Turkish dialects

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Turkish dialects map: Main subgroups.

There is considerable dialectal variation in Turkish.

Turkish is a southern Oghuz dialect of the Turkic languages, is natively spoken by the Turkish people in Turkey, Bulgaria, the island of Cyprus, Greece (primarily in Western Thrace), Kosovo, the Republic of Macedonia, Meskhetia, Romania, Iraq, Syria and other areas of traditional settlement which formerly, in whole or part, belonged to the Ottoman Empire. Turkish is the official language of Turkey and is one of the official languages of Cyprus, it also has official (but not primary) status in the Prizren District of Kosovo and several municipalities of the Republic of Macedonia, depending on the concentration of Turkish-speaking local population. Modern standard Turkish is based on the dialect of Istanbul.[1] Nonetheless, dialectal variation persists, in spite of the levelling influence of the standard used in mass media and the Turkish education system since the 1930s,[2] the terms ağız or şive are often used to refer to the different types of Turkish dialects (such as Cypriot Turkish). In many cases, Azerbaijani may also be considered a dialect of Turkish.

Balkan Turkish dialects[edit]

The Turkish language was introduced to the Balkans by the Ottoman Turks during the rule of the Ottoman Empire.[3] Today, Turkish is still spoken by the Turkish minorities who are still living in the region, especially in Bulgaria, Greece (mainly in Western Thrace), Kosovo, the Republic of Macedonia, and Romania.[4] Balkans Ottoman Turkish dialects were first described at the beginning of the 20th century, and are called Rumelian—a term introduced by Gyula Németh in 1956.[5] Németh also established the basic division between Eastern Rumelian and Western Rumelian group of dialects, the bundle of isoglosses separating the two groups roughly follows the Bulgarian yat border.[5] The eight basic Western Rumelian Turkish features are:

  1. /ı/, /u/, /ü/ > /i/ word-finally
  2. the suffix -miş used for forming perfect (indefinite pass) tense is not subject to vowel harmony, i.e. it is invariant
  3. /i/ > /ı/ in noninitial and closed final syllables
  4. /ö/ > /oa/, /o/ and /ü/ > /ua/, /u/ in many words
  5. generalization of one of two possible forms in suffixes with low vowel harmony
  6. /ö/ > /ü/ in about 40 words, usually in a syllable-initial position
  7. retention of Ottoman Turkish /ğ/ as /g/
  8. the progressive past participle ending is not -yor but -y

Additional features have been suggested such as the fronting of /k/ and /g/ to palatal affricates or stops, and the loss of /h/, especially in a word-initial position.[5]

Rumelian Turkish dialects are the source of Turkish loanwords in Balkan languages, not the modern standard Turkish language which is based on the Istanbul dialect,[6] for example, Serbo-Croatian kàpija/капија "large gate" comes from Rumelian kapi, not standard Turkish kapı.[6]

Cypriot Turkish dialect[edit]

The Turkish language was introduced to Cyprus with the Ottoman conquest in 1571 and became the politically dominant, prestigious language of the administration;[7] in the post-Ottoman period, Cypriot Turkish was relatively isolated from standard Turkish and had strong influences from the Cypriot Greek dialect. The condition of coexistence with the Greek Cypriots led to a certain bilingualism whereby Turkish Cypriots' knowledge of Greek was important in areas where the two communities lived and worked together.[8] The linguistic situation changed radically in 1974, when the island was divided into a Greek south and a Turkish north (Northern Cyprus). Today, the Cypriot Turkish dialect is being exposed to increasing standard Turkish through immigration from Turkey, new mass media, and new educational institutions.[7]

Karamanli Turkish[edit]

Meskhetian Turkish dialect[edit]

The Meskhetian Turks speak an Eastern Anatolian dialect of Turkish, which hails from the regions of Kars, Ardahan, Iğdır and Artvin.[9] The Meskhetian Turkish dialect has also borrowed from other languages (including Azerbaijani, Georgian, Kazakh, Kyrgyz, Russian, and Uzbek) which the Meskhetian Turks have been in contact with during the Russian and Soviet rule.[9]

Syrian Turkmen dialect[edit]

The Syrian Turkmen, which are the descendants of Oghuz tribes, which migrated from Central Asia in the 11th century speak an archaic dialect of the Turkish language, the number of Turkmens in Syria is estimated to be roughly 100,000, mostly in the Turkmen Mountain region and in the Shahba plain north of Aleppo, but also in Homs and Quneitra Governorate.[10] Under the rule of the Ba'ath party in Syria, the Turkmens suffered under a heavy assimilation policy and were forbidden to write or publish in Turkish.[11]

