Letters patent are a type of legal instrument in the form of a published written order issued by a monarch, president, or other head of state granting an office, monopoly, title, or status to a person or corporation. Letters patent can be used for the creation of corporations or government offices, or for the granting of city status or a coat of arms. Letters patent are issued for the appointment of representatives of the Crown, such as governors and governors-general of Commonwealth realms, as well as appointing a Royal Commission. In the United Kingdom they are issued for the creation of peers of the realm. A particular form of letters patent has evolved into the modern patent granting exclusive rights in an invention. In this case it is essential that the written grant should be in the form of a public document so other inventors can consult it to avoid infringement and to understand how to "practice" the invention, i.e. put it into practical use. In the Holy Roman Empire, Austrian Empire and Austria-Hungary, imperial patent was the highest form of binding legal regulations, e. g.
Patent of Toleration, Serfdom Patent etc. The opposite of letters patent are letters close, which are personal in nature and sealed so that only the recipient can read their contents. Letters patent are thus comparable to other kinds of open letter, it is not clear how the contents of letters patent became published before collection by the addressee, for example whether they were left after sealing by the king for inspection during a certain period by courtiers in a royal palace, who would disseminate the contents back to the gentry in the shires through normal conversation and social intercourse. Today, for example, it is a convention for the British prime minister to announce that they have left a document they wish to enter the public domain "in the library of the House of Commons", where it may be perused by all members of parliament. Letters patent are so named from the Latin verb pateo, to lie open, accessible; the originator's seal was attached pendent from the document, so that it did not have to be broken in order for the document to be read.
Litterae in Latin meant "that, written" or "writing", in the sense of letters of the alphabet placed together in meaningful sequence on a writing surface, not a specific format of composition as the modern word "letter" suggests. Thus letters patent do not equate to an open letter but rather to any form of document, contract, despatch, decree, epistle etc. made public. They are called "letters" from their Latin name litterae patentes, used by medieval and scribes when the documents were written in Latin; this loanword preserves the collective plural "letters" Latin language uses to denote a message as opposed to a single alphabet letter. Letters patent are a form of open or public proclamation and a vestigial exercise of extra-parliamentary power by a monarch or president. Prior to the establishment of Parliament, the monarch ruled by the issuing of his personal written orders, open or closed, they can thus be contrasted with the Act of Parliament, in effect a written order by Parliament, approved by the monarch whose signature gives it force.
No explicit government approval is contained within letters patent, only the seal or signature of the monarch. Parliament today tolerates only a narrow exercise of the royal prerogative by issuance of letters patent, such documents are issued with prior informal government approval, or indeed are now generated by government itself with the monarch's seal affixed as a mere formality. In their original form they were written instructions or orders from the sovereign, whose order was law, which were made public to reinforce their effect. For the sake of good governance, it is of little use if the sovereign appoints a person to a position of authority but does not at the same time inform those over whom such authority is to be exercised of the validity of the appointment. According to the United Kingdom Ministry of Justice, there are 92 different types of letters patent; the Patent Rolls are made up of office copies of English royal letters patent, which run in an unbroken series from 1201 to the present day, with most of those to 1625 having been published.
The form of letters patent for creating peerages has been fixed by the Crown Office Order 1992. Part III of the schedule lays down nine pro forma texts for creating various ranks of the peerage, lords of appeal in ordinary, baronets; the following table organises the text from the letters patent by columns for each rank, with common text spanning multiple columns, depicting some of the similarities and differences among the proclamations. Gender-specific differences are highlighted in italics; the words "may have hold and possess" to "his heirs male aforesaid successively" and "have heretofore used and enjoyed or as they" were deleted for Dukes and Duchesses and Marchionesses, Earls and Countesses and hereditary Barons by the Crown Office Order 2000. In Commonwealth realms, letters patent are issued under the prerogative powers of the head of state, as an executive or royal prerogative, they are a rare, though significant, form of legislation which does not require the consent of parliament.
Letters patent may be used to grant royal assent to legislation. The primary source of letters patent in the United States are intelle
George II of Great Britain
George II was King of Great Britain and Ireland, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and a prince-elector of the Holy Roman Empire from 11 June 1727 until his death in 1760. George was the last British monarch born outside Great Britain: he was born and brought up in northern Germany, his grandmother, Sophia of Hanover, became second in line to the British throne after about 50 Catholics higher in line were excluded by the Act of Settlement 1701 and the Acts of Union 1707, which restricted the succession to Protestants. After the deaths of Sophia and Anne, Queen of Great Britain, in 1714, his father George I, Elector of Hanover, inherited the British throne. In the first years of his father's reign as king, George was associated with opposition politicians, until they rejoined the governing party in 1720; as king from 1727, George exercised little control over British domestic policy, controlled by the Parliament of Great Britain. As elector, he spent twelve summers in Hanover, where he had more direct control over government policy.
