Sydney is the state capital of New South Wales and the most populous city in Australia and Oceania. Located on Australia's east coast, the metropolis surrounds Port Jackson and extends about 70 km on its periphery towards the Blue Mountains to the west, Hawkesbury to the north, the Royal National Park to the south and Macarthur to the south-west. Sydney is made up of 40 local government areas and 15 contiguous regions. Residents of the city are known as "Sydneysiders"; as of June 2017, Sydney's estimated metropolitan population was 5,230,330 and is home to 65% of the state's population. Indigenous Australians have inhabited the Sydney area for at least 30,000 years, thousands of engravings remain throughout the region, making it one of the richest in Australia in terms of Aboriginal archaeological sites. During his first Pacific voyage in 1770, Lieutenant James Cook and his crew became the first Europeans to chart the eastern coast of Australia, making landfall at Botany Bay and inspiring British interest in the area.
In 1788, the First Fleet of convicts, led by Arthur Phillip, founded Sydney as a British penal colony, the first European settlement in Australia. Phillip named the city Sydney in recognition of 1st Viscount Sydney. Penal transportation to New South Wales ended soon after Sydney was incorporated as a city in 1842. A gold rush occurred in the colony in 1851, over the next century, Sydney transformed from a colonial outpost into a major global cultural and economic centre. After World War II, it experienced mass migration and became one of the most multicultural cities in the world. At the time of the 2011 census, more than 250 different languages were spoken in Sydney. In the 2016 Census, about 35.8% of residents spoke a language other than English at home. Furthermore, 45.4% of the population reported having been born overseas, making Sydney the 3rd largest foreign born population of any city in the world after London and New York City, respectively. Despite being one of the most expensive cities in the world, the 2018 Mercer Quality of Living Survey ranks Sydney tenth in the world in terms of quality of living, making it one of the most livable cities.
It is classified as an Alpha+ World City by Globalization and World Cities Research Network, indicating its influence in the region and throughout the world. Ranked eleventh in the world for economic opportunity, Sydney has an advanced market economy with strengths in finance and tourism. There is a significant concentration of foreign banks and multinational corporations in Sydney and the city is promoted as Australia's financial capital and one of Asia Pacific's leading financial hubs. Established in 1850, the University of Sydney is Australia's first university and is regarded as one of the world's leading universities. Sydney is home to the oldest library in Australia, State Library of New South Wales, opened in 1826. Sydney has hosted major international sporting events such as the 2000 Summer Olympics; the city is among the top fifteen most-visited cities in the world, with millions of tourists coming each year to see the city's landmarks. Boasting over 1,000,000 ha of nature reserves and parks, its notable natural features include Sydney Harbour, the Royal National Park, Royal Botanic Garden and Hyde Park, the oldest parkland in the country.
Built attractions such as the Sydney Harbour Bridge and the World Heritage-listed Sydney Opera House are well known to international visitors. The main passenger airport serving the metropolitan area is Kingsford-Smith Airport, one of the world's oldest continually operating airports. Established in 1906, Central station, the largest and busiest railway station in the state, is the main hub of the city's rail network; the first people to inhabit the area now known as Sydney were indigenous Australians having migrated from northern Australia and before that from southeast Asia. Radiocarbon dating suggests human activity first started to occur in the Sydney area from around 30,735 years ago. However, numerous Aboriginal stone tools were found in Western Sydney's gravel sediments that were dated from 45,000 to 50,000 years BP, which would indicate that there was human settlement in Sydney earlier than thought; the first meeting between the native people and the British occurred on 29 April 1770 when Lieutenant James Cook landed at Botany Bay on the Kurnell Peninsula and encountered the Gweagal clan.
