International Aero Engines
IAE International Aero Engines AG is a Zürich-registered joint venture manufacturing company founded in 1983 to develop an aircraft engine to address the 150-seat single aisle aircraft market. The collaboration, between four of the world’s leading aero engine manufacturers, produced the V2500 – the second most successful commercial jet engine program in production today in terms of volume, the third most successful commercial jet engine program in aviation history; the original collaboration involved Pratt & Whitney of the United States, Rolls-Royce plc of the United Kingdom, Japanese Aero Engine Corporation of Japan and MTU Aero Engines of Germany. FiatAvio withdrew as a shareholder of the program early on, but the now-renamed Avio still remains as a supplier; the "V" product nomenclature remains as a legacy of the five original shareholders. In October 2011, Rolls-Royce agreed to sell its 32.5% stake in the company to Pratt & Whitney's parent company, United Technologies, giving UTC a combined equity ownership share of 49.5%.
The transaction was completed on 29 June 2012. Rolls-Royce remains a major supplier to IAE, they and Pratt & Whitney had proposed a new joint venture to develop engines for future generation mid-size aircraft, but the collaboration was subsequently abandoned. IAE had developed the abortive SuperFan for the Airbus A340. IAE's current purpose is the development and aftermarket services of the V2500 aero engine family, which powers the Airbus A320 family and McDonnell Douglas MD-90 aircraft. IAE supplies the V2500-E5 to power the Embraer KC-390 military transport aircraft, the first military application of this engine; the IAE V2500 turbofan is one of the most successful high bypass ratio engines in the world. Its direct competitor is the CFM International CFM56. Current shareholders are: IAE V2500 IAE SuperFan IAE Rolls Royce plc Pratt & Whitney MTU Aero Engines
The Boeing 737 is an American short- to medium-range twinjet narrow-body airliner developed and manufactured by Boeing Commercial Airplanes. Developed as a shorter, lower-cost twin-engine airliner derived from the 707 and 727, the 737 has developed into a family of thirteen passenger models with capacities from 85 to 215 passengers; the 737 is Boeing's only narrow-body airliner in production, with the 737 Next Generation and the re-engined and updated 737 MAX variants. The 737 was envisioned in 1964; the initial 737-100 made its first flight in April 1967, entered airline service in February 1968 with Lufthansa. Next, the lengthened 737-200 entered service in April 1968. In the 1980s Boeing launched the longer 737-300, -400, -500 variants featuring CFM56 turbofan engines and wing improvements; the Boeing 737 Next Generation was introduced in the 1990s, with a redesigned, increased span wing, upgraded "glass" cockpit, new interior. The 737 NG comprises the 737-600, -700, -800, -900 variants, with lengths ranging from 31.09 to 42.06 m.
Boeing Business Jet versions of the 737 NG are produced. The 737 was revised again in the 2010s for greater efficiency, with the 737 MAX series featuring CFM LEAP-1B engines and improved winglets; the 737 MAX entered service in 2017 but, after a successful start, was grounded worldwide in March 2019 following two fatal crashes. The 737 series is the highest-selling commercial jetliner in history; the 737 has been continuously manufactured since 1967. Assembly of the 737 is performed at the Boeing Renton Factory in Washington. Many 737s serve markets filled by 707, 727, 757, DC-9, MD-80/MD-90 airliners, the aircraft competes with the Airbus A320 family; as of 2006, there were an average of 1,250 Boeing 737s airborne at any given time, with two either departing or landing somewhere every five seconds. Boeing had been studying short-haul jet aircraft designs, wanted to produce another aircraft to supplement the 727 on short and thin routes. Preliminary design work began on May 11, 1964, Boeing's intense market research yielded plans for a 50- to 60-passenger airliner for routes 50 to 1,000 mi long.