He had a difficult relationship with his eldest son, who supported the parliamentary opposition. During the War of the Austrian Succession, George participated at the Battle of Dettingen in 1743, thus became the last British monarch to lead an army in battle. In 1745, supporters of the Catholic claimant to the British throne, James Francis Edward Stuart, led by James's son Charles Edward Stuart and failed to depose George in the last of the Jacobite rebellions. Frederick died unexpectedly in 1751, nine years before his father, so George II was succeeded by his grandson, George III. For two centuries after George II's death, history tended to view him with disdain, concentrating on his mistresses, short temper, boorishness. Since most scholars have reassessed his legacy and conclude that he held and exercised influence in foreign policy and military appointments. George was born in the city of Hanover in Germany, was the son of George Louis, Hereditary Prince of Brunswick-Lüneburg, his wife, Sophia Dorothea of Celle.
His sister, Sophia Dorothea, was born. Both of George's parents committed adultery, in 1694 their marriage was dissolved on the pretext that Sophia had abandoned her husband, she was confined to Ahlden House and denied access to her two children, who never saw their mother again. George spoke only French, the language of diplomacy and the court, until the age of four, after which he was taught German by one of his tutors, Johann Hilmar Holstein. In addition to French and German, he was schooled in English and Italian, studied genealogy, military history, battle tactics with particular diligence. George's second cousin once removed, Queen Anne, ascended the thrones of England and Ireland in 1702, she had no surviving children, by the Act of Settlement 1701, the English Parliament designated Anne's closest Protestant blood relations, George's grandmother Sophia and her descendants, as Anne's heirs in England and Ireland. After his grandmother and father, George was third in line to succeed Anne in two of her three realms.
He was naturalized as an English subject in 1705 by the Sophia Naturalization Act, in 1706, he was made a Knight of the Garter and created Duke and Marquess of Cambridge, Earl of Milford Haven, Viscount Northallerton, Baron Tewkesbury in the Peerage of England. England and Scotland united in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, jointly accepted the succession as laid down by the English Act of Settlement. George's father did not want his son to enter into a loveless arranged marriage as he had, wanted him to have the opportunity of meeting his bride before any formal arrangements were made. Negotiations from 1702 for the hand of Princess Hedvig Sophia of Sweden, Dowager Duchess and regent of Holstein-Gottorp, came to nothing. In June 1705, under the false name of "Monsieur de Busch", George visited the Ansbach court at their summer residence in Triesdorf to investigate incognito a marriage prospect: Caroline of Ansbach, the former ward of his aunt Queen Sophia Charlotte of Prussia; the English envoy to Hanover, Edmund Poley, reported that George was so taken by "the good character he had of her that he would not think of anybody else".
A marriage contract was concluded by the end of July. On 22 August / 2 September 1705O. S./N. S. Caroline arrived in Hanover for her wedding, held the same evening in the chapel at Herrenhausen. George was keen to participate in the war against France in Flanders, but his father refused permission for him to join the army in an active role until he had a son and heir. In early 1707, George's hopes were fulfilled. In July, Caroline fell ill with smallpox, George caught the infection after staying by her side devotedly during her illness, they both recovered. In 1708, George participated in the Battle of Oudenarde in the vanguard of the Hanoverian cavalry; the British commander, wrote that George "distinguished himself charging at the head of and animating by his example troops, who played a good part in this happy victory". Between 1709 and 1713, George and Caroline had three more children, all girls: Anne and Caroline. By 1714, Queen Anne's health had declined, British Whigs, politicians who supported the Hanoverian succession, thought it prudent for one of the Hanoverians to live in England, to safeguard
A patent medicine known as a nostrum is a commercial product advertised as a purported over-the-counter medicine, without regard to its effectiveness. Patent medicines were one of the first major product categories that the advertising industry promoted. Patent medicine advertising marketed products as being medical panaceas and emphasized exotic ingredients and endorsements from purported experts or celebrities, which may or may have not been true. Patent medicines were constricted in the United States in the early 20th century as the Food and Drug Administration and Federal Trade Commission added ever-increasing regulations to prevent fraud, unintentional poisoning and deceptive advertising. Sellers of liniments, claimed to contain snake oil and falsely promoted as a cure-all, made the snake oil salesman a lasting symbol for a charlatan; the phrase "patent medicine" comes from the late 17th century marketing of medical elixirs, when those who found favour with royalty were issued letters patent authorising the use of the royal endorsement in advertising.
