos in brakes. Drum brake components include the backing plate, brake drum, wheel cylinder, various springs and pins; the backing plate provides a base for the other components. The back plate increases the rigidity of whole set-up, supports the housing, protects it from foreign materials like dust and other road debris, it absorbs the torque from the braking action, and, why back plate is called the "Torque Plate". Since all braking operations exert pressure on the backing plate, it must be strong and wear-resistant. Levers for emergency or parking brakes, automatic brake-shoe adjuster were added in recent years.
The brake drum is made of a special type of cast iron, heat-conductive and wear-resistant. It rotates with the axle; when a driver applies the brakes, the lining pushes radially against the inner surface of the drum, the ensuing friction slows or stops rotation of the wheel and axle, thus the vehicle. This friction generates substantial heat. One wheel cylinder operates the brake on each wheel. Two pistons operate one at each end of the wheel cylinder; the leading shoe is known as the primary shoe. The trailing shoe is known as the secondary shoe. Hydraulic pressure from the master cylinder acts on the piston cup, pushing the pistons toward the shoes, forcing them against the drum; when the driver releases the brakes, the brake shoe springs restore the shoes to their original position. The parts of the wheel cylinder are shown to the right. Brake shoes are made of two pieces of steel welded together; the friction material is either attached with adhesive. The crescent-shaped piece is called the Web and contains holes and slots in different shapes for return springs, hold-down hardware, parking brake linkage and self-adjusting components.
All the application force of the wheel cylinder is applied through the web to the lining table and brake lining. The edge of the lining table has three “V"-shaped notches or tabs on each side called nibs; the nibs rest against the support pads of the backing plate. Each brake assembly has a primary and secondary; the primary shoe is located toward the front of the vehicle and has the lining positioned differently from the secondary shoe. Quite the two shoes are interchangeable, so close inspection for any variation is important. Linings must be resistant to heat and wear and have a high friction coefficient unaffected by fluctuations in temperature and humidity. Materials that make up the brake shoe include, friction modifiers, powdered metal such as lead, brass and other metals that resist heat fade, curing agents and fillers such as rubber chips to reduce brake noise. In the UK two common grades of brake shoe material used to be available. DON 202 was a hig
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of 105 square kilometres and an official estimated population of 2,140,526 residents as of 1 January 2019. Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, commerce, fashion and the arts; the City of Paris is the centre and seat of government of the Île-de-France, or Paris Region, which has an estimated official 2019 population of 12,213,364, or about 18 percent of the population of France. The Paris Region had a GDP of €681 billion in 2016, accounting for 31 percent of the GDP of France, was the 5th largest region by GDP in the world. According to the Economist Intelligence Unit Worldwide Cost of Living Survey in 2018, Paris was the second most expensive city in the world, after Singapore, ahead of Zurich, Hong Kong and Geneva. Another source ranked Paris as most expensive, on a par with Singapore and Hong-Kong, in 2018; the city is a major rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports: Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the city's subway system, the Paris Métro, serves 5.23 million passengers daily, is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro. Gare du Nord is the 24th busiest railway station in the world, the first located outside Japan, with 262 million passengers in 2015. Paris is known for its museums and architectural landmarks: the Louvre was the most visited art museum in the world in 2018, with 10.2 million visitors. The Musée d'Orsay and Musée de l'Orangerie are noted for their collections of French Impressionist art, the Pompidou Centre Musée National d'Art Moderne has the largest collection of modern and contemporary art in Europe; the historical district along the Seine in the city centre is classified as a UNESCO Heritage Site. Popular landmarks in the centre of the city include the Cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris and the Gothic royal chapel of Sainte-Chapelle, both on the Île de la Cité. Paris received 23 million visitors in 2017, measured by hotel stays, with the largest numbers of foreign visitors coming from the United States, the UK, Germany and China.