Turkish within the diaspora[edit]

Due to a large Turkish diaspora, significant Turkish-speaking communities also reside in countries such as Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, El Salvador, Finland, France, Germany, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, the Netherlands, Russia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, the United Arab Emirates, the United Kingdom, and the United States.[12] However, because of cultural assimilation of Turkish immigrants and their descendants in host countries, not all ethnic Turks speak the Turkish language with native fluency.[13]

Anatolian dialects[edit]

There are three major Anatolian Turkish dialect groups spoken in Turkey: the West Anatolian dialect (roughly to the west of the Euphrates), the East Anatolian dialect (to the east of the Euphrates), and the North East Anatolian group, which comprises the dialects of the Eastern Black Sea coast, such as Trabzon, Rize, and the littoral districts of Artvin.[14][15]

The classification of the Anatolian dialects of the Turkish language:[16]

1. Eastern Anatolian Dialects

1.1.1. Ağrı, Malazgirt
1.1.2. Muş, Bitlis
1.1.3. Ahlat, Adilcevaz, Bulanık, Van
1.1.4. Diyarbakır
1.1.5. Palu, Karakoçan, Bingöl, Karlıova, Siirt

1.2.1. Kars (Yerli)
1.2.2. Erzurum, Aşkale, Ovacık, Narman
1.2.3. Pasinler, Horasan, Hınıs, Tekman, Karayazı, Tercan (partim)
1.2.4. Bayburt, İspir (excl. northern), Erzincan, Çayırlı, Tercan (partim)
1.2.5. Gümüşhane
1.2.6. Refahiye, Kemah
1.2.7. Kars (Azeri and Terekeme)

1.3.1. Posof, Artvin, Şavşat, Ardanuç, Yusufeli
1.3.2.1. Ardahan, Olur, Oltu, Şenkaya; Ahıska Turks (Georgia)
1.3.2.2. Tortum
1.3.2.3. İspir (northern)

1.4.1. Kemaliye, İliç, Ağın
1.4.2. Tunceli, Hozat, Mazgirt, Pertek
1.4.3. Harput
1.4.4. Elazığ, Keban, Baskil

2. Northeastern Anatolian Dialects

2.1.1. Vakfıkebir, Akçaabat, Tonya, Maçka, Of, Çaykara
2.1.2. Trabzon, Yomra, Sürmene, Araklı, Rize, Kalkandere, İkizdere

2.2.1. Çayeli
2.2.2. Çamlıhemşin, Pazar, Hemşin, Ardeşen, Fındıklı

2.3.1. Arhavi, Hopa (included Kemalpaşa belde)
2.3.2. Hopa (a little part)
2.3.3. Borçka, Muratlı, Camili, Meydancık, Ortaköy (Berta) bucak of Artvin (merkez)

3. Western Anatolian Dialects

3.1.1. Afyonkarahisar, Eskişehir, Uşak, Nallıhan
3.1.2. Çanakkale, Balıkesir, Bursa, Bilecik
3.1.3. Aydın, Burdur, Denizli, Isparta, İzmir, Kütahya, Manisa, Muğla
3.1.4. Antalya

3.2. İzmit, Sakarya

3.3.1. Zonguldak, Devrek, Ereğli
3.3.2. Bartın, Çaycuma, Amasra
3.3.3. Bolu, Ovacık, Eskipazar, Karabük, Safranbolu, Ulus, Eflani, Kurucaşile
3.3.4. Kastamonu

3.4.1. Göynük, Mudurnu, Kıbrıscık, Seben
3.4.2. Kızılcahamam, Beypazarı, Çamlıdere, Güdül, Ayaş
3.4.3. Çankırı, İskilip, Kargı, Bayat, Osmancık, Tosya, Boyabat

3.5.1. Sinop, Alaçam
3.5.2. Samsun, Kavak, Çarşamba, Terme
3.5.3. Ordu, Giresun, Şalpazarı

3.6.1. Ladik, Havza, Amasya, Tokat, Erbaa, Niksar, Turhal, Reşadiye, Almus
3.6.2. Zile, Artova, Sivas, Yıldızeli, Hafik, Zara, Mesudiye
3.6.3. Şebinkarahisar, Alucra, Suşehri
3.6.4. Kangal, Divriği, Gürün, Malatya, Hekimhan, Arapkir

