Junior Mints are a candy brand consisting of small rounds of mint filling inside a dark chocolate coating, with a dimple on one side. The product is produced by Tootsie Roll Industries, is packaged in varying amounts from the fun-size box to the much larger 12.0 oz. box. Junior Mints were introduced in 1949 by Massachusetts-based James O. Welch Company; the company manufactured candies and candy bars such as Sugar Babies, Welch's Fudge, Pom Poms. James O. Welch was born in Hertford, North Carolina, attended the University of North Carolina, founded his Cambridge candy company in 1927, his partner in the company was his brother, Robert W. Welch, Jr. who retired from the confectionery business in 1956 and two years founded the John Birch Society. In 1963, the brand was acquired by Nabisco, who sold the brand to Warner-Lambert Company in 1988, who in turn sold the brand to Tootsie Roll in 1993. Today, Junior Mints are still manufactured in the Area 4 neighborhood of Cambridge at a factory of Cambridge Brands, a Tootsie Roll Industries subsidiary.
The same factory makes all Charleston Chews. The name of the product is a pun on Sally Benson's Junior Miss, a collection of her stories from The New Yorker, which were adapted by Jerome Chodorov and Joseph Fields into a successful play; the play was directed by Moss Hart and ran on Broadway from 1941 to 1943. According to one past official company history, when James Welch developed and launched the product in 1949, he named the candy after his favorite Broadway show, yet the candy came. Current copy on the Junior Mints box incorrectly gives the date of the Broadway play as 1949; some may argue that this is comparable to the "potato potato" scenario, as depending on how you read "named after a top Broadway play in 1949: "Junior Miss"", it may be interpreted that it is referring to the candy being named in 1949. In 1945, the play was adapted to film, with George Seaton directing Peggy Ann Garner in the lead role; the Junior Miss radio series, starring Barbara Whiting, was being broadcast weekly on CBS at the time Junior Mints were first marketed in 1949.
Thus, Welch had cleverly created a product sold at movie theater concession stands and identified with a specific movie and radio series and displaying a name that sounded exactly like that property–yet different enough that it avoided any fees for licensing and merchandising. Junior Mints became a popular candy at movie concession stands, one product in the line is the three oz. box marketed as the "Theater Size Junior Mints Concession Candy". Over 15 million Junior Mints are produced daily. Tootsie Roll makes Junior Caramels and limited edition "Inside Outs". Other limited edition Junior Mints include Valentine's Day Pastels/Valentine's Day Regulars, Easter Pastels, Christmas edition, Christmas Peppermint Crunch edition. Junior Mints are sold in various amounts from the fun-size boxes to the movie theater-size boxes, since the product continues to sell well in movie theaters. Junior Mints have traveled throughout the world, they are now certified kosher dairy by the Orthodox Union. In 2009, Tootsie Roll introduced a companion product, "Junior Mints Deluxe".
The "Deluxe" is a larger dark chocolate covered mint that comes foil wrapped and is sold in 10, 22, 72-piece boxes with a fold up sign, designed for individual piece sale on retail counter tops. Junior Mints were prominently featured in an episode of Seinfeld titled "The Junior Mint". While observing the surgery of Elaine's ex-boyfriend Roy, Kramer offers a Junior Mint to Jerry, who refuses the offer—to which Kramer states, "Who's gonna turn down a Junior Mint? It's chocolate, it's peppermint. After Roy's condition deteriorates, Jerry calls the hospital intending to confess the whole situation, only to discover that Roy's condition has improved; the doctor attributes the miraculous recovery to "something beyond science — something from above." In reality, a York Peppermint Pattie was used. In Fancy Boys episode "The Junior Mints", Aaron and Barry try to somehow get a lifetime supply of Junior Mints throughout the episode. YouTuber Justine Ezarik is known as the biggest Junior Mints fan; as a child she owned Junior Mints fanfare such as a lunch box, T- shirts, a blanket.