Initial design featured podded engines on the aft fuselage and a T-tail like the 727, five-abreast seating, but engineer Joe Sutter instead placed the engines under the wings to lighten the structure, enabling fuselage widening for six-abreast seating. The 737 design was presented in October 1964 at the Air Transport Association maintenance and engineering conference by chief project engineer Jack Steiner, where its elaborate high-lift devices raised concerns about maintenance costs and dispatch reliability; the launch decision for the $150 million development was made by the board on February 1, 1965. Lufthansa became the launch customer on February 19, 1965, with an order for 21 aircraft, worth $67 million in 1965, after the airline received assurances from Boeing that the 737 project would not be canceled. Consultation with Lufthansa over the previous winter resulted in an increase in capacity to 100 seats. On April 5, 1965, Boeing announced an order by United Airlines for 40 737s. United wanted a larger airplane than the original 737, so Boeing stretched the fuselage 36 in ahead of, 40 in behind the wing.
The longer version was designated 737-200, with the original short-body aircraft becoming the 737-100. Detailed design work continued on both variants at the same time. Boeing was far behind its competitors. To expedite development, Boeing used 60% of the structure and systems of the existing 727, the most notable being the fuselage cross-section; this fuselage permitted six-abreast seating compared to the rival BAC-111 and DC-9's five-abreast layout. Design engineers decided to mount the nacelles directly to the underside of the wings to reduce the landing gear length and kept the engines low to the ground for easy ramp inspection and servicing. Many thickness variations for the engine attachment strut were tested in the wind tunnel and the most desirable shape for high speed was found to be one, thick, filling the narrow channels formed between the wing and the top of the nacelle on the outboard side; the span arrangement of the airfoil sections of the 737 wing was planned to be similar to that of the 707 and 727, but somewhat thicker.
A substantial improvement in drag at high Mach numbers was achieved by altering these sections near the nacelle. The engine chosen was the Pratt & Whitney JT8D-1 low-bypass ratio turbofan engine, delivering 14,500 lbf thrust. With the wing-mounted engines, Boeing decided to mount the horizontal stabilizer on the fuselage rather than the T-tail style of the Boeing 727; the initial assembly of the Boeing 737 was adjacent to Boeing Field because the factory in Renton was filled to capacity with the production of the 707 and 727. After 271 of the Boeing 737 aircraft were built, production was moved to Renton in late 1970. A significant portion of fuselage assembly—previously done by Boeing in Wichita, Kansas—is now performed by Spirit AeroSystems, which purchased some of Boeing's assets in Wichita. Key to increasing production efficiencies, the entire fuselage is shipped since the 737 Next Generation while it was sent in two pieces before; the fuselage is joined with the wings and landing gear and moves down the assembly line for the engine
Istanbul Airport is the main international airport serving Istanbul, Turkey. It is located in the Arnavutköy district on the European side of the city. All scheduled commercial passenger flights were transferred from Istanbul Atatürk Airport to Istanbul Airport on 6 April 2019, following the closure of Istanbul Atatürk Airport for scheduled passenger flights; the IATA airport code IST was transferred to the new airport. The airport remains under construction with an annual passenger capacity of 150 million following completion of its last planned expansion stage, while future expansion would allow it to handle up to 200 million annual passengers if required. Due to a lack of space to construct an additional runway at Istanbul Atatürk Airport, airport growth being restricted due to the growth of the city, the Turkish Airport Authority not allowing additional cargo or charter flights to the airport, worsening air traffic congestion, it was decided to construct a new airport to serve Istanbul.
Furthermore, due to a lack of slot capacity and parking spaces, some of Turkish Airlines' aircraft were based in Sabiha Gökçen Airport which itself is at maximum terminal capacity of 25 million passengers, handled 28 million passengers in 2015 after posting traffic growth rates averaging over 20% a year since 2013. Atatürk Airport was one of the busiest airports in Europe. Since 2013, it has ranked among the five busiest airports in Europe by passenger traffic. In 2017, the two Istanbul airports handled over 100 million passengers. In terms of area airports, the six London-area airports serve more than 150 million passengers a year, while the three Paris-area airports serve around 100 million passengers a year, it was decided to construct the new airport at the intersection of roads to Arnavutköy, Göktürk, Çatalca, north of central Istanbul and between the Black Sea coast towns of Yeniköy, Tayakadın and Akpınar. The area is a 7,659-hectare region near Lake Terkos; some 6,172 hectares of this area was state-owned forest.
