Fiberglass or fibreglass is a common type of fiber-reinforced plastic using glass fiber. The fibers may be flattened into a sheet, or woven into a fabric; the plastic matrix may be a thermoset polymer matrix—most based on thermosetting polymers such as epoxy, polyester resin, or vinylester—or a thermoplastic. Cheaper and more flexible than carbon fiber, it is stronger than many metals by weight, can be molded into complex shapes. Applications include aircraft, automobiles, bath tubs and enclosures, swimming pools, hot tubs, septic tanks, water tanks, pipes, orthopedic casts and external door skins. GRP covers are widely used in the water-treatment industry to help control odors. Other common names for fiberglass are glass-reinforced plastic, glass-fiber reinforced plastic or GFK; because glass fiber itself is sometimes referred to as "fiberglass", the composite is called "fiberglass reinforced plastic". This article will adopt the convention that "fiberglass" refers to the complete glass fiber reinforced composite material, rather than only to the glass fiber within it.
Glass fibers have been produced for centuries, but the earliest patent was awarded to the Prussian inventor Hermann Hammesfahr in the U. S. in 1880. Mass production of glass strands was accidentally discovered in 1932 when Games Slayter, a researcher at Owens-Illinois, directed a jet of compressed air at a stream of molten glass and produced fibers. A patent for this method of producing glass wool was first applied for in 1933. Owens joined with the Corning company in 1935 and the method was adapted by Owens Corning to produce its patented "Fiberglas" in 1936. Fiberglas was a glass wool with fibers entrapping a great deal of gas, making it useful as an insulator at high temperatures. A suitable resin for combining the fiberglass with a plastic to produce a composite material was developed in 1936 by du Pont; the first ancestor of modern polyester resins is Cyanamid's resin of 1942. Peroxide curing systems were used by then. With the combination of fiberglass and resin the gas content of the material was replaced by plastic.
This reduced the insulation properties to values typical of the plastic, but now for the first time the composite showed great strength and promise as a structural and building material. Confusingly, many glass fiber composites continued to be called "fiberglass" and the name was used for the low-density glass wool product containing gas instead of plastic. Ray Greene of Owens Corning is credited with producing the first composite boat in 1937, but did not proceed further at the time due to the brittle nature of the plastic used. In 1939 Russia was reported to have constructed a passenger boat of plastic materials, the United States a fuselage and wings of an aircraft; the first car to have a fiber-glass body was a 1946 prototype of the Stout Scarab, but the model did not enter production. Unlike glass fibers used for insulation, for the final structure to be strong, the fiber's surfaces must be entirely free of defects, as this permits the fibers to reach gigapascal tensile strengths. If a bulk piece of glass were defect-free, it would be as strong as glass fibers.
The process of manufacturing fiberglass is called pultrusion. The manufacturing process for glass fibers suitable for reinforcement uses large furnaces to melt the silica sand, kaolin clay, colemanite and other minerals until a liquid forms, it is extruded through bushings, which are bundles of small orifices. These filaments are sized with a chemical solution; the individual filaments are now bundled in large numbers to provide a roving. The diameter of the filaments, the number of filaments in the roving, determine its weight expressed in one of two measurement systems: yield, or yards per pound. Examples of standard yields are 450yield, 675yield. Tex, or grams per km. Examples of standard tex are 1100tex, 2200tex; these rovings are either used directly in a composite application such as pultrusion, filament winding, gun roving, or in an intermediary step, to manufacture fabrics such as chopped strand mat, woven fabrics, knit fabrics or uni-directional fabrics. Chopped strand mat or CSM is a form of reinforcement used in fiberglass.