It was ranked as the third most visited travel destination in the world in 2017, after Bangkok and London. The football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris; the 80,000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros. Paris will host the 2024 Summer Olympics; the 1938 and 1998 FIFA World Cups, the 2007 Rugby World Cup, the 1960, 1984, 2016 UEFA European Championships were held in the city and, every July, the Tour de France bicycle race finishes there. The name "Paris" is derived from the Celtic Parisii tribe; the city's name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. Paris is referred to as the City of Light, both because of its leading role during the Age of Enlightenment and more because Paris was one of the first large European cities to use gas street lighting on a grand scale on its boulevards and monuments.
Gas lights were installed on the Place du Carousel, Rue de Rivoli and Place Vendome in 1829. By 1857, the Grand boulevards were lit. By the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps. Since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang. Inhabitants are known in French as Parisiens, they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the area's major north–south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité; the Parisii minted their own coins for that purpose. The Romans began their settlement on Paris' Left Bank; the Roman town was called Lutetia. It became a prosperous city with a forum, temples, an amphitheatre. By the end of the Western Roman Empire, the town was known as Parisius, a Latin name that would become Paris in French. Christianity was introduced in the middle of the 3rd century AD by Saint Denis, the first Bishop of Paris: according to legend, when he refused to renounce his faith before the Roman occupiers, he was beheaded on the hill which became known as Mons Martyrum "Montmartre", from where he walked headless to the north of the city.
Clovis the Frank, the first king of the Merovingian dynasty, made the city his capital from 508. As the Frankish domination of Gaul began, there was a gradual immigration by the Franks to Paris and the Parisian Francien dialects were born. Fortification of the Île-de-la-Citie failed to avert sacking by Vikings in 845, but Paris' strategic importance—with its bridges prevent
Wilhelm II, German Emperor
Wilhelm II was the last German Emperor and King of Prussia, reigning from 15 June 1888 until his abdication on 9 November 1918 shortly before Germany's defeat in World War I. He was the eldest grandchild of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom and related to many monarchs and princes of Europe, most notably his first cousin King George V of the United Kingdom and Emperor Nicholas II of Russia, whose wife, was Wilhelm and George's first cousin. Assuming the throne in 1888, he dismissed the country's longtime chancellor, Otto von Bismarck, in 1890 before launching Germany on a bellicose "New Course" to cement its status as a respected world power. However, due to his impetuous personality, he undermined this aim by making tactless, alarming public statements without consulting his ministers beforehand, he did much to alienate other Great Powers from Germany by initiating a massive build-up of the German Navy, challenging French control over Morocco, backing the Austrian annexation of Bosnia in 1908.
Wilhelm II's turbulent reign culminated in his guarantee of military support to Austria-Hungary during the crisis of July 1914, which resulted in the outbreak of World War I. A lax wartime leader, he left all decision-making regarding military strategy and organisation of the war effort in the hands of the German General Staff; this broad delegation of authority gave rise to a de facto military dictatorship whose authorisation of unrestricted submarine warfare and the Zimmerman Telegram led to the United States' entry into the conflict in April 1917. After Germany's defeat in 1918, Wilhelm lost the support of the German army, abdicated on 9 November 1918, fled to exile in the Netherlands, where he died in 1941. Wilhelm was born on 27 January 1859 at the Crown Prince's Palace, Berlin, to Victoria, Princess Royal, the wife of Prince Frederick William of Prussia, his mother was the eldest daughter of Britain's Queen Victoria. At the time of his birth, his great-uncle Frederick William IV was king of Prussia, his grandfather and namesake Wilhelm was acting as regent.
He was the first grandchild of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert, but more the first son of the crown prince of Prussia. From 1861, Wilhelm was second in the line of succession to Prussia, after 1871, to the newly created German Empire, according to the constitution of the German Empire, was ruled by the Prussian king. At the time of his birth, he was sixth in the line of succession to the British throne, after his maternal uncles and his mother. A traumatic breech birth resulted in Erb's palsy, which left him with a withered left arm about six inches shorter than his right, he tried with some success to conceal this. In others, he holds his left hand with his right, has his crippled arm on the hilt of a sword, or holds a cane to give the illusion of a useful limb posed at a dignified angle. Historians have suggested. In 1863, Wilhelm was taken to England to be present at the wedding of his Uncle Bertie, Princess Alexandra of Denmark. Wilhelm attended the ceremony in a Highland costume, complete with a small toy dirk.