Now it is still her favorite candy but she is not as enthusiastic about it. The 2006 Augusten Burroughs book Possible Side Effects contains a chapter, "Mint Threshold", about the author's experience creating an advertising campaign for Junior Mints. List of chocolate bar brands Junior Mints official site
The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place during the 1930s, beginning in the United States. The timing of the Great Depression varied across nations, it was the longest and most widespread depression of the 20th century. In the 21st century, the Great Depression is used as an example of how intensely the world's economy can decline; the Great Depression started in the United States after a major fall in stock prices that began around September 4, 1929, became worldwide news with the stock market crash of October 29, 1929. Between 1929 and 1932, worldwide gross domestic product fell by an estimated 15%. By comparison, worldwide GDP fell by less than 1% from 2008 to 2009 during the Great Recession; some economies started to recover by the mid-1930s. However, in many countries the negative effects of the Great Depression lasted until the beginning of World War II; the Great Depression had devastating effects in countries both poor. Personal income, tax revenue and prices dropped, while international trade plunged by more than 50%.
Unemployment in the U. S. rose to 25% and in some countries rose as high as 33%. Cities around the world were hit hard those dependent on heavy industry. Construction was halted in many countries. Farming communities and rural areas suffered as crop prices fell by about 60%. Facing plummeting demand with few alternative sources of jobs, areas dependent on primary sector industries such as mining and logging suffered the most. Economic historians attribute the start of the Great Depression to the sudden devastating collapse of U. S. stock market prices on October 29, 1929, known as Black Tuesday. However, some dispute this conclusion and see the stock crash as a symptom, rather than a cause, of the Great Depression. After the Wall Street Crash of 1929 optimism persisted for some time. John D. Rockefeller said "These are days. In the 93 years of my life, depressions have gone. Prosperity has always returned and will again." The stock market turned upward in early 1930. This was still 30% below the peak of September 1929.
Together and business spent more in the first half of 1930 than in the corresponding period of the previous year. On the other hand, many of whom had suffered severe losses in the stock market the previous year, cut back their expenditures by 10%. In addition, beginning in the mid-1930s, a severe drought ravaged the agricultural heartland of the U. S. By mid-1930, interest rates had dropped to low levels, but expected deflation and the continuing reluctance of people to borrow meant that consumer spending and investment were depressed. By May 1930, automobile sales had declined to below the levels of 1928. Prices in general began to decline, although wages held steady in 1930. A deflationary spiral started in 1931. Farmers faced a worse outlook. At its peak, the Great Depression saw nearly 10% of all Great Plains farms change hands despite federal assistance; the decline in the U. S. economy was the factor. Frantic attempts to shore up the economies of individual nations through protectionist policies, such as the 1930 U.
S. Smoot–Hawley Tariff Act and retaliatory tariffs in other countries, exacerbated the collapse in global trade. By 1933, the economic decline had pushed world trade to one-third of its level just four years earlier. Change in economic indicators 1929–32 The two classical competing theories of the Great Depression are the Keynesian and the monetarist explanation. There are various heterodox theories that downplay or reject the explanations of the Keynesians and monetarists; the consensus among demand-driven theories is that a large-scale loss of confidence led to a sudden reduction in consumption and investment spending. Once panic and deflation set in, many people believed they could avoid further losses by keeping clear of the markets. Holding money became profitable as prices dropped lower and a given amount of money bought more goods, exacerbating the drop in demand. Monetarists believe that the Great Depression started as an ordinary recession, but the shrinking of the money supply exacerbated the economic situation, causing a recession to descend into the Great Depression.
Economists and economic historians are evenly split as to whether the traditional monetary explanation that monetary forces were the primary cause of the Great Depression is right, or the traditional Keynesian explanation that a fall in autonomous spending investment, is the primary explanation for the onset of the Great Depression. Today the controversy is of lesser importance since there is mainstream support for the debt deflation theory and the expectations hypothesis that building on the monetary explanation of Milton Friedman and Anna Schwartz add non-monetary explanations. There is consensus that the Federal Reserve System should have cut short the process of monetary deflation and banking collapse. If they had done this, the economic downturn would have been much shorter. British economist John Maynard Keynes argued in The General Theory of Employment and Money that lower aggregate expenditures in the economy contributed to a massive decline in income and to employment, well below the average.