The distance between Istanbul Airport and Atatürk Airport is 35 km. The area encompassed old open-pit coal mines, which were filled up with soil. According to the Environmental Impact Assessment report published in April 2013, there were a total of 2,513,341 trees in the area and 657,950 of them would need to be cut indispensably, while 1,855,391 trees would be moved to new places. However, the Ministry of Forest and Water Management claimed the exact number of trees cut and moved would only be revealed after construction was complete; the tender for construction and operation of the facility until 2030 was held on May 3, 2013. The project is made up of four construction stages. If all stages are completed, the airport will reach a capacity of 150 million passengers, which would have made it the biggest in the world at the time of planning; the first stage of construction was planned to finish within 42 months of the handover of the land. The total project cost is expected to be €7 billion, excluding financing costs.
The construction and operation consortium has been guaranteed 342 million passengers in 12 years by the government. The design team was led by London-based Grimshaw and included the Norway-based Nordic Office of Architecture and London studio Haptic. At the bidding session on May 3, 2013, only four out of fifteen Turkish and two foreign companies that were qualified as bidders showed up; the Turkish joint venture consortium of Cengiz-Kolin-Limak-Mapa-Kalyon won the tender, were obliged to pay the government €26.142 billion including value-added tax for a 25-year lease starting from 2018. The completion date of the construction's first stage was set for 2018 – 42 months after the finalization of the tender's approval; the groundbreaking ceremony took place on 7 June 2014, though construction only started in May 2015 after the land was handed over. The inauguration of the airport took place on the planned date of 29 October 2018, it was reported that the first test landing at the airport would take place on February 26, 2018.
Testing of navigational and electronic systems with DHMİ aircraft had begun on 15 May 2018. The construction of the airport is taking place in several stages, expanding the airport and its facilities over time; the first stage consists of the main terminal, with an annual passenger capacity of 90 million and an area of 1,440,000 m2 – making it the largest airport terminal building under a single roof, despite Dubai International Airport Terminal 3 having a larger floor area at 1,713,000 m2 due to tunnels connecting its two concourses. There will be two pairs of parallel runways connected to eight parallel taxiways to the west of the main terminal 4,000,000 m2 of apron space, an indoor car-park with a capacity of 12,000 vehicles. In addition, the airport will feature three technical blocks for repairs and fueling, as well as an air traffic control tower, eight ramp control towers, hangars for cargo and general aviation aircraft. Several other services are to be in operation, including hospitals, frequent-flyer and VIP lounges, prayer rooms, convention centers, hotels.
The second stage will add a third independent runway to the east of the main terminal, as well as a fourth remote runway with an east-west heading and additional taxiways and apron areas. The third stage is planned to add a second passenger terminal with a capacity of 60 million annual passengers and an estimated area of around 960,000 m2, as well as an additional runway and a new suppo
The Boeing 777 is a long-range wide-body twin-engine jet airliner developed and manufactured by Boeing Commercial Airplanes. It is the world's largest twinjet and has a typical seating capacity of 314 to 396 passengers, with a range of 5,240 to 8,555 nautical miles. Referred to as the "Triple Seven", its distinguishing features include the large–diameter turbofan engines, long raked wings, six wheels on each main landing gear circular fuselage cross-section, a blade-shaped tail cone. Developed in consultation with eight major airlines, the 777 was designed to replace older wide-body airliners and bridge the capacity difference between Boeing's 767 and 747; as Boeing's first fly-by-wire airliner, it has computer-mediated controls. It was the first commercial aircraft to be designed with computer-aided design; the 777 is produced in two fuselage lengths as of 2018. The original 777-200 variant entered commercial service in 1995, followed by the extended-range 777-200ER in 1997; the stretched 777-300, 33.25 ft longer, followed in 1998.
The initial 777-200, extended-range -200ER, -300 versions are equipped with General Electric GE90, Pratt & Whitney PW4000, or Rolls-Royce Trent 800 engines. They have since been collectively referred to as 777 Classics; the extended-range 777-300ER and ultra long-range 777-200LR variants entered service in 2004 and 2006 while the 777F, a freighter version, debuted in February 2009. The 777-200LR is one of the world's longest-range airliners, able to fly more than halfway around the globe and holds the record for the longest distance flown non-stop by a commercial aircraft. In November 2013, Boeing announced the development of the third-generation of the 777, the 777X, consisting of the 777-8 and 777-9 variants; the 777X features composite folding wings and GE9X engines plus further technologies developed for the Boeing 787, is scheduled to enter service by 2020. The 777 first entered commercial service with United Airlines on June 7, 1995; the 777 has received more orders than any other wide-body airliner.