3.7.1. Akçadağ, Darende, Doğanşehir
3.7.2. Afşin, Elbistan, Göksun, Andırın, Adana, Hatay, Tarsus, Ereğli
3.7.3. Kahramanmaraş, Gaziantep
3.7.4. Adıyaman, Halfeti, Birecik, Kilis

3.8. Ankara, Haymana, Balâ, Şereflikoçhisar, Çubuk, Kırıkkale, Keskin, Kalecik, Kızılırmak, Çorum, Yozgat, Kırşehir, Nevşehir, Niğde, Kayseri, Şarkışla, Gemerek

3.9. Konya, Mersin

References[edit]

  1. ^ Campbell 2008, 547.
  2. ^ Johanson 2001, 16.
  3. ^ Johanson 2011, 732.
  4. ^ Johanson 2011, 734-738.
  5. ^ a b c Friedman, Victor (1982), "Balkanology and Turkology: West Rumelian Turkish in Yugoslavia as reflected in prescriptive grammar" (PDF), Studies in Slavic and General Linguistics (PDF), Amsterdam: Rodopi, 2: 1–77 
  6. ^ a b Matasović, Ranko (2008), Poredbenopovijesna gramatika hrvatskoga jezika (in Croatian), Zagreb: Matica hrvatska, p. 311, Kao izvor su turcizama u hrvatskome, kao i u većini balkanskih jezika, poslužili rumelijski dijalekti turskoga jezika, koji se mnogim osobinama razlikuju od maloazijskih dijalekata na temelju kojih je izgrađen suvremeni turski standard 
  7. ^ a b Johanson 2011, 738.
  8. ^ Johanson 2011, 739.
  9. ^ a b Aydıngün et al. 2006, 23.
  10. ^ "A Look at the Turkmen Community in Syria". Voice of America. 24 November 2015. Retrieved 8 June 2016. 
  11. ^ "Who are the Turkmen in Syria?". BBC. 24 November 2015. Retrieved 8 June 2016. 
  12. ^ Gordon, Raymond G., Jr. (ed.) (2005). "Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Fifteenth edition. Report for language code:tur (Turkish)". Retrieved 2011-09-04. 
  13. ^ Johanson 2011, 734.
  14. ^ Brendemoen 2002, 27.
  15. ^ Brendemoen 2006, 227.
  16. ^ Karahan, Leylâ (1996). Anadolu Ağızlarının Sınıflandırılması. Türk Dil Kurumu. 

Bibliography[edit]

  • Aydıngün, Ayşegül; Harding, Çiğdem Balım; Hoover, Matthew; Kuznetsov, Igor; Swerdlow, Steve (2006), Meskhetian Turks: An Introduction to their History, Culture, and Resettelment Experiences (PDF), Center for Applied Linguistics 
  • Brendemoen, Bernt (2002), The Turkish Dialects of Trabzon: Analysis, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, ISBN 3447045701 .
  • Brendemoen, Bernt (2006), "Ottoman or Iranian? An example of Turkic-Iranian language contact in East Anatolian dialects", in Johanson, Lars; Bulut, Christiane, Turkic-Iranian Contact Areas: Historical and Linguistic Aspects, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, ISBN 3447052767 .
  • Campbell, George L. (1998), Concise Compendium of the World's Languages, Psychology Press, ISBN 0415160499 .
  • Friedman, Victor A. (2003), Turkish in Macedonia and Beyond: Studies in Contact, Typology and other Phenomena in the Balkans and the Caucasus, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, ISBN 3447046406 .
  • Friedman, Victor A. (2006), "Western Rumelian Turkish in Macedonia and adjacent areas", in Boeschoten, Hendrik; Johanson, Lars, Turkic Languages in Contact, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, ISBN 3447052120 .
  • Johanson, Lars (2001), Discoveries on the Turkic Linguistic Map (PDF), Stockholm: Svenska Forskningsinstitutet i Istanbul 
  • Johanson, Lars (2011), "Multilingual states and empires in the history of Europe: the Ottoman Empire", in Kortmann, Bernd; Van Der Auwera, Johan (eds), The Languages and Linguistics of Europe: A Comprehensive Guide, Volume 2, Walter de Gruyter, ISBN 3110220253