In such a situation, the economy reached equilibrium at low levels of economic activity and high unemployment. Keynes' basic idea was simple
Nestlé S. A. is a Swiss transnational food and drink company headquartered in Vevey, Switzerland. It is the largest food company in the world, measured by revenues and other metrics, since 2014, it ranked No. 64 on the Fortune Global 500 in 2017 and No. 33 on the 2016 edition of the Forbes Global 2000 list of largest public companies. Nestlé's products include baby food, medical food, bottled water, breakfast cereals and tea, dairy products, ice cream, frozen food, pet foods, snacks. Twenty-nine of Nestlé's brands have annual sales of over CHF1 billion, including Nespresso, Nescafé, Kit Kat, Nesquik, Stouffer's, Maggi. Nestlé has 447 factories, operates in 189 countries, employs around 339,000 people, it is one of the main shareholders of the world's largest cosmetics company. Nestlé was formed in 1905 by the merger of the Anglo-Swiss Milk Company, established in 1866 by brothers George and Charles Page, Farine Lactée Henri Nestlé, founded in 1866 by Henri Nestlé; the company grew during the First World War and again following the Second World War, expanding its offerings beyond its early condensed milk and infant formula products.
The company has made a number of corporate acquisitions, including Crosse & Blackwell in 1950, Findus in 1963, Libby's in 1971, Rowntree Mackintosh in 1988, Klim in 1998, Gerber in 2007. Nestlé has a primary listing on the SIX Swiss Exchange and is a constituent of the Swiss Market Index, it has a secondary listing on Euronext. Nestlé's origins date back to the 1860s, when two separate Swiss enterprises were founded that would form the core of Nestlé. In the succeeding decades, the two competing enterprises aggressively expanded their businesses throughout Europe and the United States. In 1866, Charles Page and George Page, brothers from Lee County, Illinois, USA, established the Anglo-Swiss Condensed Milk Company in Cham, Switzerland, their first British operation was opened at Chippenham, Wiltshire, in 1873. In 1867, in Vevey, Henri Nestlé soon began marketing it; the following year saw Daniel Peter begin seven years of work perfecting his invention, the milk chocolate manufacturing process.
Nestlé was the crucial co-operation that Peter needed to solve the problem of removing all the water from the milk added to his chocolate and thus preventing the product from developing mildew. Henri Nestlé retired in 1875 but the company, under new ownership, retained his name as Société Farine Lactée Henri Nestlé. In 1877, Anglo-Swiss added milk-based baby foods to their products. In 1879, Nestlé merged with milk chocolate inventor Daniel Peter. In 1904, François-Louis Cailler, Charles Amédée Kohler, Daniel Peter, Henri Nestlé participated in the creation and development of Swiss chocolate, marketing the first chocolate – milk Nestlé. In 1905, the companies merged to become the Nestlé and Anglo-Swiss Condensed Milk Company, retaining that name until 1947 when the name'Nestlé Alimentana SA' was taken as a result of the acquisition of Fabrique de Produits Maggi SA and its holding company, Alimentana SA, of Kempttal, Switzerland. Maggi was a major manufacturer of related foodstuffs; the company's current name was adopted in 1977.
By the early 1900s, the company was operating factories in the United States, the United Kingdom and Spain. The First World War created demand for dairy products in the form of government contracts, and, by the end of the war, Nestlé's production had more than doubled. In January 1919, Nestlé bought two condensed milk plants in Oregon from the company Geibisch and Joplin for $250,000. One was in Bandon, they expanded them processing 250,000 pounds of condensed milk daily in the Bandon plant. Nestlé felt the effects of the Second World War immediately. Profits dropped from US$20 million in 1938 to US$6 million in 1939. Factories were established in developing countries in Latin America; the war helped with the introduction of the company's newest product, Nescafé, which became a staple drink of the US military. Nestlé's production and sales rose in the wartime economy. After the war, government contracts dried up, consumers switched back to fresh milk. However, Nestlé's management responded streamlining operations and reducing debt.
The 1920s saw Nestlé's first expansion into new products, with chocolate-manufacture becoming the company's second most important activity. Louis Dapples was CEO till 1937 when succeeded by Édouard Muller till his death in 1948; the end of World War II was the beginning of a dynamic phase for Nestlé. Growth accelerated and numerous companies were acquired. In 1947 Nestlé merged with a manufacturer of seasonings and soups. Crosse & Blackwell followed in 1950, as did Findus, Libby's, Stouffer's. Diversification came with a shareholding in L'Oreal in 1974. In 1977, Nestlé made its second venture outside the food industry, by acquiring Alcon Laboratories Inc. In the 1980s, Nestlé's improved bottom line allowed the company to launch a new round of acquisitions. Carnation was acquired for $3 billion in 1984 and brought the evaporated milk brand, as well as Coffee-Mate and Friskies to Nestlé. In 1986 Nestlé Nespresso S. A. was founded. The confectionery company Rowntree Mackintosh was acquired in 1988 for $4.5 billion, which brought brands such as Kit Kat and Aero.