It consists of glass fibers held together by a binder. It is processed using the hand lay-up technique, where sheets of material are placed on a mold and brushed with resin; because the binder dissolves in resin, the material conforms to different shapes when wetted out. After the resin cures, the hardened product finished. Using chopped strand mat gives a fiberglass with isotropic in-plane material properties. A coating or primer is applied to the roving to: help protect the glass filaments for processing and manipulation. Ensure proper bonding to the resin matrix, thus allowing for transfer of shear loads from the glass fiber
Aragon is an autonomous community in Spain, coextensive with the medieval Kingdom of Aragon. Located in northeastern Spain, the Aragonese autonomous community comprises three provinces: Huesca and Teruel, its capital is Zaragoza. The current Statute of Autonomy declares Aragon a historic nationality of Spain. Covering an area of 47720 km2, the region's terrain ranges diversely from permanent glaciers to verdant valleys, rich pasture lands and orchards, through to the arid steppe plains of the central lowlands. Aragon is home to many rivers—most notably, the river Ebro, Spain's largest river in volume, which runs west-east across the entire region through the province of Zaragoza, it is home to the highest mountains of the Pyrenees. As of January 2016, the population of Aragon was 1308563, with over half of it living in its capital city, Zaragoza. During the same year, the economy of Aragon generates a GDP of €34687 million, which represents 3.1% of Spain's national GDP, is 6th in per capita production behind Madrid, Basque Country, Catalonia and La Rioja.
In addition to its three provinces, Aragon is subdivided into counties. All comarcas of Aragon have a rich geopolitical and cultural history from its pre-Roman and Roman days, four centuries of Islamic period as Marca Superior of Al-Andalus or kingdom of Saraqusta, as lands that once belonged to the Frankish Marca Hispanica, counties that formed the Kingdom of Aragon and the Crown of Aragon; the current coat of arms of Aragon is composed of the four barracks and is attested for the first time in 1499, consolidating since the Early Modern Ages to take root decisively in the 19th century and be approved, according to precept, by the Real Academia de la Historia in 1921. The first quartering appears at the end of the 15th century and commemorates, according to traditional interpretation, the legendary kingdom of Sobrarbe; this emblem of gules and gold was used in seals, banners and standards indistinctly, not being but a familiar emblem that denoted the authority as King of Aragon until, with the birth of Modern State, began to be a territorial symbol.
The current flag was approved in 1984, with the provisions of Article 3 of the Statute of Autonomy of Aragon, the flag is the traditional of the four horizontal red bars on a yellow background with the coat of arms of Aragon shifted towards the flagpole. The bars of Aragon, common historic element of the current four autonomous communities that once were integrated into the Crown of Aragon, present in the third quartering of the coat of arms of Spain; the anthem of Aragon was regulated in 1989 with music by the Aragonese composer Antón García Abril that combines the old Aragonese musical tradition with popular musical elements within a modern conception. The lyrics were elaborated by the Aragonese poets Ildefonso Manuel Gil, Ángel Guinda, Rosendo Tello and Manuel Vilas and highlights within its poetic framework, values such as freedom, reason, open land... that represent the expression of Aragon as a people. The Day of Aragon is celebrated on April 23 and commemorates Saint George, patron of the Kingdom of Aragon since the 15th century.
It appears in Article 3 of the Statute of Autonomy of Aragon since 1984. Institutional acts such as the delivery of the Aragon Awards by the Government of Aragon or the composition of a flag of Aragon of flowers, with the collaboration of citizens, in the Plaza de Aragón square of Zaragoza; the area of Aragon is 47720 km2 of which 15636 km2 belong to the province of Huesca, 17275 km2 to the province of Zaragoza and 14810 km2 to the province of Teruel. The total represents a 9.43% of the surface of Spain, being thus the fourth autonomous community in size behind Castile and León, Castile-La Mancha. It is located in the northeast of the Iberian Peninsula, at a latitude between 39º and 43º'N in the temperate zone of the Earth, its boundaries and borders are in the north with France, the regions of, in the west with the autonomous communities of Castile-La Mancha, Castile and León, La Rioja and Navarre and in the east with the autonomous communities of Catalonia and Valencian Community. The orography of the community has as central axis the Ebro valley which tr
A playground, playpark, or play area is a place designed to enable children to play there. It is outdoors. While a playground is designed for children, some target other age groups. Berlin's Preußenpark for example is designed for people aged 70 or higher. A playground might exclude children below a certain age. Modern playgrounds have recreational equipment such as the seesaw, merry-go-round, slide, jungle gym, chin-up bars, spring rider, trapeze rings and mazes, many of which help children develop physical coordination and flexibility, as well as providing recreation and enjoyment and supporting social and emotional development. Common in modern playgrounds are play structures. Playgrounds also have facilities for playing informal games of adult sports, such as a baseball diamond, a skating arena, a basketball court, or a tether ball. Public playground equipment refers to equipment intended for use in the play areas of parks, childcare facilities, multiple family dwellings, restaurants and recreational developments, other areas of public use.