He noted in his journal that they were somewhat hostile towards the foreign visitors. Cook was not commissioned to start a settlement, he spent a short time collecting food and conducting scientific observations before continuing further north along the east coast of Australia and claiming the new land he had discovered for Britain. Prior to the arrival of the British there were 4,000 to 8,000 native people in Sydney from as many as 29 different clans; the earliest British settlers called the natives Eora people. "Eora" is the term the indigenous population used to explain their origins upon first contact with the British. Its literal meaning is "from this place". Sydney Cove from Port Jackson to Petersham was inhabited by the Cadigal clan; the principal language groups were Darug and Dharawal. The earliest Europeans to visit the area noted that the indigenous people were conducting activities such as camping and fishing, using trees for bark and food, collecting shells, cooking fish. Britain—before that, England—and Ireland had for a long time been sending their convicts across the Atlantic to the American colonies.
That trade was ended with the Declaration of Independence by the United States in 1776. Britain decided in 1786 to found a new penal outpost in the territory discovered by Cook some 16 years ear
Turkish Olympic Committee
Turkish National Olympic Committee is the governing Olympic body of Turkey. It is based in Istanbul; as one of the oldest National Olympic Committees in the world, TNOC was founded on the era of the Ottoman Empire in 1908 on the name Ottoman National Olympic Society and recognised by the IOC in 1911. The committee of the TNOC is represented by: President: Uğur Erdener Vice President: Türker Arslan, Hasan Arat, Nihat Usta Secretary General: Neşe Gündoğan Treasurer: Abdullah Özkan Mutlugil Members: Sezai Bağbaşı, Mustafa Keten, Seyit Bilal Porsun, Abdullah Topaloğlu, Turgay Demirel, Sema Kasapoğlu, Perviz Aran,Elif Özdemir, Ayda Uluç, Kazım Âli Kiremitçioğlu President of The Supreme Advisory and Disciplinary Committee: Şefik Sivrikaya The Turkish National Federations are the organizations that coordinate all aspects of their individual sports, they are responsible for training and development of their sports. There are 33 Olympic Summer and 5 Winter Sport Federations in Turkey. Turkey at the Olympics Official website Mustafa Koç Sports Award Judged and endorsed by the Turkish Olympic Committee, honouring the late businessman Mustafa Vehbi Koç
Australia the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area; the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north. The population of 25 million is urbanised and concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, its largest city is Sydney; the country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane and Adelaide. Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians for about 60,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, it is documented. After the European exploration of the continent by Dutch explorers in 1606, who named it New Holland, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain in 1770 and settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788, a date which became Australia's national day; the population grew in subsequent decades, by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored and an additional five self-governing crown colonies established.
On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy, comprising six states and ten territories. Being the oldest and driest inhabited continent, with the least fertile soils, Australia has a landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometres. A megadiverse country, its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east and mountain ranges in the south-east. A gold rush began in Australia in the early 1850s, its population density, 2.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, remains among the lowest in the world. Australia generates its income from various sources including mining-related exports, telecommunications and manufacturing. Indigenous Australian rock art is the oldest and richest in the world, dating as far back as 60,000 years and spread across hundreds of thousands of sites. Australia is a developed country, with the world's 14th-largest economy.
It has a high-income economy, with the world's tenth-highest per capita income. It is a regional power, has the world's 13th-highest military expenditure. Australia has the world's ninth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 26% of the population. Having the third-highest human development index and the eighth-highest ranked democracy globally, the country ranks in quality of life, education, economic freedom, civil liberties and political rights, with all its major cities faring well in global comparative livability surveys. Australia is a member of the United Nations, G20, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, World Trade Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Pacific Islands Forum and the ASEAN Plus Six mechanism; the name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis, a name used for a hypothetical continent in the Southern Hemisphere since ancient times. When Europeans first began visiting and mapping Australia in the 17th century, the name Terra Australis was applied to the new territories.
Until the early 19th century, Australia was best known as "New Holland", a name first applied by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1644 and subsequently anglicised. Terra Australis still saw occasional usage, such as in scientific texts; the name Australia was popularised by the explorer Matthew Flinders, who said it was "more agreeable to the ear, an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of the earth". The first time that Australia appears to have been used was in April 1817, when Governor Lachlan Macquarie acknowledged the receipt of Flinders' charts of Australia from Lord Bathurst. In December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office. In 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known by that name; the first official published use of the new name came with the publication in 1830 of The Australia Directory by the Hydrographic Office. Colloquial names for Australia include "Oz" and "the Land Down Under". Other epithets include "the Great Southern Land", "the Lucky Country", "the Sunburnt Country", "the Wide Brown Land".
