Etruria was a region of Central Italy, located in an area that covered part of what are now Tuscany and Umbria. Such trade occurred either directly with Egypt, or through intermediaries such as Greek or Phoenician sailors, the Grand Duchy of Tuscany styled itself in Latin as Magnus Ducatus Etruriae. The name Etruria was applied to the Kingdom of Etruria, a particularly noteworthy work dealing with Etruscan locations is D. H. Lawrences Sketches of Etruscan Places and other Italian essays. Etruscan was the language for meetings. When Etruria was conquered by the Roman Republic, Latin became the official language and Cemeteries of Etruria, by George Dennis, an overview of Etruscan civilisation
In Greek mythology, the Cabeiri, Cabiri or Kabiri were a group of enigmatic chthonic deities. In their distant origins the Cabeiri and the Samothracian gods may include elements, or other non-Greek elements, such as Hittite. The Lemnian cult was always local to Lemnos, but the Samothracian mystery cult spread throughout the Greek world during the Hellenistic period. The ancient sources disagree whether the deities of Samothrace were Cabeiri or not. The accounts of the Samothracian gods, whose names were secret, differ in the number and sexes of the gods, usually between two and four, some of either sex. The number of Cabeiri varies, with some accounts citing four, the Cabeiri were worshipped at other sites in the vicinity, including Seuthopolis in Thrace and various sites in Asia Minor. According to Strabo, Cabeiri are most honored in Imbros and Lemnos, the Cabeiri were possibly originally Phrygian deities and protectors of sailors, who were imported into Greek ritual. R. S. P. Beekes believes that their name is of non-Indo-European, pre-Greek origin. T. J.
Wackernagel produced an Indian etymology in 1907, in 1925 A. H. Sayce had suggested a connection to Hittite habiri, dossein compares Κάβειροι to the Sumerian word kabar, copper. The name of the Cabeiri recalls Mount Kabeiros, a mountain in the region of Berekyntia in Asia Minor, according to Beekes, the name Kadmilus may be of pre-Greek origin, as seems to be the case with the name Cadmus. They were most commonly depicted as two people, an old man and his son, due to the cults secrecy, their exact nature and relationship with other ancient Greek and Thracian religious figures remained mysterious. As a result, the membership and roles of the Cabeiri changed significantly over time, with variants including a female pair. The Lemnians were originally non-Greek, they were Hellenized after Miltiades conquered the island for Athens in the sixth century BCE. The geographer Strabo reported that in Lemnos, the mother of the Cabeiri was Kabeiro herself, a daughter of Nereus, in general Greek myth identifies the Cabeiri as divine craftsmen, sons or grandsons of Hephaestus, who was chiefly worshipped on Lemnos.
Aeschylus wrote a play called the Cabeiri, and the fragments that survive have them as a chorus greeting the Argonauts at Lemnos, showed them as prodigious wine-drinkers, and wine jars are the only characteristic group of finds from the Cabeirium of Lemnos. Walter Burkert suggests a raucous, burlesque character to the mysteries of the Cabeiri and notes that an inscription at Lemnos indicates parapaizonti, Samothrace offered an initiatory mystery, which promised safety and prosperity to seamen. The secret of these mysteries has largely been kept, but we know that of three things about the ritual, the aspirants were asked the worst action they had ever committed. The mysteries of Samothrace did not publish the names of their gods, but ancient sources tell us that there were two goddesses and a god, Axieros and Axiokersos, and their servant Cadmilos or Casmilos
Specials (Unicode block)
Specials is a short Unicode block allocated at the very end of the Basic Multilingual Plane, at U+FFF0–FFFF. Of these 16 codepoints, five are assigned as of Unicode 9, U+FFFD � REPLACEMENT CHARACTER used to replace an unknown, unrecognized or unrepresentable character U+FFFE <noncharacter-FFFE> not a character. FFFE and FFFF are not unassigned in the sense. They can be used to guess a texts encoding scheme, since any text containing these is by not a correctly encoded Unicode text. The replacement character � is a found in the Unicode standard at codepoint U+FFFD in the Specials table. It is used to indicate problems when a system is unable to render a stream of data to a correct symbol and it is usually seen when the data is invalid and does not match any character, Consider a text file containing the German word für in the ISO-8859-1 encoding. This file is now opened with an editor that assumes the input is UTF-8. The first and last byte are valid UTF-8 encodings of ASCII, therefore, a text editor could replace this byte with the replacement character symbol to produce a valid string of Unicode code points.