During the ceremony, the four-year-old became restless. His eighteen-year-old uncle Prince Alfred, charged with keeping an eye on him, told him to be quiet, but Wilhelm drew his dirk and threatened Alfred; when Alfred attempted to subdue him by force, Wilhelm bit him on the leg. His grandmother, Queen Victoria, missed seeing the fracas, his mother, was obsessed with his damaged arm, blaming herself for the child's handicap and insisted that he become a good rider. The thought that he, as heir to the throne, should not be able to ride was intolerable to her. Riding lessons were a matter of endurance for Wilhelm. Over and over, the weeping prince was compelled to go through the paces, he fell off time despite his tears was set on its back again. After weeks of this he got it right and was able to maintain his balance. Wilhelm, from six years of age, was tutored and influenced by the 39-year-old teacher Georg Hinzpeter. "Hinzpeter", he wrote, "was a good fellow. Whether he was the right tutor for me, I dare not decide.
The torments inflicted on me, in this pony riding, must be attributed to my mother."As a teenager he was educated at Kassel at the Friedrichsgymnasium. In January 1877, Wilhelm finished high school and on his eighteenth birthday received as a present from his grandmother, Queen Victoria, the Order of the Garter. After Kassel he spent four terms at the University of Bonn, he became a member of the exclusive Corps Borussia Bonn. Wilhelm possessed a quick intelligence, but this was overshadowed by a cantankerous temper; as a scion of the royal house of Hohenzollern, Wilhelm was exposed from an early age to the military society of the Prussian aristocracy. This had a major impact on him and, in maturity, Wilhelm was seen out of uniform; the hyper-masculine military culture of Prussia in this period did much to frame his political ideals and personal relationships. Crown Prince Frederick was viewed by his respect, his father's status as a hero of the wars of unification was responsible for the young Wilhelm's attitude, as were the circumstances in which he was raised.
Bad Homburg vor der Höhe
Bad Homburg vor der Höhe is the district town of the Hochtaunuskreis, Germany, on the southern slope of the Taunus mountains. Bad Homburg is part of the Frankfurt Rhein-Main urban area; the town's formal name is Bad Homburg vor der Höhe to distinguish it from other places named Homburg. The name is abbreviated as Bad Homburg v. d. Höhe, it is known best for its medically used mineral waters and spa, for its casino. Presently, Bad Homburg is again one of the wealthiest towns in Germany; as of 2004, the town's marketing slogan is Champagnerluft und Tradition. Local tradition holds that Bad Homburg's documented history began with the mention of the Villa Tidenheim in the Lorsch codex, associated with the year 782; this Villa Tidenheim was equated with the Old Town, named "Dietigheim". Local historian Rüdiger Kurth doubted this traditional story based on his study of written sources and local factors. During 2002 Kurth initiated archaeological excavations, by the University of Frankfurt, managed by Professor Joachim Henning.
The excavations showed that there was not any evidence of settlement between the beginning of the Christian Era and the 13th century. It seems that the historical record which mentions Wortwin von Hohenberch as Homburg's founder, as a documentary witness in Eberbach, about 1180 is the first good evidence of the town's existence; as early as 1962, in an excavation under the Hirschgangflügel of Bad Homburg's Schloss, two burnt layers were discovered, which the man conducting the dig, Günther Binding, accepted as evidence of two former castles having been built on the site, one after the other, but each having burnt down later. Further digs by the University of Frankfurt at Bad Homburg's Schloss during April 2006, once again initiated by Kurth and managed by Professor Henning, resulted in the discovery that it was only one burnt layer, from a half-timbered building—- a castle with towers—- which from ceramic finds could be dated to the 12th or 13th century. Most this building had an association with Wortwin's "castle".
