Turkish Football Championship

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Türkiye Futbol Şampiyonası
Founded 1924
Folded 1951
Country Turkey
Number of teams various
Level on pyramid 1
Domestic cup(s) Prime Minister's Cup
Last champions Beşiktaş (2nd title)
Most championships Fenerbahçe (3 titles)
Harp Okulu (3 titles)
Football team of Harbiye in 1924, the first national champions in Turkish football history
Football team of Harbiye in 1924, the first national champions in Turkish football history

The Turkish Football Championship (Turkish: Türkiye Futbol Şampiyonası) was a top-level football competition in Turkey. It was the first nationwide championship in Turkish football history. The championship was organised by the Turkish Football Federation (then called Futbol Hey'et-i Müttehidesi).[1] The tournament system was based on a knockout competition, contested between the winners of each of the country's regional leagues.

After 1951 and the professionalization of Turkish football, the competition continued under the name Turkish Amateur Football Championship (Turkish: Türkiye Amatör Futbol Şampiyonası) with a completely different status. It was no longer the top-flight championship in Turkey, leaving only amateur teams as participants.

Fenerbahçe and Harp Okulu are the most successful clubs with three titles.[2]

History[edit]

Turkish newspaper Akşam announcing the Turkish championship title of Fenerbahçe on 11 November 1933
Turkish newspaper Akşam announcing the Turkish championship title of Fenerbahçe on 11 November 1933

The first competition was held in 1924.[3] Qualified for the tournament were the champions of the various Turkish regional leagues. The only exceptions were Harbiye and Bahriye, the clubs of the Turkish Military Academy and Naval Academy respectively. Both clubs were included by the Turkish Football Federation (TFF) as military clubs, and not as champions of a civilian regional league. Then the competition was not held for the following two years due to insufficient funds.

In 1927 the Turkish government funded the championship and the expenses of the clubs, so that they could afford the trip to the capital Ankara, where all matches took place in the first two editions.[4] The third edition was started in 1932 and the series continued until the end of the season in 1935.

The competition was not held for the following four years. In this period the Turkish National Division, the first national football league in Turkey, was introduced by the TFF. From 1940 to 1950, both national championships were held at the same time. The difference between both tournaments was the competition system and the qualification criteria. In 1944 a special super cup, the Prime Minister's Cup, was launched by the TFF, which was competed by the winners of both championships. It was one of the earliest football super cups in the world.[5] The cup was held in that format until 1950, when the National Division was concluded.

The championship was resumed again in 1940 and was played every year (except for 1943 and 1948) until 1951. In 1942 a new format was introduced. From this year on the champions were decided in the so-called Final Group, which consisted of the champions of the three major regional leagues (Istanbul, Ankara, and İzmir Leagues), and the winners of a qualification play-off, contested by the winners of the regional qualification groups. The 1951 edition was the last one as the top-level championship, as Turkish football became professional in September 1951. From then on the competition continued under the name Turkish Amateur Football Championship until 1996, consisting only of amateur teams.

Champions[edit]

Turkish champions in 1927, Muhafızgücü
Turkish champions in 1927, Muhafızgücü
Turkish champions in 1932, İstanbulspor
Turkish champions in 1932, İstanbulspor
Year Winners[6] Runners-up
1924 Harbiye (1) Bahriye
1925
Not held due to insufficient funds.
1926
1927 Muhafızgücü (1)[4] Altınordu
1928
Not held due to insufficient funds.
1929
1930
1931
1932 İstanbulspor (1) Altınordu
1933 Fenerbahçe (1) İzmirspor
1934 Beşiktaş (1) Altay
1935 Fenerbahçe (2) Altınordu
1936
Not held due to the introduction of the National League.
1937
1938
1939
1940 Eskişehir Demirspor (1) Fenerbahçe
1941 Gençlerbirliği (1) Beşiktaş
1942 Harp Okulu (2) Göztepe
1943
Not held
1944 Fenerbahçe (3) Harp Okulu
1945 Harp Okulu (3) İzmit Harp Filosu
1946 Gençlerbirliği (2) Beşiktaş
1947 Ankara Demirspor (1) Fenerbahçe
1948
Not held due to the 1948 Summer Olympics in London.
1949 Ankaragücü (1) Galatasaray
1950 Göztepe (1) Gençlerbirliği
1951 Beşiktaş (2) Altay

Performance by club[edit]

Club Titles Runners-up Years won
Fenerbahçe
3
2
1933, 1935, 1944
Harp Okulu
3
1
1924, 1942, 1945
Beşiktaş
2
2
1934, 1951
Gençlerbirliği
2
1
1941, 1946
Göztepe
1
1
1950
Muhafızgücü
1
1927
İstanbulspor
1
1932
Eskişehir Demirspor
1
1940
Ankara Demirspor
1
1947
Ankaragücü
1
1949
Altınordu
3
Altay
2
Bahriye
1
İzmirspor
1
İzmit Harp Filosu
1
Galatasaray
1

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "1936'ya kadar süren bu dönemde ilk Türkiye Şampiyonası Ankara'da yapılmış ve şampiyon Harbiye olmuştur". www.tff.org (in Turkish). Turkish Football Federation. Retrieved 26 October 2017. 
  2. ^ "Türkiye Futbol Birinciliği". Erdinç Sivritepe. Retrieved 26 October 2017. 
  3. ^ "TamSaha dergisi - Memleketin ilk futbol birincisi" (in Turkish). Turkish Football Federation, Mehmet Yüce. p. 66. Archived from the original on 27 December 2017. Retrieved 27 December 2017. 
  4. ^ a b "TamSaha" (PDF) (in Turkish). Turkish Football Federation, Mehmet Yüce. p. 90. Retrieved 18 December 2017. 
  5. ^ "First National League and Cup Competitions and a Super Cup". Erdinç Sivritepe. Retrieved 4 March 2018. 
  6. ^ "Turkey - List of Champions". RSSSF. Retrieved 25 February 2018. 

Sources

  • Yüce, Mehmet. İdmancı Ruhlar: Futbol Tarihimizin Klasik Devreleri (1923 - 1952). İletişim Yayınları
  • Somalı, Vâlâ. Teknik, Taktik Yönleriyle Futbol ve Tarihi. İnkılâp Kitabevi
  • San, Haluk; Dağlaroğlu, Rüştü. Türk Futbol Tarihi - TFF Yayınları