The most common and successful variant is the 777-300ER with 844 orders. The 777 has been involved in six hull losses as of October 2016; the 777 ranks as one of Boeing's best-selling models, making it the most-produced Boeing wide-body jet, surpassing the Boeing 747. Airlines have acquired the type as a comparatively fuel-efficient alternative to other wide-body jets and have deployed the aircraft on long-haul transoceanic routes. Direct market competitors include the Airbus A330-300, the Airbus A350 XWB, the out-of-production A340 and McDonnell Douglas MD-11; the 787 Dreamliner, which entered service in 2011, shares some design features with the 777. In the early 1970s, the Boeing 747, McDonnell Douglas DC-10, the Lockheed L-1011 TriStar became the first generation of wide-body passenger airliners to enter service. In 1978, Boeing unveiled three new models: the twin-engine Boeing 757 to replace its 727, the twin-engine 767 to challenge the Airbus A300, a trijet 777 concept to compete with the DC-10 and L-1011.
The mid-size 757 and 767 launched to market success, due in part to 1980s' extended-range twin-engine operational performance standards regulations governing transoceanic twinjet operations. These regulations allowed twin-engine airliners to make ocean crossings at up to three hours' distance from emergency diversionary airports. Under ETOPS rules, airlines began operating the 767 on long-distance overseas routes that did not require the capacity of larger airliners; the trijet 777 was dropped, following marketing studies that favored the 757 and 767 variants. Boeing was left with a size and range gap in its product line between the 767-300ER and the 747-400. By the late 1980s, DC-10 and L-1011 models were approaching retirement age, prompting manufacturers to develop replacement designs. McDonnell Douglas was working on the MD-11, a stretched and upgraded successor of the DC-10, while Airbus was developing its A330 and A340 series. In 1986, Boeing unveiled proposals for an enlarged 767, tentatively named 767-X, to target the replacement market for first-generation wide-bodies such as the DC-10, to complement existing 767 and 747 models in the company lineup.
The initial proposal featured a longer fuselage and larger wings than the existing 767, along with winglets. Plans expanded the fuselage cross-section but retained the existing 767 flight deck and other elements. Airline customers were uninterested in the 767-X proposals, instead wanted an wider fuselage cross-section flexible interior configurations, short- to intercontinental-range capability, an operating cost lower than any 767 stretch. Airline planners' requirements for larger aircraft had become specific, adding to the heightened competition among aircraft manufacturers. By 1988, Boeing realized that the only answer was a new clean sheet design, which became the 777 twinjet; the company opted for the twin-engine configuration given past design successes, projected engine developments, reduced-cost benefits. On December 8, 1989, Boeing began issuing offers to airlines for the 777; the design phase for the new twinjet was different from Boeing's previous comm
Istanbul Atatürk Airport
Istanbul Atatürk Airport is an international airport in Istanbul. As of 6 April 2019, the airport is open only for cargo, maintenance/technical, general aviation, air taxi, business flights and state and diplomatic aircraft while commercial passenger flights are all handled at the newly built Istanbul Airport.. First opened in 1912 in Yeşilköy as a military airfield, on the European side of the city, it is located 24 km west of the city centre; the airport was named Yeşilköy Airport. In the 1980s, it was renamed Istanbul Atatürk International Airport in honour of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, the founder and first president of the Republic of Turkey, it served more than 60 million passengers in 2015, making it the 11th-busiest airport in the world in terms of total passenger traffic and the 10th-busiest in the world in terms of international passenger traffic. In 2017, it was Europe's 5th-busiest airport after London Heathrow, Paris Charles de Gaulle, Frankfurt Airport and Amsterdam Schiphol Airport, having fallen from third place after a decline in passengers due to security fears.