The whole string now displays like this, f�r, a poorly implemented text editor might save the replacement in UTF-8 form, the text file data will look like this, 0x66 0xEF 0xBF 0xBD 0x72, which will be displayed in ISO-8859-1 as fï¿½r. Since the replacement is the same for all errors this makes it impossible to recover the original character, a better design is to preserve the original bytes, including the error, and only convert to the replacement when displaying the text. This will allow the text editor to save the original byte sequence and it has become increasingly common for software to interpret invalid UTF-8 by guessing the bytes are in another byte-based encoding such as ISO-8859-1. This allows correct display of both valid and invalid UTF-8 pasted together, Unicode control characters UTF-8 Mojibake Unicodes Specials table Decodeunicodes entry for the replacement character
Mika Toimi Waltari was a Finnish writer, best known for his best-selling novel The Egyptian. He was extremely productive, and wrote in addition to novels poetry, short stories, criminal novels, essays, travel stories, film scripts, Waltari was born in Helsinki and lost his father, a Lutheran pastor, at the age of five. As a boy, he witnessed the Finnish Civil War in Helsinki, while studying, he contributed to various magazines and wrote poetry and stories, getting his first book published in 1925. In 1927 he went to Paris where he wrote his first major novel Suuri illusioni, in terms of style, the novel is considered to be the Finnish equivalent to the works of the American writers of the Lost Generation. Waltari was, for a while, a member of the literary movement Tulenkantajat. He was married in 1931 and had a daughter, throughout the 1930s and 1940s, Waltari worked as a journalist and critic, writing for a number of newspapers and magazines and travelling widely in Europe. He directed the magazine Suomen Kuvalehti, at the same time, he kept writing books in many genres, moving easily from one literary field to another.
He had a busy schedule and strict work ethic. It has been claimed that he suffered from insomnia and depression. He participated, and often succeeded, in competitions to prove the quality of his work to critics. Waltari scripted the popular cartoon Kieku ja Kaiku and wrote Aiotko kirjailijaksi, during the Winter War and the Continuation War, Waltari worked in the government information center, now placing his literary skills at the service of political propaganda. 1945 saw the publication of Waltaris first and most successful historical novel, Waltari wrote seven more historical novels, placed in various ancient cultures, among others The Dark Angel, set during the Fall of Constantinople in 1453. In these novels, he gave expression to his fundamental pessimism and also. After the war, he wrote several novellas. He became a member of the Finnish Academy in 1957 and received a doctorate at the University of Turku in 1970. Waltari was one of the most prolific Finnish writers and he is internationally the best-known Finnish writer, and his works have been translated into more than 30 languages.
Waltaris last two novels tell about early history of Christianity, Valtakunnan salaisuus, and Ihmiskunnan viholliset, as a member of Academy of Science and Letters he guided younger writers. He was involved in re-publishing and editing his early works, Waltari got the State literature award five times,1933,1934,1936,1949, and 1953
Cortona is a town and comune in the province of Arezzo, in Tuscany, Italy. It is the cultural and artistic center of the Val di Chiana after Arezzo. Originally an Umbrian city, it was conquered and enlarged by the Etruscans, during the 7th century BC, it joined the Etruscan League. Cortona eventually became a Roman colony under the name Corito, the origin-legends and ancient names of Cortona are described by George Dennis. In the final stages of the Gothic War, Cortona was sacked and destroyed by a warrior named Michael Pasquale, whose mother was Macedonian royalty, Cortona became a Ghibellinian city state in the 13th century, with its own currency. From 1325 to 1409, the Ranieri-Casali family successfully ruled the town, after being conquered by Ladislaus of Naples in 1409, Cortona was sold to the Medici in 1411. In 1737, the branch of the Medici line became extinct. Following the Italian Wars of Independence, Tuscany—Cortona included—became part of the Kingdom of Italy, the foundation of Cortona remains mixed in legends dating to classical times.
These were reworked especially in the late Renaissance period under Cosimo I de Medici, the 17th-century Guide of Giacomo Lauro, reworked from writings of Annio da Viterbo, states that 108 years after the Great Flood, Noah entered the Valdichiana via the Tiber and Paglia rivers. He preferred this place better than anywhere else in Italy, because it was so fertile, in 2000 Cortona established Cortona DOC. The goal is controlling and protecting the wines of D. O. C, currently Cortona DOC has 29 members and produce and control 14 different types of wines. The prevailing character of Cortona’s architecture is medieval with steep narrow streets situated on a hillside at an elevation of 600 metres that embraces a view of the whole of the Valdichiana. From the Piazza Garibaldi is a prospect of Lake Trasimeno. Parts of the Etruscan city wall can still be today as the basis of the present wall. The main street, via Nazionale, is the street in the town with no gradient. Inside the Palazzo Casali is the Museo dellAccademia Etrusca, displaying items from Etruscan, the distinguished Etruscan Academy Museum had its foundation in 1727 with the collections and library of Onofrio Baldelli.
