Traditional animation is an animation technique where each frame is drawn by hand. The technique was the dominant form of animation in cinema until the advent of computer animation, Animation productions begin by deciding on a story. The oral or literary source material must be converted into a film script. The storyboard has a somewhat similar to a comic book, and it shows the sequence of shots as consecutive sketches that indicate transitions, camera angles. The images allow the team to plan the flow of the plot. The storyboard artists will have meetings with the director and may have to redraw or re-board a sequence many times before it meets final approval. Before true animation begins, a soundtrack or scratch track is recorded. A completed cartoon soundtrack will feature music, sound effects, often, an animatic or story reel is made after the soundtrack is created, but before full animation begins. An animatic typically consists of pictures of the storyboard synchronized with the soundtrack and this allows the animators and directors to work out any script and timing issues that may exist with the current storyboard.
The storyboard and soundtrack are amended if necessary, and a new animatic may be created and reviewed with the director until the storyboard is perfected, advertising agencies today employ the use of animatics to test their commercials before they are made into full up spots. Animatics use drawn artwork, with moving pieces, video storyboards are similar to animatics but do not have moving pieces. Photomatics are another option when creating test spots, but instead of using drawn artwork, there is a shoot in which hundreds of digital photographs are taken. The large amount of images to choose from may make the process of creating a test commercial a bit easier, as opposed to creating an animatic, because changes to drawn art take time and money. Photomatics generally cost more than animatics, as they may require a shoot, the emergence of affordable stock photography and image editing software permits the inexpensive creation of photomatics using stock elements and photo composites. Once the animatic has been approved, it and the storyboards are sent to the design departments, character designers prepare model sheets for all important characters and props in the film, these are used to help standardize appearance and gestures.
These model sheets will show how a character or object looks from a variety of angles with a variety of poses, small statues known as maquettes may be produced, so that an animator can see what a character looks like in three dimensions. While design is going on, the director takes the animatic and analyzes exactly what poses, drawings. An exposure sheet is created, this is a table that breaks down the action, dialogue
Special effects are illusions or visual tricks used in the film, theatre, video game, and simulator industries to simulate the imagined events in a story or virtual world. Special effects are divided into the categories of optical effects. Mechanical effects are usually accomplished during the live-action shooting and this includes the use of mechanized props, scale models, animatronics and atmospheric effects, creating physical wind, fog, clouds, etc. Making a car appear to drive by itself and blowing up a building are examples of mechanical effects, mechanical effects are often incorporated into set design and makeup. For example, a set may be built with doors or walls to enhance a fight scene. An optical effect might be used to place actors or sets against a different background, since the 1990s, computer generated imagery has come to the forefront of special effects technologies. It gives filmmakers greater control, and allows many effects to be accomplished safely and convincingly and—as technology improves—at lower costs.
As a result, many optical and mechanical effects techniques have been superseded by CGI, in 1857, Oscar Rejlander created the worlds first special effects movie by combining different sections of 30 negatives into a single image. In 1895, Alfred Clark created what is accepted as the first-ever motion picture special effect. While filming a reenactment of the beheading of Mary, Queen of Scots, as the executioner brought the axe above his head, Clark stopped the camera, had all of the actors freeze, and had the person playing Mary step off the set. He placed a Mary dummy in the place, restarted filming. Techniques like these would dominate the production of special effects for a century and it wasnt only the first use of trickery in cinema, it was the first type of photographic trickery only possible in a motion picture, i. e. the stop trick. Georges Méliès accidentally discovered the same stop trick, according to Méliès, his camera jammed while filming a street scene in Paris. When he screened the film, he found that the trick had caused a truck to turn into a hearse, pedestrians to change direction.
Because of his ability to manipulate and transform reality with the cinematograph. From 1910 to 1920, the innovations in special effects were the improvements on the matte shot by Norman Dawn. With the original matte shot, pieces of cardboard were placed to block the exposure of the film, Dawn combined this technique with the glass shot. Rather than using cardboard to block certain areas of the film exposure, from the partially exposed film, a single frame is projected onto an easel, where the matte is drawn
The Boondock Saints
The Boondock Saints is a 1999 American crime film written and directed by Troy Duffy. The film stars Sean Patrick Flanery and Norman Reedus as fraternal twins and Murphy MacManus, Duffy indicates that the screenplay was inspired by personal experience, while living in Los Angeles. It was met with poor reviews, the film ultimately grossed about $50 million in domestic video sales. The movie was followed by a 2009 sequel, The Boondock Saints II, All Saints Day, two Irish American twin brothers and Murphy MacManus, attend Mass, where the priest mentions the fate of Kitty Genovese. Later, when Connor and Murphy are celebrating St. Patricks Day with friends, a brawl ensues and the next morning, when two of the Russians seek revenge on Connor and Murphy, the mobsters are killed in self-defense. FBI Agent Paul Smecker is assigned to the case, and finds that the police, the duo turn themselves in at a police station, where Smecker interviews them. After they retell their incident to Smecker, he declines to press charges and that night, they receive a calling from God telling them to hunt down wicked men so that the innocent will flourish.