Quite though, a further cultural layer from an earlier time lies underneath these remains. Investigations using methods from natural science will show whether the dating can be made more precise. Homberg acquired market rights about 1330, but the document granting these rights is said to have been lost; the town's name, "Homburg", is from the Hohenberg Castle. The postfix "vor der Höhe" was first recorded in a document of 1399; the designation "Bad" was not conferred until 1912. The Hessen-Homburg noble family of landgraves was initiated by Friedrich I of Hessen-Homburg. Friedrich II attained fame as Prince of Homburg. During 1866, as a result of the Austro-Prussian War, Homburg became Prussian territory. With the beginning of the spa industry in the town during the mid-19th century, which profited from its casino, the town became an internationally famous spa town. Bad Homburg was favoured by Russian nobility for its baths; the spa industry began with the discovery of the Elisabethenbrunnen during 1834.
The first spa building and the first casino in Homburg were built during 1841–1842 by the brothers François and Louis Blanc, who owned the Monte Carlo Casino. During 1860, the town was connected with Frankfurt by the Homburger Bahn. During 1888, Homburg became known throughout the German Empire because Kaiser Wilhelm II declared Homburg's Schloss an Imperial summer residence, financed the building of the Church of the Redeemer nearby, his mother, lived there for several years. Edward VII of the UK was often a guest, it was he. He experienced fasting cures at Homburg 32 times; the "Bad Homburger Golf Club 1899 e. V." in the Röderweisen in Dornholzhausen—nowadays part of Bad Homburg—- is Germany's oldest golf club. It had its beginnings in the Bad Homburg Spa Park, where the old clubhouse and playable parts of the old golf course may still be found. Not far away stands the Russian Chapel—- more properly called All Hallows' Church—- an Eastern Orthodox church the first stone of, laid in the Russian Imperial couple's presence on 16 October 1896, although they did not attend when it was consecrated three years later.
King Chulalongkorn of Siam sent a Thai garden pavilion in gratitude for a successful cure. It was erected during 1914. Horex was a well known German motorcycle brand of the "Horex—Fahrzeugbau AG", founded during 1923 in Bad Homburg by Fritz Kleemann. During 1335, permission was given by Emperor Louis IV to Gottfried von Eppstein to settle 10 Jews in each of the localities of Eppstein and Steinheim. Evidence for the existence of a permanent Jewish settlement in Homburg is found only at the beginning of the 16th century; until 1600 it consisted of 2 or 3 families, by 1632 these had increased to 16. The first Jewish cemetery was purchased during the 17th century; the community continued to grow so that during 1703 the landgrave Frederick II of Hesse decided on the construction of a special Judengasse. A synagogue, built during 1731, was replaced by a new one during 1867; the Jewish community of Homburg was part of the jurisdiction of the rabbinate of Friedberg but began to appoint
Panhard was a French motor vehicle manufacturer that began as one of the first makers of automobiles. It was last a manufacturer of light military vehicles, its final incarnation, now owned by Renault Trucks Defense, was formed by the acquisition of Panhard by Auverland in 2005, by Renault in 2012. In 2018 Renault Trucks Defense and Panhard combined under a single brand called Arquus. Panhard was called Panhard et Levassor, was established as an automobile manufacturing concern by René Panhard and Émile Levassor in 1887. Panhard et Levassor sold their first automobile based on a Daimler engine license. Levassor obtained his licence from Paris lawyer Edouard Sarazin, a friend and representative of Gottlieb Daimler's interests in France. Following Sarazin's 1887 death, Daimler commissioned Sarazin's widow Louise to carry on her late husband's agency; the Panhard et Levassor license was finalised by Louise, who married Levassor in 1890. Daimler and Levassor became fast friends, shared improvements with one another.