Its iconography includes alternating figures of Silenus playing panpipes or double flutes, within zones representing waves and fiercer sea-creatures is a gorgon-like face with protruding tongue. Between each burner is a horned head of Achelous
Only in manuscripts were his names reversed as Ambrosius Theodosius Macrobius, which James Willis adopted for his edition of the Commentary. Little is known for certain about Macrobius, but there are many theories and he states at the beginning of his Saturnalia that he was born under a foreign sky, and both of his major works are dedicated to his son, Eustachius. His major works have led experts to assume that he was a pagan, which foreign sky Macrobius was born under has been the subject of much speculation. Terrot Glover considers Macrobius either an ethnic Greek, or born in one of the Greek-speaking parts of the Roman Empire, such as Egypt, J. E. Sandys went further and argued that Macrobius was born in one of the Greek provinces. Scholars have attempted to identify him with a Macrobius who is mentioned in the Codex Theodosianus as a prefect of Spain. The Codex Theodosianus records a praepositus named Macrobius in 422, a number of older authorities go so far as to identify Macrobius the author with the first, and date his floruit to 399–410.
Further, Cameron points out that during his lifetime Macrobius was referred to as Theodosius and it is significant that the only surviving law addressed to this Theodosius sanctions a privilege for Africa Proconsularis on the basis of information received concerning Byzacena, Cameron notes. Macrobiuss most influential one of the most widely cited books of the Middle Ages—was a commentary in two books on the Dream of Scipio narrated by Cicero at the end of his Republic. In astronomy, this work is noted for giving the diameter of the Sun as twice the diameter of the Earth. Of a third work On the Differences and Similarities of the Greek and Latin Verb, we possess an abstract by a certain Johannes. See editions by Ludwig von Jan, Franz Eyssenhardt, James Willis, the grammatical treatise will be found in Jans edition and Heinrich Keils Grammatici latini, see Georg Friedrich Schömann, Commentatio macrobiana. Macrobiuss Saturnalia consists of an account of the held at the house of Vettius Agorius Praetextatus during the holiday of the Saturnalia.
It contains a variety of curious historical, critical, antiquarian. The work takes the form of a series of dialogues among learned men at a fictional banquet. The latter part of the book is taken up with a dissertation upon luxury and the sumptuary laws intended to check it. The seventh book consists largely of the discussion of various physiological questions, the primary value of the work lies in the facts and opinions quoted from earlier writers. Cambridge, MA/ London, Harvard University Press,2011, percival Vaughan Davies, The Saturnalia. New York, Columbia University Press,1969, william Harris Stahl, Commentary on the Dream of Scipio
The Internet Archive launched the Wayback Machine in October 2001. It was set up by Brewster Kahle and Bruce Gilliat, and is maintained with content from Alexa Internet, the service enables users to see archived versions of web pages across time, which the archive calls a three dimensional index. Since 1996, the Wayback Machine has been archiving cached pages of websites onto its large cluster of Linux nodes and it revisits sites every few weeks or months and archives a new version. Sites can be captured on the fly by visitors who enter the sites URL into a search box, the intent is to capture and archive content that otherwise would be lost whenever a site is changed or closed down. The overall vision of the machines creators is to archive the entire Internet, the name Wayback Machine was chosen as a reference to the WABAC machine, a time-traveling device used by the characters Mr. Peabody and Sherman in The Rocky and Bullwinkle Show, an animated cartoon. These crawlers respect the robots exclusion standard for websites whose owners opt for them not to appear in search results or be cached, to overcome inconsistencies in partially cached websites, Archive-It.
Information had been kept on digital tape for five years, with Kahle occasionally allowing researchers, when the archive reached its fifth anniversary, it was unveiled and opened to the public in a ceremony at the University of California, Berkeley. Snapshots usually become more than six months after they are archived or, in some cases, even later. The frequency of snapshots is variable, so not all tracked website updates are recorded, Sometimes there are intervals of several weeks or years between snapshots. After August 2008 sites had to be listed on the Open Directory in order to be included. As of 2009, the Wayback Machine contained approximately three petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of 100 terabytes each month, the growth rate reported in 2003 was 12 terabytes/month, the data is stored on PetaBox rack systems manufactured by Capricorn Technologies. In 2009, the Internet Archive migrated its customized storage architecture to Sun Open Storage, in 2011 a new, improved version of the Wayback Machine, with an updated interface and fresher index of archived content, was made available for public testing.