In some parts of the United States, the term tot lot may be used. A type of playground called a playscape is designed to provide a safe environment for play in a natural setting. Through history, children played in their villages and neighbourhoods in the streets and lanes near their homes. In the 19th century, developmental psychologists such as Friedrich Fröbel proposed playgrounds as a developmental aid, or to imbue children with a sense of fair play and good manners. In Germany, a few playgrounds were erected in connection to schools, the first purpose-built public-access playground was opened in a park in Manchester, England in 1859. However, it was only in the early 20th century, as the street lost its role as the default public space and became reserved for use by motor cars, that momentum built to remove children from the new dangers and confine them to segregated areas to play. In the United States, organisations such as the National Highway Protective Society highlighted the numbers killed by automobiles, urged the creation of playgrounds, aiming to free streets for vehicles rather than children's play.
The Outdoor Recreation League provided funds to erect playgrounds on parkland following the 1901 publication of a report on numbers of children being run down by cars in New York City. In tandem with the new concern about the danger of roads, educational theories of play, including by Herbert Spencer and John Dewey inspired the emergence of the reformist playground movement, which argued that playgrounds had educational value, improved attention in class, enhanced physical health, reduced truancy. Interventionist programs such as by the child savers sought to move children into controlled areas to limit'delinquency'. Meanwhile, at schools and settlement houses for poorer children with limited access to education, health services and daycare, playgrounds were included to support these institutions' goal of keeping children safe and out of trouble. One of the first playgrounds in the United States was built in San Francisco's Golden Gate Park in 1887. In 1906 the Playground Association of America was founded and a year Luther Gulick became president.
It became the National Recreation Association and the National Recreation and Park Association. Urging the need for playgrounds, former President Theodore Roosevelt stated in 1907: City streets are unsatisfactory playgrounds for children because of the danger, because most good games are against the law, because they are too hot in summer, because in crowded sections of the city they are apt to be schools of crime. Neither do small back yards nor ornamental grass plots meet the needs of any but the small children. Older children who would play vigorous games must have places set aside for them; this means that they must be distributed over the cities in such a way as to be within walking distance of every boy and girl, as most children can not afford to pay carfare. In post war London the landscape architect and children's rights campaigner Lady Allen of Hurtwood introduced and popularised the concept of the ’junk playground’ - where the equipment was constructed from the recycled junk and rubble left over from the Blitz.
She campaigned for facilities for children growing up in the new high-rise developments in Britain's cities and wrote a series of illustrated books on the subject of playgrounds, at least one book on adventure playgrounds, spaces for free creativity by children, which helped the idea spread worldwide. Playgrounds were an integral part of urban culture in the USSR. In the 1970s and 1980s, there were playgrounds in every park in many Soviet cities. Playground apparatus was reasonably standard all over the country; some of the most common constructions were the carousel, seesaw, bridge, etc. Playground design is influenced by audience. Separate play areas might be offered to accommodate young children. Single, open parks tend to not to be used by older schoolgirls or less aggressive children, because there is little opportunity for them to escape more aggressive children. By contrast, a park that offers multiple play areas is used by boys and girls. Professionals recognize that the social skills that children develop on the playground become lifelong skill sets that are carried forward into their adulthood.
Independent research concludes that p
Castilla–La Mancha is an autonomous community of Spain. Comprised by the provinces of Albacete, Ciudad Real, Cuenca and Toledo, it was created in 1982, it is bordered by Castile and León, Aragon, Murcia and Extremadura. It is one of the most sparsely populated of Spain's regions. Albacete is the largest and most populous city, its capital city is Toledo, its judicial capital city is Albacete. Castilla–La Mancha was grouped with the province of Madrid into New Castile, but with the advent of the modern Spanish system of autonomous regions, it was separated due to great demographic disparity between the capital and the remaining New-Castilian provinces. Distinct from the former New Castile, Castilla–La Mancha added the province of Albacete, part of Murcia, it is in this region where the story of the famous Spanish novel Don Quixote by Miguel de Cervantes is situated, due to which La Mancha is internationally well-known. Although La Mancha is a windswept, battered plateau, it remains a symbol of Spanish culture with its vineyards, mushrooms, olive plantations, Manchego cheese, Don Quixote.