The first half of the 1990s proved to be favourable for Nestlé. Trade barriers crumbled, world markets developed into more or less integrat
Frozen dessert is a dessert made by freezing liquids, semi-solids, sometimes solids. They may be based on flavored water, on fruit purées, on milk and cream, on custard, on mousse, others, it is sometimes sold as ice-cream in other countries. In Canada and elsewhere, the term is used on imitations of ice cream which do not satisfy its legal definition. In India some company brands like Hindustan Unilever were found selling frozen dessert made from vegetable oils rather than that made with pure milk; as per Indian regulations, ice cream, made from milk solids, but contains non-dairy fat is categorized and labelled as frozen dessert in India. List of frozen dessert brands List of desserts Food portal
A wind turbine, or alternatively referred to as a wind energy converter, is a device that converts the wind's kinetic energy into electrical energy. Wind turbines are manufactured in a wide range of horizontal axis; the smallest turbines are used for applications such as battery charging for auxiliary power for boats or caravans or to power traffic warning signs. Larger turbines can be used for making contributions to a domestic power supply while selling unused power back to the utility supplier via the electrical grid. Arrays of large turbines, known as wind farms, are becoming an important source of intermittent renewable energy and are used by many countries as part of a strategy to reduce their reliance on fossil fuels. One assessment claimed that, as of 2009, wind had the "lowest relative greenhouse gas emissions, the least water consumption demands and... the most favourable social impacts" compared to photovoltaic, geothermal and gas. The windwheel of Hero of Alexandria marks one of the first recorded instances of wind powering a machine in history.
However, the first known practical wind power plants were built in Sistan, an Eastern province of Persia, from the 7th century. These "Panemone" were vertical axle windmills, which had long vertical drive shafts with rectangular blades. Made of six to twelve sails covered in reed matting or cloth material, these windmills were used to grind grain or draw up water, were used in the gristmilling and sugarcane industries. Wind power first appeared in Europe during the Middle Ages; the first historical records of their use in England date to the 11th or 12th centuries and there are reports of German crusaders taking their windmill-making skills to Syria around 1190. By the 14th century, Dutch windmills were in use to drain areas of the Rhine delta. Advanced wind turbines were described by Croatian inventor Fausto Veranzio. In his book Machinae Novae he described vertical axis wind turbines with V-shaped blades; the first electricity-generating wind turbine was a battery charging machine installed in July 1887 by Scottish academic James Blyth to light his holiday home in Marykirk, Scotland.
Some months American inventor Charles F. Brush was able to build the first automatically operated wind turbine after consulting local University professors and colleagues Jacob S. Gibbs and Brinsley Coleberd and getting the blueprints peer-reviewed for electricity production in Cleveland, Ohio. Although Blyth's turbine was considered uneconomical in the United Kingdom, electricity generation by wind turbines was more cost effective in countries with scattered populations. In Denmark by 1900, there were about 2500 windmills for mechanical loads such as pumps and mills, producing an estimated combined peak power of about 30 MW; the largest machines were on 24-meter towers with four-bladed 23-meter diameter rotors. By 1908, there were 72 wind-driven electric generators operating in the United States from 5 kW to 25 kW. Around the time of World War I, American windmill makers were producing 100,000 farm windmills each year for water-pumping. By the 1930s, wind generators for electricity were common on farms in the United States where distribution systems had not yet been installed.
In this period, high-tensile steel was cheap, the generators were placed atop prefabricated open steel lattice towers. A forerunner of modern horizontal-axis wind generators was in service at Yalta, USSR in 1931; this was a 100 kW generator on a 30-meter tower, connected to the local 6.3 kV distribution system. It was reported to have an annual capacity factor of 32 percent, not much different from current wind machines. In the autumn of 1941, the first megawatt-class wind turbine was synchronized to a utility grid in Vermont; the Smith–Putnam wind turbine only ran for 1,100 hours before suffering a critical failure. The unit was not repaired, because of a shortage of materials during the war; the first utility grid-connected wind turbine to operate in the UK was built by John Brown & Company in 1951 in the Orkney Islands. Despite these diverse developments, developments in fossil fuel systems entirely eliminated any wind turbine systems larger than supermicro size. In the early 1970s, anti-nuclear protests in Denmark spurred artisan mechanics to develop microturbines of 22 kW.