The latter two both derive from Dorothea Mackellar's 1908 poem "My Country". Human habitation of the Australian continent is estimated to have begun around 65,000 to 70,000 years ago, with the migration of people by land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now Southeast Asia; these first inhabitants were the ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. Aboriginal Australian culture is one of the oldest continual civilisations on earth. At the time of first European contact, most Indigenous Australians were hunter-gatherers with complex economies and societies. Recent archaeological finds suggest. Indigenous Australians have an oral culture with spiritual values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the Dreamtime; the Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, obtained their livelihood from seasonal horticulture and the resources of their reefs and seas. The northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited s
Taekwondo at the 2000 Summer Olympics
Taekwondo was contested as an official sport at the Olympic Games for the first time at the 2000 Summer Olympics in Sydney. It had been a demonstration sport in 1988 and 1992. Medals were awarded in four weight classes each for women. Tran Hieu Ngan became the first Vietnamese Olympic medalist in this competition. MenWomen A total of 103 taekwondo jins from 51 nations competed at the Sydney Games: Bronze medalist Chi Shu-Ju, Hamide Bıkçın Tosun, Hadi Saei and Pascal Gentil complained to the media about what they perceived as biased refereeing which made them lose their possible gold medal. Pascal Gentil refused to be photographed with his fellow medalists Kim Kyong-Hun and Daniel Trenton in the medal ceremony. Gold medalist Steven López revealed some inside story from his viewpoint in his family's 2009 book, Family Power: The True Story of How "The First Family of Taekwondo" Made Olympic History. International Olympic Committee results database
Turkey at the 1924 Summer Olympics
Turkey competed at the 1924 Summer Olympics in Paris, France. Twenty two athletes represented Turkey in 1924, it was the nation's second appearance in the sport. Ranks given are within the heat. A single male fencer represented Turkey in 1924, it was the nation's debut in the sport. MenRanks given are within the pool. Turkey competed in the Olympic football tournament for the first time in 1924. Round 1 Final rank 17th Men's Official Olympic Reports
Turkey at the 2012 Summer Olympics
Turkey competed at the 2012 Summer Olympics in London, from 27 July to 12 August 2012. This nation has competed at every Summer Olympic Games in the modern era since its debut in 1908. Turkey, did not attend the 1920 Summer Olympics in Antwerp, the 1932 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles at the period of Great Depression, the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow because of its support for the United States-led boycott; the Turkish Olympic Committee sent the nation's largest delegation to the Games. A total of 114 athletes, 48 men and 66 women, competed in 16 sports. For the first time in its Olympic history, Turkey was represented by more female than male athletes. Women's basketball and women's volleyball were the only team-based sports in which Turkey had its representation in these Olympic games. There was only a single competitor in archery and artistic gymnastics; the Turkish team featured past Olympic medalists, including hammer thrower Eşref Apak, taekwondo jins Bahri Tanrıkulu and Servet Tazegül, who won the bronze in Beijing, freestyle wrestler and defending champion Ramazan Şahin.
Backstroke swimmer Derya Büyükuncu became the first Turkish athlete to compete in six Olympic games. Meanwhile and former Olympic record holder Aylin Daşdelen made her Olympic comeback after an eight-year absence. Volleyball player Neslihan Demir Darnel, who led her national team by winning the European qualification tournament, became Turkey's first female flag bearer at the opening ceremony. Turkey left London with a total of three Olympic medals, the lowest in Summer Olympic history since 1988. Two of these medals were awarded to the team in one in wrestling. Among the nation's medalists were the taekwondo jin Servet Tazegül, who won Turkey's first Olympic gold medal in this discipline. For the first time since 1984, Turkey did not win an Olympic medal in weightlifting. Turkey has qualified one archer for the women's individual event Turkish athletes have so far achieved qualifying standards in the following athletics events: KeyNote–Ranks given for track events are within the athlete's heat only Q = Qualified for the next round q = Qualified for the next round as a fastest loser or, in field events, by position without achieving the qualifying target NR = National record N/A = Round not applicable for the event Bye = Athlete not required to compete in round Men Track & road eventsField eventsWomen Track & road eventsField events Turkey has qualified a women's team.