The origins of Castilla–La Mancha lay in the Muslim period between the 8th and 14th century. Castilla–La Mancha was the region of many historical battles between Christian crusaders and Muslim forces during the period from 1000 to the 13th century, it was the region where the Crown of Castile and Aragon were unified in 1492 under Queen Isabel and King Ferdinand. Castilla–La Mancha is the successor to New Castile, which in turn traces back to the Muslim Taifa of Toledo, one of the taifas of Al Andalus. Alfonso VI conquered the region from the Muslims, taking Toledo in 1085; the Reconquista took Cuenca in 1177. Other provinces to the south—the Campo de Calatrava, the Valle de Alcudia, the Alfoz de Alcaraz —were consolidated during the reign of Alfonso VIII, whose conquests were completed by the Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa; that victory assured Castilian domination of the region and hastened the decline of the Almohad Dynasty. From the time of the Reconquista, Castilla–La Mancha formed part of the Kingdom of Castile.
Four centuries in 1605, Cervantes' Don Quixote gave the world an indelible picture of La Mancha. In 1785, the territorial organization by the reformer Floridablanca divided the region into the provinces of Cuenca, Madrid, La Mancha, Toledo. Albacete, Almansa, Hellín and Yeste, became part of Murcia. In 1833 Javier de Burgos modified the provincial borders. Albacete, in turn incorporated parts of the territories of the old provinces of Cuenca and Murcia. Albacete was administered as part of the Region of Murcia until the 1978 configuration of autonomous regions. Nonetheless, during the First Spanish Republic, Albacete was one of the signatories to the Pacto Federal Castellano and in 1924 its deputation favored the formation of a "Comunidad Manchega" that would have recognized La Mancha as a region; the autonomous community of Castilla–La Mancha dates from 15 November 1978 as one of the many autonomous regions defined by the Spanish central government.. The new, hyphenated name constituted an effort to bridge two distinct regionalisms: that of the larger Castilla and that of the smaller onetime province of La Mancha.
The Statute of Autonomy of Castilla–La Mancha was approved August 10, 1982 and took effect August 17, 1982. Castilla–La Mancha is divided into 5 provinces named after their capital cities; the following category includes: Albacete Ciudad Real Cuenca Guadalajara ToledoAccording to the official data of the INE, Castilla–La Mancha consists of 919 municipalities, which amount to 11.3 percent of all the municipalities in Spain. 496 of these have less than 500 inhabitants, 231 have between 501 and 2,000 inhabitants, 157 between 2,000 and 10,000 inhabitants, only 35 have more than 10,000 inhabitants. The municipalities in the north are small and numerous, while in the south they are larger and fewer; this reflects different histories of. The 25 most populous municipalities of Castilla–La Mancha as at 2017, according to the INE, are: Although the Statute of Autonomy allows for comarcas of political/juridical significance, this has never been followed through at the level of the entire region, there are no comarcas in Castilla–La Mancha with political or juridical functions.
Individual provinces of Castilla–La Mancha have performed comarcalizations for administrative and touristic purposes. Many Castellano-Manchegan comarcas important traditional significance, with some figuring in history well beyond their respective provinces. Comarcas of Albacete:Campos de Hellín Llanos de Albacete La Mancha del Júcar-Centro Manchuela albaceteña Monte Ibérico–Corredor de Almansa Sierra de Alcaraz y Campo de Montiel Sierra del Segura Comarcas of Ciudad Real:Alcudia Campo de Calatrava Mancha Montes Montiel Sierra Morena Comarcas of Cuenca:La Alcarria conquense La Mancha de Cuenca Manchuela conquense Serranía Alta Serranía Media-Campichuelo Serranía Baja Comarcas o
Province of Teruel
Teruel is a province of Aragon, in the northeast of Spain. The capital is Teruel, it is bordered by the provinces of Tarragona, Castellón, Cuenca and Zaragoza. The area of the province is 14,809 km², its population is 134,572, of whom about a quarter live in the capital, its population density is 9.36/km². It contains 236 municipalities; the main language throughout the province is Spanish, although Catalan is spoken in the comarca of Matarranya. This province is located in the mountainous Sistema Ibérico area; the main ranges in the province of Teruel are Sierra de la Virgen, Sierra de Santa Cruz, Sierra de Cucalón, Sierra de San Just, Sierra Carrascosa, Sierra Menera, Sierra Palomera, Sierra de Javalambre, Sierra de Gúdar, Sierra de Albarracín and the Montes Universales, among others. Most of the Teruel Province has undergone massive depopulation since the middle of the 20th century; this situation is shared with other areas in Spain with those near the Iberian mountain range and with other areas in Aragón.