Istanbul Atatürk Airport was replaced by the newly constructed Istanbul Airport, in April 2019, in order to meet Istanbul's growing domestic and international air traffic demand as a source and transit point. Both airports were used in parallel for five months from late 2018, with the new airport expanding to serve more domestic and regional destinations.. On 6 April 6 2019, Atatürk's IST IATA airport code was inherited by Istanbul Airport and Atatürk Airport was assigned the code ISL after the full transfer of all scheduled passenger activities to the new airport was completed; the final commercial flight, Turkish Airlines Flight 54, left Ataturk Airport on 6 April 2019 at 2.44am for Singapore. Istanbul Atatürk Airport featured two passenger terminals linked to each other; the former Domestic Terminal is the older and smaller of the two terminals and handled domestic flights within Turkey. It featured its own check-in and airside facilities on the upper floor, with twelve departure gates equipped with jet bridges.
And five baggage reclaim belts on the ground level.. The former International Terminal was used for all international flights, it featured a large main hall containing eight check-in isles and a wide range of airside facilities such as shops and restaurant, 34 gates equipped with jetbridges and 7 bus-boarding stands. The arrivals floor had 11 baggage reclaim belts.. In addition, there is a general aviation Terminal to the northwest of the passenger terminals; the airport features a dedicated cargo terminal including facilities for the handling of radioactive and refrigerated freight. Turkish Airlines has its headquarters in the Turkish Airlines General Management Building, located within the airport campus. Onur Air has its headquarters in Technical Hangar B. Prima Aviation Services Inc. has its MRO Facilities in new technical site at the air side Gate A. As of April 2019, the airport no longer handles scheduled passenger flights but remains open for freight operations. Below is the passenger data and development for Istanbul Atatürk Airport for the years 2002–2017: Istanbul Atatürk Airport ranked 17th in ACI statistics at the end of 2011 in terms of international traffic with 24 million international passengers.
It ranked 29th in the world in terms of total passenger traffic with over 37.4 million passengers in 2011. Its total traffic within the last decade more than tripled, its international traffic quadrupled.. According to data from FlightStats in 2012, the İstanbul Atatürk Airport had the most flight delays in Europe, was ranked second in flight cancellations. On 30 January 1975, Turkish Airlines Flight 345, crashed into the Sea of Marmara during its final approach to the airport. All 42 passengers and crew on board were killed. On 25 April 2015, Turkish Airlines Flight 1878, operated by A320-200, TC-JPE was damaged in a landing accident; the aircraft aborted the first hard landing, which inflicted gear damage. On the second attempt at landing, the right gear collapsed and the aircraft rolled off the runway spinning 180 degrees. All on board evacuated without injury. On 28 June 2016, three terrorists killed 44 civilians by gunfire and subsequent suicide bombings, along with 239 civilians injured; the three men arrived in a taxi cab, opened fire at a terminal.
The three men blew. The airport has X-ray scanners at the entrance to the terminal but security checks for cars are limited; the Turkish Chamber of Civil Engineers lists İstanbul Atatürk Airport as one of the fifty civil engineering feats in Turkey, a list of remarkable engineering projects completed in the first 50 years of the chamber's existence. In the 2013 Air Transport News awards ceremony, İstanbul Atatürk Airport was named Airport of the Year; the airport was named Europe's Best Airport in the 40-50 million passenger per year category at the 2013 Skytrax World Airport Awards. This article incorporates public domain material from the Air Force Historical Research Agency website http://www.afhra.af.mil/. Istanbul Atatürk Airport travel guide from Wikivoyage Media related to Istanbul Atatürk Airport at Wikimedia Commons Official website Current weather for LTBA at NOAA/NWS Accident history for IST at Aviation Safety Network
General Electric Company is an American multinational conglomerate incorporated in New York and headquartered in Boston. As of 2018, the company operates through the following segments: aviation, power, renewable energy, digital industry, additive manufacturing, venture capital and finance and oil and gas. In 2018, GE ranked among the Fortune 500 as the 18th-largest firm in the U. S. by gross revenue. In 2011, GE ranked among the Fortune 20 as the 14th-most profitable company but has since severely underperformed the market as its profitability collapsed. Two employees of GE—Irving Langmuir and Ivar Giaever —have been awarded the Nobel Prize. During 1889, Thomas Edison had business interests in many electricity-related companies including Edison Lamp Company, a lamp manufacturer in East Newark, New Jersey. P. Morgan and the Vanderbilt family for Edison's lighting experiments. In 1889, Morgan & Co. a company founded by J. P. Morgan and Anthony J. Drexel, financed Edison's research and helped merge those companies under one corporation to form Edison General Electric Company, incorporated in New York on April 24, 1889.