Organizing owners into associations and co-operatives lead to the lobbying of the government and utilities and provided incentives for larger turbines throughout the 1980s and later. Local activists in Germany, nascent turbine manufacturers in Spain, large investors in the United States in the early 1990s lobbied for policies that stimulated the industry in those countries. Wind Power Density is a quantitative measure of wind energy available at any location, it is the mean annual power available per square meter of swept area of a turbine, is calculated for different heights above ground. Calculation of wind power density includes the effect of air density. Wind turbines are classified by the wind speed they are designed for, from class I to class III, with A to C referring to the turbulence intensity of the wind. Conservation of mass requires that the amount of air exiting a turbine must be equal. Accordingly, Betz's law gives the maximal achievable extraction of wind power by a wind turbine as 16/27 of the total kinetic energy of the air flowing through the turbine.
The maximum theoretical power output of a wind machine is thus 16/27 times the kinetic energy of the air passing through the effective disk area of the machine. If the effective area of the disk is A, the wind velocity v, the maximum theoretical power output P is: P = 16
Iced tea is a form of cold tea. Though served in a glass with ice, it can refer to any tea, chilled or cooled, it may be sweetened with syrup and/or apple slices. Iced tea is a popular packaged drink, it can be mixed with flavored syrup, with multiple common flavors including lemon, lime, passion fruit, orange and cherry. While most iced teas get their flavor from tea leaves, herbal teas are sometimes served cold and referred to as iced tea. Iced tea is sometimes made by a long steeping of tea leaves at lower temperature; this is known as sun tea. Iced tea is popular in Austria and is known as Eistee. Pfanner and Rauch are two of the most popular manufacturers. In Belgium, the Netherlands, other parts of Europe, "Ice-Tea" is the brand name of a carbonated variety of iced tea marketed by Lipton since 1978, they market other non-carbonated iced teas under the "Ice Tea" brand. In Brazil in Rio de Janeiro, one of the most popular beverages is mate or chá mate. Unlike the Argentinian or gaucho mate, the carioca rendering is consumed sweetened.
A preferred flavouring is lime juice, referred in Rio as "mate com limão". It is a part of the local beach culture. Mate dried; the most popular brand is Leão from Paraná, acquired by The Coca-Cola Company. It is left overnight at the refrigerator. Leão markets mate as a non-carbonated soft drink. In Canada, iced tea refers to sweetened iced tea, flavoured with lemon; the iced tea is made at home from drink powder or obtained in bottles or cans. Sweetened green teas and those flavoured with raspberry, peach, or pomegranate are becoming more common via marketing efforts. Sweetened iced tea is served as an alternative to other soft drinks, prepared by companies like Lipton, Nestlé and Brisk. Water and flavourings may exceed tea in quantity in these drinks. Many health food and specialty stores carry. Fresh-brewed iced tea is popular in smaller independently owned restaurants. Powdered or frozen iced tea is a common preparation at home, due to its ease of use. Although not a traditional way to serve tea, iced tea gained widespread popularity in rural areas since the late 1980s with canned or bottled tea.
Many varieties of tea, including green tea, are available sold in stores. Many families make their own iced tea by either putting lots of ice in a small amount of strong hot tea or by putting hot tea in a fridge for some time. Common types of iced tea are black, green and lots of herbals as well. Iced herbal teas are popular in the hot summers, where "yin"（陰）or cooling herbs are used to make tea such as chrysanthemum, kuding tea, etc. Cooled tea was popular throughout ancient times. Refrigerated tea was only available to those politically connected to the Communist Party; the introduction of limited capitalism and the opening markets in the 1990s made refrigeration available to the general population for the first time. China’s refrigerator-ownership increased to 95 percent from just 7 percent of urban families in the years from 1997 to 2009. Iced tea is sold in 7-Eleven supermarkets. Nestea and Pfanner are the most dominant brands and lemon- and peach-flavored iced teas are the most popular variants.