Women's team event - 1 team of 12 players RosterThe following is the Turkey roster in the women's basketball tournament of the 2012 Summer Olympics. Group play Quarter-final Men Women MenWomenM = Medal race. Head coach: Marco Aurelio Motta Group play MenWomen Key: VT - Victory by Fall. PP - Decision by Points - the loser with technical points. PO - Decision by Points - the loser without technical points. Men's freestyleMen's Greco-RomanWomen's freestyle TMOK
Turkey at the 1928 Summer Olympics
Turkey competed at the 1928 Summer Olympics in Amsterdam, Netherlands. 31 competitors participated at six sports branches of athletics, fencing, football and wrestling. In the Amsterdam Olympics, Turkey received fourth place for the first time ever. Tayyar Yalaz was the Turkish Olympian, whose name was listed in the official table of honor, which lists six best contestants in each event, he wrestled in the 67 kg division of Greco-Roman style to come in fourth. Men's 100 m flat Mehmet Ali Aybar - Preliminary contest 5th series, eliminated Semih Turkdogan - Preliminary contest 6th series, eliminated Sinasi Sahingiray - Preliminary contest 10th series, eliminated Enis H. - Preliminary contest 16th series, eliminatedMen's 800 m flat Ömer Besim Kosalay - Preliminary contest 6th series, eliminatedMen's 1500 m flat Ömer Besim Kosalay - Preliminary contest 4th series, eliminatedMen's Running high jump Haydar Aşan - Preliminary contest 3rd series, 1.70 mMen's 400 m relay Mehmet Ali Aybar, Semih Turkdogan, Sinasi Sahingiray, Enis H. Ömer Besim Kosalay - Preliminary contest 3rd series, eliminated Track races 1 km against time Galip Cav - 1.22.3 14th place1 km scratch Cavit Cav - Requalifying races 4th series, eliminated4 km pursuit race Galip Cav, Yunus Nüzhet Unat, Cavit Cav, Tacettin Öztürkmen - Preliminary contest 3rd series, eliminated Men's sabreNami Yayak - Preliminary contests 4th pool, 6th place Muhuttin Okyavuz - Preliminary contests 5th pool, 5th place Enver Balkan - Preliminary contests 8th pool, 7th placeMen's team sabreFuat Balkan, Enver Balkan, Muhuttin Okyavuz, Nami Yayak - Semifinals 2nd pool, 4th place The soccer team was beaten 7-1 by Egypt on May 28, 1928.
Alaeddin scored Turkey's only goal. For Egypt, Moktar El-Tetch scored 3, Gamil El-Zobair scored one, Mohamed Houda scored 2, Ali Reyadh scored one. Team: Muhlis S. Ulvi Z. Burhan I. Şükrü H. Osman S. Alaeddin E. Nafız O. Latif Y. Cevad R. Mehmet S. Kemal F. Kadri D. Nihat A. Sabih M. Bedri H. Bekir R. Zeki R. İsmet S. Feyzi R. Şevki M. Featherweight Cemal Ercman - 262.5 kg 8th place Men's Greco-Roman style Bantamweight Burhan Conker - 2nd round, eliminatedFeatherweight Saim Arikan - 4th round, eliminatedLightweight Tayyar Yalaz - 4th placeMiddleweight Nuri Boytorun - 4th round, eliminatedLight heavyweight Şefik A. - 2nd round, eliminatedHeavyweight Mehmet Coban - 3rd round, eliminated Official Olympic Reports Bilal Çoban website 1928 Olympics official report