The exodus from the rural mountain areas in Teruel rose after General Franco's Plan de Estabilización in 1959. The population declined steeply as people migrated towards the industrial areas and the large cities in Spain, leaving behind their small villages where living conditions were harsh, with cold winters and basic facilities; as a consequence there are many ghost towns in different parts of the province. A great number of surviving towns in Teruel province have only a residual population, reviving somewhat during the summer when a few city-dwellers spend their holidays there. Other causes of the strong emigration have been the low productivity of traditional agricultural practices, like sheep and goat farming, the closing of mines, like the large Sierra Menera mine near Ojos Negros, as well as the lifestyle changes that swept over rural Spain during the second half of the 20th century; the "Teruel Exists" movement began at the turn of the 21st century. It is a platform of provincial authorities and sympathizers seeking to reverse the long-standing neglect of this province.
The following Comarcas of Aragon are located in Teruel Province: Bajo Martín Jiloca Cuencas Mineras Andorra-Sierra de Arcos Bajo Aragón Comunidad de Teruel Maestrazgo Sierra de Albarracín Comarca Gúdar-Javalambre Matarranya Luis Buñuel, film director from Calanda Gaspar Sanz, music composer from Calanda Antón García Abril, music composer Pablo Serrano, sculptor from Crivillén Luis Milla, retired footballer who played for CD Teruel, FC Barcelona and R. Madrid David Civera, light music singer Federico Jiménez Losantos, author and radio host Manuel Pizarro Moreno, businessman and jurist La Vaquilla del Ángel List of Aragonese comarcas List of municipalities in Teruel Lower Aragon Sistema Ibérico Teruel.org Teruel Info. - Caciquismo & desarrollismo – N. B; this text-only website is in Japanese. Content not clear. Teruel Digital Directory in dmoz.org Fundación Amantes de Teruel Estado de los embalses de Teruel Teruel.com - Tourism Deteruel.com — Comunidad virtual de Teruel El número de ancianos españoles aumenta un 20% en 13 años
Montes Universales is a 32 km long mountain range in the southeastern end of the Iberian System. Its highest point is the 1,935 m high summit known as Caimodorro; the 1,830 m high Muela de San Juan is another important peak. Administratively, the Montes Universales belong to the Sierra de Albarracín comarca of Aragon, therefore there are confused with the geographical Sierra de Albarracín mountain range; the range, aligned in a NW - SE direction, is not as high as neighboring ranges. It is, however significant from the hydrographic point of view, for important rivers of the Iberian Peninsula have their source in these mountains, which divide the Atlantic from the Mediterranean watershed. Among the Iberian rivers that originate in the Montes Universales, the most important are the Tagus on the western slopes, the Túria, Cabriel and Xúquer on the eastern; the Montes Universales are bordered by the paleozoic massifs of Caimodorro and Loma Alta in the northeast, by the Serranía de Cuenca in the southeast, by the Sierra de Jabalón and the Túria Valley in the east.
These mountains are covered with not dense, clumps of pine and Iberian juniper forest. Radiocarbon samples from Ojos del Tremedal show that birches, now absent from these mountains, were common in the Montes Universales during the ice age around 9,600 years ago. Signs of human interference with the vegetation have been detected beginning about 3,500 years Before Present. Zapater's ringlet, is an endemic butterfly of these mountains. Frías de Albarracín Griegos Rama aragonesa del Sistema Ibérico Ruta amb bicicleta a Frías de Albarracín, Montes Universales Plantas de los Montes Universales Avifauna
The Iberian System, is one of the major systems of mountain ranges in Spain. It consists of a vast and complex area of relatively high and rugged mountain chains and massifs located in the central region of the Iberian Peninsula, but reaching the Mediterranean coast in the Valencian Country in the east. From the hydrographic viewpoint this system is of the highest relevance in the peninsula, for it separates the watersheds of most of the major rivers in Spain and Portugal, including the Ebro basin from the basins of the Douro, Guadiana, Júcar and Turia. There are important mining areas in some of the ranges such as Sierra Menera, Sierra de Arcos and Sierra de San Just, making the system one of the chief mining regions in Spain since ancient times. One of the comarcas of Aragon located in the Iberian System was given the name of Cuencas Mineras since mining is the main activity in the comarca; the Sistema Ibérico mountain range borders the Meseta Central on its western end and separates the Meseta Central from the Ebro valley and from the Mediterranean coast.