The new company acquired Sprague Electric Railway & Motor Company in the same year. In 1880, Gerald Waldo Hart formed the American Electric Company of New Britain, which merged a few years with Thomson-Houston Electric Company, led by Charles Coffin. In 1887, Hart left to become superintendent of the Edison Electric Company of Missouri. General Electric was formed through the 1892 merger of Edison General Electric Company of Schenectady, New York, Thomson-Houston Electric Company of Lynn, with the support of Drexel, Morgan & Co. Both plants continue to operate under the GE banner to this day; the company was incorporated in New York, with the Schenectady plant used as headquarters for many years thereafter. Around the same time, General Electric's Canadian counterpart, Canadian General Electric, was formed. In 1896, General Electric was one of the original 12 companies listed on the newly formed Dow Jones Industrial Average, where it remained a part of the index for 122 years, though not continuously.
In 1911, General Electric absorbed the National Electric Lamp Association into its lighting business. GE established its lighting division headquarters at Nela Park in Ohio; the lighting division has since remained in the same location. Owen D. Young, through GE, founded the Radio Corporation of America in 1919, after purchasing the Marconi Wireless Telegraph Company of America, he aimed to expand international radio communications. GE used RCA as its retail arm for radio sales. In 1926, RCA co-founded the National Broadcasting Company, which built two radio broadcasting networks. In 1930, General Electric was charged with antitrust violations and decided to divest itself of RCA. In 1927, Ernst Alexanderson of GE made the first demonstration of his television broadcasts at his General Electric Realty Plot home at 1132 Adams Rd, New York. On January 13, 1928, he made what was said to be the first broadcast to the public in the United States on GE's W2XAD: the pictures were picked up on 1.5 square inch screens in the homes of four GE executives.
The sound was broadcast on GE's WGY. Experimental television station W2XAD evolved into station WRGB which, along with WGY and WGFM, was owned and operated by General Electric until 1983. Led by Sanford Alexander Moss, GE moved into the new field of aircraft turbo superchargers. GE introduced the first set of superchargers during World War I, continued to develop them during the interwar period. Superchargers became indispensable in the years prior to World War II. GE supplied 300,000 turbo superchargers for use in bomber engines; this work led the U. S. Army Air Corps to select GE to develop the nation's first jet engine during the war; this experience, in turn, made GE a natural selection to develop the Whittle W.1 jet engine, demonstrated in the United States in 1941. GE was ranked ninth among United States corporations in the value of wartime production contracts. Although, their early work with Whittle's designs was handed to Allison Engine Company. GE Aviation emerged as one of the world's largest engine manufacturers, bypassing the British company, Rolls-Royce plc.
Some consumers boycotted GE light bulbs and other products during the 1980s and 1990s. The purpose of the boycott was to protest against GE's role in nuclear weapons production. In 2002, GE acquired the wind power assets of Enron during its bankruptcy proceedings. Enron Wind was the only surviving U. S. manufacturer of large wind turbines at the time, GE increased engineering and supplies for the Wind Division and doubled the annual sales to $1.2 billion in 2003. It acquired ScanWind in 2009. In 2015, GE Power garnered press attention when a model 9FB gas turbine in Texas was shut down for two months due to the break of a turbine blade; this model uses similar blade technology to GE's newest and most efficient model, the 9HA. After the break, GE developed heat treatment methods. Gas turbines represent a significant portion of GE Power's revenue, represent a significant portion of the power generation fleet of several utility companies in the United States. Chubu Electric of Japan and Électricité de France had units that were impacted.
Airbus SE, from 2000 to 2014 known as the European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company, is a European multinational aerospace corporation, registered in the Netherlands and trading shares in France and Spain. It designs and sells civil and military aerospace products worldwide and manufactures in the European Union and various other countries; the company has three divisions: Commercial Aircraft and Space, Helicopters, the third being the largest in its industry in terms of revenues and turbine helicopter deliveries. The company's main civil aeroplane business is based in Blagnac, France, a suburb of Toulouse, with production and manufacturing facilities in the European Union but in China and the United States. Final assembly production is based in France; the company produces and markets the first commercially viable digital fly-by-wire airliner, the Airbus A320, the world's largest passenger airliner, the A380. The 10,000th aircraft, an A350, was delivered to Singapore Airlines on 14 October 2016.