The index driving the classic Wayback Machine only has a bit of material past 2008. In January 2013, the company announced a ground-breaking milestone of 240 billion URLs, in October 2013, the company announced the Save a Page feature which allows any Internet user to archive the contents of a URL. This became a threat of abuse by the service for hosting malicious binaries, as of December 2014, the Wayback Machine contained almost nine petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of about 20 terabytes each week. Between October 2013 and March 2015 the websites global Alexa rank changed from 162 to 208, in a 2009 case, Netbula, LLC v. Chordiant Software Inc. defendant Chordiant filed a motion to compel Netbula to disable the robots. Netbula objected to the motion on the ground that defendants were asking to alter Netbulas website, in an October 2004 case, Telewizja Polska USA, Inc. v. Echostar Satellite, No.02 C3293,65 Fed. 673, a litigant attempted to use the Wayback Machine archives as a source of admissible evidence, Telewizja Polska is the provider of TVP Polonia and EchoStar operates the Dish Network
Apollo is one of the most important and complex of the Olympian deities in classical Greek and Roman religion and Greek and Roman mythology. The ideal of the kouros, Apollo has been recognized as a god of music and prophecy, the sun and light, poetry. Apollo is the son of Zeus and Leto, and has a twin sister, Apollo is known in Greek-influenced Etruscan mythology as Apulu. As the patron of Delphi, Apollo was an oracular god—the prophetic deity of the Delphic Oracle. Medicine and healing are associated with Apollo, whether through the god himself or mediated through his son Asclepius, yet Apollo was seen as a god who could bring ill-health and deadly plague. Amongst the gods custodial charges, Apollo became associated with dominion over colonists, as the leader of the Muses and director of their choir, Apollo functioned as the patron god of music and poetry. Hermes created the lyre for him, and the instrument became an attribute of Apollo. Hymns sung to Apollo were called paeans and Helios/Sol remained separate beings in literary and mythological texts until the 3rd century CE.
The name Apollo—unlike the related older name Paean—is generally not found in the Linear B texts, the etymology of the name is uncertain. The spelling Ἀπόλλων had almost superseded all other forms by the beginning of the common era and it probably is a cognate to the Doric month Apellaios, and the offerings apellaia at the initiation of the young men during the family-festival apellai. According to some scholars the words are derived from the Doric word apella, apella is the name of the popular assembly in Sparta, corresponding to the ecclesia. R. S. P. Beekes rejected the connection of the theonym with the noun apellai, several instances of popular etymology are attested from ancient authors. Thus, the Greeks most often associated Apollos name with the Greek verb ἀπόλλυμι, in the ancient Macedonian language πέλλα means stone, and some toponyms may be derived from this word, Πέλλα and Πελλήνη. The role of Apollo as god of plague is evident in the invocation of Apollo Smintheus by Chryses, the Hittite testimony reflects an early form *Apeljōn, which may be surmised from comparison of Cypriot Ἀπείλων with Doric Ἀπέλλων.
A Luwian etymology suggested for Apaliunas makes Apollo The One of Entrapment, Apollos chief epithet was Phoebus, literally bright. It was very commonly used by both the Greeks and Romans for Apollos role as the god of light, like other Greek deities, he had a number of others applied to him, reflecting the variety of roles and aspects ascribed to the god. However, while Apollo has a number of appellations in Greek myth. Aegletes, from αἴγλη, light of the sun Helius, literally sun Lyceus light, the meaning of the epithet Lyceus became associated with Apollos mother Leto, who was the patron goddess of Lycia and who was identified with the wolf
The term has multiple related meanings in poetry and modern psychology. Several scholars, including Allan Bloom, have read this first word, in poetry and rhetoric, the term katabasis refers to a gradual descending of emphasis on a theme within a sentence or paragraph, while anabasis refers to a gradual ascending in emphasis. John Freccero notes, In the ancient world, descent in search of understanding was known as katabasis, in modern psychology, the term katabasis is sometimes used to describe the depression some young men experience. The trip to the underworld is a mytheme of comparative mythology found in a number of religions from around the world. The hero or upper-world deity journeys to the underworld or to the land of the dead and returns, often with a quest-object or a loved one, or with heightened knowledge. The ability to enter the realm of the dead while still alive, a deity who returns from the underworld demonstrates eschatological themes such as the cyclical nature of time and existence, or the defeat of death and the possibility of immortality.