Few if any of the nostrums were patented. Furthermore, patenting one of these remedies would have meant publicly disclosing its ingredients, which most promoters sought to avoid. Advertisement kept these patent medications in the public eye and gave the belief that no disease was beyond the cure of patent medication. “The medicine man’s key task became not production but sales, the job of persuading ailing citizens to buy his particular brand from among the hundreds offered. Whether unscrupulous or self-deluded, nostrum makers set about this task with cleverness and zeal.”Instead, the compounders of such nostrums used a primitive version of branding to distinguish their products from the crowd of their competitors. Many extant brands from the era live on today in brands such as Luden's cough drops, Lydia E. Pinkham's vegetable compound for women, Fletcher's Castoria and Angostura bitters, once marketed as a stomachic. Though sold at high prices, many of these products were made from cheap ingredients.
Their composition was well known within the pharmacy trade, druggists manufactured and sold medicines of identical composition. To protect profits, the branded medicine advertisements emphasized brand names, urged the public to "accept no substitutes". With the rising popularity of patent medicine in advertising, The Kellogg Company of Canada adopted similar tactics, publishing a book named A New Way of Living that would show readers "how to achieve a new way of living, it touted the All-Bran cereal as the secret to leading "normal" lives free of constipation. At least in the earliest days, the history of patent medicines is coextensive with scientific medicine. Empirical medicine, the beginning of the application of the scientific method to medicine, began to yield a few orthodoxly acceptable herbal and mineral drugs for the physician's arsenal; these few remedies, on the other hand, were inadequate to cover the bewildering variety of diseases and symptoms. Beyond these patches of evidence-based application, people used other methods, such as occultism.
This led medical men to hope, at least, say, walnut shells might be good for skull fractures. Homeopathy, the notion that illness is binary and can be treated by ingredients that cause the same symptoms in healthy people, was another outgrowth of this early era of medicine. Given the state of the pharmacopoeia, patients' demands for something to take, physicians began making "blunderbuss" concoctions of various drugs and unproven; these concoctions were the ancestors of the several nostrums. Touting these nostrums was one of the first major projects of the advertising industry; the marketing of nostrums under implausible claims has a long history. In Henry Fielding's Tom Jones, allusion is made to the sale of medical compounds claimed to be universal panaceas: As to Squire Western, he was out of the sick-room, unless when he was engaged either in the field or over his bottle. Nay, he would sometimes retire hither to take his beer, it was not without difficulty that he was prevented from forcing Jones to take his beer too: for no quack held his nostrum to be a more general panacea than he did this.
Within the English-speaking world, patent medicines are as old as journalism. "Anderson's Pills" were first made in England in the 1630s. Daffy's Elixir was invented about 1647 and remained popular in Britain and the USA until the late 19th century; the use of "letters patent" to obtain exclusive marketing rights to certain labelled formulas and their marketing fueled the circulation of early newspapers. The use of invented names began early. In 1726 a patent was granted to the makers of Dr Bateman's Pectoral Drops; this was the enterprise of a Benjamin Okell and a group of promoters who owned a warehouse and a print shop
Magnesium sulfate is an inorganic salt with the formula MgSO4x where 0≤x≤7. It is encountered as the heptahydrate sulfate mineral epsomite called Epsom salt; the overall global annual usage in the mid-1970s of the monohydrate was 2.3 million tons, of which the majority was used in agriculture. Epsom salt has been traditionally used as a component of bath salts. Epsom salt can be used as a beauty product. Athletes use it to soothe sore muscles, it has a variety of other uses: for example, Epsom salt is effective in the removal of splinters. A variety of hydrates are known; the heptahydrate loses one equivalent of water to form the hexahydrate. Epsom salt takes its name from a bitter saline spring in Epsom in Surrey, where the salt was produced from the springs that arise where the porous chalk of the North Downs meets non-porous London clay; the monohydrate, MgSO4·H2O is found as the mineral kieserite. It can be prepared by heating the hexahydrate to 150 °C. Further heating to 200 °C gives anhydrous magnesium sulfate.
Upon further heating, the anhydrous salt decomposes into magnesium sulfur trioxide. The heptahydrate can be prepared by neutralizing sulfuric acid with magnesium carbonate or oxide, but it is obtained directly from natural sources, it is on the WHO Model List of Essential Medicines, the most important medications needed in a basic health system. Magnesium sulfate is a common mineral pharmaceutical preparation of magnesium known as Epsom salt, used both externally and internally. Magnesium sulfate is water-soluble and solubility is inhibited with lipids used in lotions. Lotions employ the use of emulsions or suspensions to include both oil and water-soluble ingredients. Hence, magnesium sulfate in a lotion may not be as available to migrate to the skin nor to be absorbed through the skin, hence both studies may properly suggest absorption or lack thereof as a function of the carrier. Temperature and concentration gradients may be contributing factors to absorption. Externally, magnesium sulfate paste is used to treat skin inflammations such as small boils or localised infections.