The global Airbus fleet have performed more than 110 million flights, totaling over 215 billion kilometres and carrying 12 billion passengers. Airbus's corporate headquarters is located in Leiden and the main office is located in Toulouse, France; the company is led by CEO Guillaume Faury and is a component of the Euro Stoxx 50 stock market index. The current company is the product of consolidation in the European aerospace industry tracing back to the formation of the Airbus Industrie GIE consortium in 1970. In 2000, the European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company NV was established. In addition to other subsidiaries pertaining to security and space activities, EADS owned 100% of the pre-existing Eurocopter SA, established in 1992, as well as 80% of Airbus Industrie GIE. In 2001, Airbus Industrie GIE was reorganised as a simplified joint-stock company. In 2006, EADS acquired. EADS NV was renamed Airbus Group NV and SE in 2014, 2015, respectively. Due to the dominance of the Airbus SAS division within Airbus Group SE, these parent and subsidiary companies were merged in January 2017, keeping the name of the parent company.
The company was given its present name in April 2017. The logos of Airbus Industrie GIE and Airbus SAS displayed a stylised turbine symbol, redolent of a jet engine, a font similar to Helvetica Black; the logo colours were reflected in the standard Airbus aircraft livery in each period. The EADS logo between 2000 and 2010 combined the logos of the merged companies, DaimlerChrysler Aerospace AG and Aérospatiale-Matra, after which these elements were removed and a new font with 3D shading was chosen; this font was retained in the logos of Airbus Group NV and Airbus Group SE Airbus SE: The Airbus product line started with the A300, the world's first twin-aisle, twin-engined aircraft. A shorter, re-winged, re-engined variant of the A300 is known as the A310. Building on its success, Airbus launched the A320 notable for being the first commercial jet to use a fly-by-wire control system; the A320 has been, continues to be, a great commercial success. The A318 and A319 are shorter derivatives with some of the latter under construction for the corporate business jet market as Airbus Corporate Jets.
A stretched version is known as the A321. The A320 family's primary competitor is the Boeing 737 family; the longer-range widebody products— the twin-jet A330 and the four-engine A340— have efficient wings, enhanced by winglets. The Airbus A340-500 has an operating range of 16,700 kilometres, the second longest range of any commercial jet after the Boeing 777-200LR. All Airbus aircraft developed since have cockpit systems similar to the A320, making it easier to train crew. Production of the four-engine A340 was ended in 2011 due to lack of sales compared to its twin-engine counterparts, such as the Boeing 777. Airbus is studying a replacement for the A320 series, tentatively dubbed NSR, for "New Short-Range aircraft"; those studies indicated a maximum fuel efficiency gain of 9–10% for the NSR. Airbus however opted to enhance the existing A320 design using new winglets and working on aerodynamical improvements; this "A320 Enhanced" should have a fuel efficiency improvement of around 4–5%, shifting the launch of an A320 replacement to 2017–2018.
On 24 September 2009, the COO Fabrice Bregier stated to Le Figaro that the company would need from €800 million to €1 billion over six years to develop the new aircraft generation and preserve the company technological lead from new competitors like the Chinese Comac C919, scheduled to operate by 2015–2020. In July 2007, Airbus delivered its last A300 to FedEx, marking the end of the A300/A310 production line. Airbus intends to relocate Toulouse A320 final assembly activity to Hamburg, A350/A380 production in the opposite direction as part of its Power8 organisation plan begun under ex-CEO Christian Streiff. Airbus supplied replacement parts and service for Concorde until its retirement in 2003; the Airbus Corporate Jets modifies new aircraft for private and corporate customers. It has a model range that parallels the commercial aircraft offered by the company, ranging from the A318 Elite to the double-deck Airbus A380 Prestige. Following the entry of the 737 based Boeing Business Jet, Airbus joined the business jet market with the A319 Corporate Jet in 1997.
Although the term Airbus Corporate jet was used only for the A319CJ, it is now us