This system runs northwest-southeast between the Ebro plain and the Meseta Central for over 500 km, from the La Bureba corridor in Burgos Province close to the Cordillera Cantábrica to the Mediterranean sea close to Valencia in the south and close to Tortosa and the Ebro Delta in the east. The bulk of the Sistema Ibérico is located in the southern half of Aragon; the Prebaetic System rises south of the southernmost end of the Iberian System. The geology of the Iberian System is complex, it is composed of a haphazard and motley series of mountain ranges, massifs and depressions without a definite common petrologic composition and overall structure. Nummulite limestone and sandstone are common throughout the area; some of the parts of the system stand geologically isolated, interrupting the continuity of the whole, linked to the other parts through high plateaus of varying altitudes. Large zones of the mountainous Iberian System have undergone heavy depopulation since the early 20th century. There are many ghost towns and abandoned villages scattered across different parts of the Iberian System in Teruel Province.
A great number of surviving towns have only a residual population. In some cases many of the inhabitants are not natives anymore, but immigrants from Romania or the Maghreb working as contract laborers in agricultural activities; the exodus from the rural mountainous areas in Spain rose after General Franco's Plan de Estabilización in 1959. The population declined steeply as people emigrated towards the industrial areas of the large cities and the coastal towns where the tourism industry was growing. Other causes of high emigration have been the abandonment by the local youth of traditional agricultural practices that were the mainstay of the village economy, such as sheep and goat rearing, as well as the lifestyle changes that swept over rural Spain during the second half of the 20th century; the heavy depopulation has favored wildlife, so that one of the last colonies of griffon vultures in Europe is in the Iberian System. Wolves and eagles are relatively common in the lonely heights. Among the mammals, the Spanish ibex, roe deer, wild boar, European badgers, common genets, among others, have their habitat in many of these desolate mountain ranges.
The most common reptiles in the Iberian System are Lacerta lepida, Psammodromus algirus, Psammodromus hispanicus, Podarcis muralis and Podarcis hispanicus. Chalcides chalcides, Chalcides bedriagai and Anguis fragilis, are rarer; the snakes present in these mountains are Natrix maura, Natrix natrix, Malpolon monspessulanus, Elaphe scalaris, Coronella girondica, Coronella austriaca and Vipera latastei. Some amphibians are abundant in or near ponds and rivulets throughout the whole system, such as Rana perezi, Bufo bufo, Bufo calamita, Alytes obstetricans, Triturus marmoratus and Lissotriton helveticus, the latter at high altitude, whether in intermittent or permanent bodies of water. Hyla arborea and Salamandra salamandra are somewhat rarer, but still having a wide distribution in humid forested zones; the Iberian ribbed newt, however, is found in the mountainous areas. Aquatic invertebrates, including the Austropotamobius pallipes crayfish, certain fishes, such as Salaria fluviatilis and Cobitis paludica are common in the upper course of the Sistema Ibérico rivers.
Some mountain streams have been stocked with trout. Traditional cattle rearing activities so important in central Iberia, still survive on dry grasslands in certain villages around the system. There are a number of hunters visiting some of the ranges those that are closer to the urban areas and on weekends; some ranges have forested patches, consisting of Pinus pinaster, Pinus sylvestris and Pinus uncinata pines and Quercus rotundifolia, Quercus pyrenaica and Quercus faginea oaks Fagus sylvatica beeches and Betula pendula birches grow in some humid slopes, where Pteridium aquilinum, Polypodium vulgare ferns may be found. Other ranges are rocky and quite bare with heath, broom as well as thyme and Festuca and Nardus stricta grasslands. Thin forest or shrubland may include Juniperus communis, Juniperus thurifera, Cytisus purgans, Erinacea anthyllis and Calluna vulgaris shrub; the southern slopes are drier than the northern ones and may be subject to wildfires in periods of prolonged drought in the summer.
Bogs are not common in the Iberian Peninsula, but high altitu