Known in the UK as "drawing paste", it is used to remove splinters. The standard British Pharmacopoeia composition is dried Magnesium Sulfate 47.76 % w/w, Phenol 0.49 % w/w. and glycerol. Epsom salt is used for isolation tanks. Magnesium sulfate is the main preparation of intravenous magnesium. Internal uses include: Oral magnesium sulfate is used as a saline laxative or osmotic purgative. Replacement therapy for hypomagnesemia Magnesium sulfate is a antiarrhythmic agent for torsades de pointes in cardiac arrest under the ECC guidelines and for managing quinidine-induced arrhythmias; as a bronchodilator after beta-agonist and anticholinergic agents have been tried, e.g. in severe exacerbations of asthma, magnesium sulfate can be nebulized to reduce the symptoms of acute asthma. It is administered via the intravenous route for the management of severe asthma attacks. Magnesium sulfate is effective in decreasing the risk. IV magnesium sulfate is used to treat seizures of eclampsia, it reduces the systolic blood pressure but doesn't alter the diastolic blood pressure, so the blood perfusion to the fetus isn't compromised.
It is commonly used for eclampsia where compared to diazepam or phenytoin it results in better outcomes. In agriculture, magnesium sulfate is used to increase sulfur content in soil, it is most applied to potted plants, or to magnesium-hungry crops, such as potatoes, tomatoes, lemon trees and peppers. The advantage of magnesium sulfate over other magnesium soil amendments is its high solubility, which allows the option of foliar feeding. Solutions of magnesium sulfate are nearly neutral, compared with alkaline salts of magnesium as found in limestone. Magnesium sulfate is used as a brewing salt in making beer, it may be used as a coagulant for making tofu. Anhydrous magnesium sulfate is used as a desiccant in organic synthesis due to its affinity for water. During work-up, an organic phase is treated with anhydrous magnesium sulfate; the hydrated solid is removed with filtration or decantation. Other inorganic sulfate salts such as sodium sulfate and calcium sulfate may be used in the same way. Magnesium sulfate heptahydrate is used to maintain the magnesium concentration in marine aquaria which contain large amounts of stony corals, as it is depleted in their calcification process.
In a magnesium-deficient marine aquarium and alkalinity concentrations are difficult to control because not enough magnesium is present to stabilize these ions in the saltwater and prevent their spontaneous precipitation into calcium carbonate. Magnesium sulfates are common minerals in geological environments, their occurrence is connected with supergene processes. Some of them are important constituents of evaporitic potassium-magnesium salts deposits. Bright spots observed by the Dawn Spacecraft in Occator Crater on the dwarf planet Ceres are most consistent with reflected light from magnesium sulfate hexahydrate. All known mineralogical forms of MgSO4 are hydrates. Epsomite is the natural analogue of "Epsom salt". Another heptahydrate, the copper-containing mineral alpersite SO4·7H2O, was recognized. Both are, not the highest known hydrates of MgSO4, du
Balsam is the resinous exudate, which forms on certain kinds of trees and shrubs. Balsam owes its name to the biblical Balm of Gilead. Balsam is a solution of plant-specific resins in plant-specific solvents; such resins can include esters, or alcohols. The exudate is a mobile to viscous liquid and contains crystallized resin particles. Over time and as a result of other influences the exudate loses its liquidizing components or gets chemically converted into a solid material; some authors require balsams to contain their esters. Plant resins are sometimes classified according to other plant constituents in the mixture, for example as: pure resins, gum-resins, oleo-gum-resins, oleo-resins, glycoresins, fossil resins. Animal secretions are excluded from this definition. Acaroid resin Acouchi balsam Ammoniacum Asafoetida Balm of Gilead Balm of Mecca Balsam fir - Abies balsamea Balsam of Peru Balsam of Tolu Bisabol Bdellium Benzoin resin Bukhoor Cabreuva balsam Camphor Canada balsam Chinese lacquer Copaiba balsam Copal Corneiba balsam Damar Dragon's blood Elemi Frankincense Galbanum Guayac Guggul Gurjun balsam Imbauba balsam Labdanum Mastic Myrrh Obira balsam Opopanax Umiri balsam Rosin Sagapenum Sandarac Sarcocolla Storax balsam Turpentine Venice turpentine Wallaba balsam Some balsams, such as Balsam of Peru, may be associated with allergies.
In particular, Euphorbia latex is irritant and is cytotoxic. Basamum