These first vehicles set many modern standards. They used a clutch pedal to operate a chain-driven gearbox; the vehicle featured a front-mounted radiator. An 1895 Panhard et Levassor is credited with the first modern transmission. For the 1894 Paris–Rouen Rally, Alfred Vacheron equipped his 4 horsepower with a steering wheel, believed to be one of the earliest employments of the principle. In 1891, the company built its first all-Levassor design, a "state of the art" model: the Système Panhard consisted of four wheels, a front-mounted engine with rear wheel drive, a crude sliding-gear transmission, sold at 3500 francs; this was to become the standard layout for automobiles for most of the next century. The same year, Panhard et Levassor shared their Daimler engine license with bicycle maker Armand Peugeot, who formed his own car company. In 1895, 1,205 cc Panhard et Levassor vehicles finished first and second in the Paris–Bordeaux–Paris race, one piloted solo by Levassor, for 48¾hr. However, during the 1896 Paris–Marseille–Paris race, Levassor was fatally injured due to a crash while trying to avoid hitting a dog, died in Paris the following year.
Arthur Krebs succeeded Levassor as General Manager in 1897, held the job until 1916. He turned the Panhard et Levassor Company into one of the largest and most profitable manufacturers of automobiles before World War I. Panhards won numerous races from 1895 to 1903. Panhard et Levassor developed the Panhard rod, which came to be used in many other types of automobiles as well. From 1910 Panhard worked to develop engines without conventional valves, using under license the sleeve valve technology, patented by the American Charles Yale Knight. Between 1910 and 1924 the Panhard & Levassor catalogue listed plenty of models with conventional valve engines, but these were offered alongside cars powered by sleeve valve power units. Following various detailed improvements to the sleeve valve technology by Panhard's own engineering department, from 1924 till 1940 all Panhard cars used sleeve valve engines. Under the presidency of Raymond Poincaré, which ran from 1913 till 1920, Panhard & Levassor's 18CV and 20CV models were the official presidential cars.
During the war Panhard, like other leading automobile producers, concentrated on war production, including large numbers of military trucks, V12-cylinder aero-engines, gun components, large 75 and 105 diameter shells. The military were keen on the sleeve valve engined Panhard 20HP. General Joffre himself used two 35HP Panhard Type X35s with massive 4-cylinder 7,360 cc engines for his personal transport, these were to be seen by Parisians carrying military leaders between the front-line and the Élysée Palace. Following the return to peace in 1918, Panhard resumed passenger car production in March 1919 with the 10HP Panhard Type X19, which used a 4-cylinder 2,140 cc engine; this was followed three months by three more 4-cylinder models which will have been familiar to any customers whose memories pre-dated the war, but they now incorporated ungraded electrics and a number of other modifications. For the 15th Paris Motor Show, in October 1919, Panhard were displaying four models, all with four cylinder engines, as follows: Panhard Type X19 2,150 cc / 10 HP Panhard Type X31 2,275 cc / 12 HPPanhard Type X28 3,175 cc / 16 HP Panhard Type X29 4,850 cc / 20 HPBy 1925, all Panhard's cars were powered by Knight sleeve valve engines that used steel sleeves.
The steel sleeves were thinner and lighter than the cast iron ones, fitted in Panhard sleeve valve engines since 1910, this gave rise to an improved friction coefficient permitting engines to run at higher speeds. To reduce further the risk of engines jamming, the outer sleeves, which are less thermally stressed than the inner sleeves, were coated on their inner sides with an anti-friction material, employing a patented technique with which Panhard engineers had been working since 1923; this was one of several improvements applied by Panhard engineers to the basic Knight sleeve-valve engine concept. In 1925 a 4,800 cc model set the world record for an average of 185.51 km/h. A surprise appeared on the Panhard stand at the 20th Paris Motor Show in October 1926, in the shape of the manufacturer's first six-cylinder model since before the war; the new Panhard 16CV "Six" sat on a 3,540 mm wheelbase. At the show it was priced, at 58,000 francs. Of the nine models displayed for the 1927 mo