Lipton offers a number of non-carbonated iced teas under the "Ice Tea" brand and the carbonated variety under the brand "Ice Tea Sparkling". Iced tea is available in many restaurants and cafés. Half-sweetened iced tea is available in most big supermarkets "Lipton Green". Instant teas are available that can be used to prepare iced tea with cold or hot water which are called "Krümeltee" because of the special appearance. Ice tea in Greece is either lemon or peach flavor. Most dominant brands are Lipton, Fuze Tea, Arizona and Life Tsai. New flavors have appeared but have not reached the popularity of lemon and peach, though varieties of these exist such as no sugar or with green tea with the above flavorings. Sparkling Ice Tea is non-existent, but there is powdered Ice Tea available in supermarkets. Ice Tea not concerning the brand, is available in most restaurants served with ice and a lemon slice In addition to the classical Ice Tea, there exists canned cold mountain tea branded by a different company called tuvunu meaning "of the mountain".
This variant is less popular due to its recent entry to the market. Overall, Ice Tea is one of the most popular non-alcoholic beverages in Greece in the top three with cola and orange juice. Iced lemon tea is available at many Hong Kong restaurants. A strong black tea is brewed at length in a metal pot over a burner and prepared as follows: a large glass is filled with ice, a scoop of simple syrup is added, the glass is filled to the top with hot tea. Slices of lemon are placed atop the mixture, which are muddled into the tea by the customer, ensuring that the volatile oils present in the lemon peel are at their peak when consumed. In dessert parlors, iced green tea is available and without tapioca pearls, as is Hong Kong
Byrne Dairy is a regional dairy company headquartered in Syracuse, New York. It was founded during the Great Depression in 1933, delivering milk bottles to New Yorkers by horse-wagons; the company is run and has expanded, distributing across the Upstate New York region, supplying many wholesale and retail locations. The company has a wholesale distribution center in Massachusetts and operates a chain of convenience store/gas stations in Central New York. Byrne Dairy has four production facilities operating in central New York: a fresh milk plant and ice cream plant in downtown Syracuse, an extended shelf life milk and non-dairy plant in East Syracuse, a yogurt/cultured products facility in Cortlandville; the production side of the business operates a cold storage warehouse in Syracuse and the distribution centers noted above. ESL products from the Ultra Dairy facility have shipped around the world. In 1933 Byrne Dairy was founded by Matthew V Byrne. In 1941 motor trucks began to take over the wagons, by the end of the decade.
By the late 1940s war veterans began to return home, contributing to the company, increasing the monthly revenue from $900.00 to $400,000.00. The slogan "Byrne Dairy Milk is Mighty-Fine" began to appear on the packages of their products in 1952 along with the opening of the first Byrne Dairy store. In 1959, Matthew V Byrne died and by 1977, home deliveries ceased; the next year, the company underwent a major expansion, expanding their product line to ice cream, by 1981 was churning its own brand of butter. In 1990, Byrne Dairy launched their own plastic milk bottle line and in 2004, they opened their Ultra Dairy plant in Dewitt, New York. Ultra Dairy started as a 40,000 square foot ultra pasteurization facility, but in 2008, Byrne Dairy invested 28 million dollars to more than double Ultra Dairy's production capacity and abilities. Byrne Hollow Farm, the yogurt/cultured products plant, began production in 2014. Since the Byrne Hollow Farm brand has expanded their line of products to include Greek Yoghurt, organic milk, grass-fed organic milk.
The Byrne Hollow Farm brand holds the following certifications: USDA Organic, Non-GMO Project Vertified, Kosher Dairy, New York State Grown & Certified, Farmers Assuring Responsible Management Program. Their product features include: Non-GMO, rBST-free, Naturally Gluten-Free, fresh, local farms. In October 2012, Byrne Dairy announced a plan to open a yogurt plant and agritourism center on a 127-acre site in Cortlandville, New York; the announcement marks Byrne Dairy's entry into the expanding central New York Greek yogurt belt, alongside Chobani, Crowley Foods, as well as Fage's presence in Johnstown. In 1954 the company branched out into retail, opening its first convenience store at Central Square, New York, it now has some with delicatessens or ice cream shops. 44 of the locations are gas stations. Turkey Hill Wawa