Katabasis is the convention of the heros trip into the underworld. In Greek mythology, for example, Orpheus enters the underworld in order to bring Eurydice back to the world of the living. Most katabases take place in an underworld, such as Hades or Hell — as in Nekyia, the 11th book of the Odyssey. However, katabasis can refer to a journey through other dystopic areas, pilar Serrano allows the term katabasis to encompass brief or chronic stays in the underworld, including those of Lazarus, and Castor and Pollux. In this case, the katabasis must be followed by an anabasis in order to be considered a true katabasis instead of a death, in the 11th book of the Odyssey, Odysseus follows the advice of Circe and consults Tiresias in the land of the dead. During Odysseus visit, the souls of many appear to him, the first to appear to Odysseus is Elpenor, his crew member who died prior to leaving Circes island. Elpenor asks Odysseus to give him a burial, and Odysseus agrees. The next to appear to Odysseus is his mother, Anticlea, as Odysseus has been away fighting the Trojan War for nearly 20 years, he is surprised and saddened by the sight of her soul.
Tiresias, the soul whom Odysseus came to see, next appears to him, Tiresias gives him several pieces of information concerning his nostos and his life after. As his mother leaves, Odysseus is visited by a string of souls of past queens and he first sees Tyro, the mother of Pelias and Neleus by Poseidon. He next talks to Antiope, the mother of Amphion and Zethus by Zeus, then, he is visited by Alcmene, the mother of Heracles by Zeus, and Heracles wife Megara. He is visited by Epicaste, the mother of Oedipus, and Chloris, Odysseus is visited by Leda, the mother of Castor and Polydeuces and Iphimedeia, mother of the Aloadae by Poseidon
The Greek underworld, in mythology, is an otherworld where souls go after death, and is the original Greek idea of afterlife. At the moment of death the soul is separated from the corpse, taking on the shape of the former person, the Underworld itself is described as being either at the outer bounds of the ocean or beneath the depths or ends of the earth. It is considered the counterpart to the brightness of Mount Olympus. Hades is an invisible to the living, made solely for the dead. There are five rivers that are visible both in the living world and the underworld. Their names were meant to reflect the emotions associated with death, the Styx is generally considered to be one of the most prominent and central rivers of the Underworld and is the most widely known out of all the rivers. Its known as the river of hatred and is named after the goddess Styx and this river circles the underworld seven times. The Acheron is the river of pain and its the one that Charon, known as the Ferryman, rows the dead over according to many mythological accounts, though sometimes it is the river Styx or both.
The Lethe is the river of forgetfulness and it is associated with the goddess Lethe, the goddess of forgetfulness and oblivion. In accounts, a poplar branch dripping with water of the Lethe became the symbol of Hypnos, the Phlegethon is the river of fire. According to Plato, this leads to the depths of Tartarus. The Cocytus is the river of wailing, oceanus is the river that encircles the world, and it marks the east edge of the underworld, as Erebos is west of the mortal world. In front of the entrance to the underworld live Grief, Diseases, Hunger, Death and Sleep live in front of the entrance, together with Guilty Joys. On the opposite threshold is War, the Erinyes, and Eris, close to the doors are many beasts, including Centaurs, the Lernaean Hydra, the Chimera, and Harpies. In the midst of all this, an Elm can be seen where false dreams cling under every leaf, the souls that enter the Underworld carry a coin under their tongue to pay Charon to take them across the river. Charon may make exceptions or allowances for those carrying a certain Golden Bough.
Charon is appallingly filthy, with eyes like jets of fire, a bush of unkempt beard upon his chin, although Charon embarks now one group now another, some souls he grimly turns away. These are the unburied which cant be taken across from bank to bank until they receive a proper burial, across the river, guarding the gates of the Underworld, is Cerberus
Tinia was the god of the sky and the highest god in Etruscan mythology, equivalent to the Roman Jupiter and the Greek Zeus. He was the husband of Thalna or Uni and the father of Hercle, the Etruscans believed in Nine Great Gods, who had the power of hurling thunderbolts, they were called Novensiles by the Romans. Of thunderbolts there were eleven sorts, of which Tinia, as the supreme thunder-god, Tinia was part of the powerful trinity that included Menrva and Uni and had temples in every city of Etruria. Tinia was sometimes represented as seated and with a beard or sometimes standing, some of Tinias possible epithets are detailed on the Piacenza Liver, a bronze model of a liver used for haruspicy. These inscriptions have been transcribed as Tin Cilens, Tin Θuf, there have been a number of suggestions as to their meaning, but the Etruscan language is poorly understood and there is no scholarly consensus for the translation. Tinia appears in inscriptions, Kylix painted by Oltos. This has given Venel Atelinas for the sons of Tin On the bronze Chimera of Arezzo, Tinscvil A gift to Tinia