Connor and Murphy resolve to rid Boston of evil men, Connor learns of a meeting of Russian syndicate bosses at a hotel. The next day, Rocco learns that he was betrayed, having been sent to kill nine Russians with only a six-shot revolver, Rocco commits himself to helping Connor and Murphy. That night, they hunt down and kill Vincenzo Lapazzi, an underboss of the Yakavetta crime family, concerned he may be a target, Papa Joe contacts a hitman, Il Duce, to deal with them. After killing a criminal that Rocco had a hatred for. Although they manage to chase Il Duce away, the three men suffer serious wounds, including the loss of Roccos finger, the three return to a safehouse where they treat their wounds. Hours as the conduct a investigation at the crime scene. However, Smecker happens upon the part of the finger lost by Rocco, Smecker is able to track the evidence down to Rocco and his two allies. After getting drunk at a gay bar and subsequently getting advice from a reluctant priest, the brothers and Rocco inform Smecker that they plan to infiltrate the Yakavetta headquarters to finish off the family, but Smecker learns they are walking into a trap.
The brothers are captured, and Rocco is shot and killed by Papa Joe, as Papa Joe leaves his house, Smecker arrives in drag and kills a number of soldiers before being knocked unconscious by Il Duce. As the brothers say their family prayer over Rocco, Il Duce enters the room, however, he instead finishes the prayer – revealing he is the brothers father and deciding to join his two sons in their mission. Three months later, Papa Joe is sent to trial for a third time, the reporters on-scene anticipate his acquittal
A film crew is a group of people hired by a production company for the purpose of producing a film or motion picture. The crew is distinguished from the cast as the cast are understood to be the actors who appear in front of the camera or provide voices for characters in the film. The crew is separate from the producers as the producers are the ones who own a portion of either the company or the films intellectual property rights. A film crew is divided into different departments, each of which specializes in an aspect of the production. Motion picture projects have three stages, development and distribution. Television crew positions are derived from those of film crew, the director is considered to be a separate entity, not within the film crews departmental structure. Though directors wield a great deal of power, they are subordinate to the films producer or producers. Some directors, especially more established ones, take on many of the roles of a producer, second unit director The second unit director is responsible for overseeing the photography assigned to the second unit, which can range from minor insert shots to large stunt sequences.
The second unit director position is filled by a member of the production. Music director In India-based movie productions, many of which are musicals, the role involves supervising the arrangement and mastering of film music along with conducting and orchestration. Writer Person or persons who write a film script, either an original script or adapted from another written work, in which case the original work and author may be credited. Production is generally not considered a department as such, but rather as a series of functional groups, producer A film producer creates the conditions for film-making. The producer initiates, coordinates and controls matters such as raising, hiring key personnel. The producer is involved throughout all phases of the making process from development to completion of a project. There may be producers on a film who may take a role in a number of areas, such as development. Today, the title has become ambiguous, particularly in feature films, since the 1980s, it has become increasingly common for the line producer to be given the title of executive producer, while the initiating producer takes the produced by credit.
On other projects, the reverse happens, with the producer taking the produced by credit. So the two credits have become effectively interchangeable, with no precise definition, line producer The line producer is the liaison between the studio or producer and the production manager, responsible for managing the production budget
The film industry or motion picture industry comprises the technological and commercial institutions of filmmaking, i. e. Though the expense involved in making movies almost immediately led film production to concentrate under the auspices of standing production companies, advances in affordable film making equipment, and expansion of opportunities to acquire investment capital from outside the film industry itself, have allowed independent film production to evolve. Hollywood is the oldest film industry of the world and the largest in terms of box office gross, other centers include Hong Kong and in Europe the United Kingdom, Italy and Germany are the countries that lead movie production. The worldwide theatrical market had a box office of US$38.3 billion in 2015. The top three continents/regions by box office gross were, Asia-Pacific with US$14.1 billion, North America with US$11.1 billion and Europe, distinct from the centers are the locations where movies are filmed. Because of labor and infrastructure costs, many films are produced in other than the one in which the company which pays for the film is located.
For example, many U. S. movies are filmed in Canada, many Nigerian movies are filmed in Ghana, while many Indian movies are filmed in the Americas, Singapore etc. The cinema of the United States, often referred to as Hollywood, has had a profound effect on cinema across the world since the early 20th century. The United States cinema is the oldest film industry in the world which originated more than 121 years ago and the largest film industry in terms of revenue. Hollywood is the nexus of the U. S. film industry with established film study facilities such as the American Film Institute, LA Film School. However, four of the six film studios are owned by East Coast companies. Today, American film studios collectively generate several hundred movies every year, only The Walt Disney Company — which owns the Walt Disney Studios — is fully based in Southern California. And while Sony Pictures Entertainment is headquartered in Culver City, its parent company, most shooting now takes place in California, New York, Louisiana and North Carolina.
Hollywood is the most popular film industry with the highest number of screens, between 2009-2015, Hollywood consistently grossed $10 billion annually. Jenkins used his Phantoscope to project his film before an audience of family, the film featured a vaudeville dancer performing a Butterfly Dance. Jenkins and his new partner Thomas Armat modified the Phantoscope for exhibitions in temporary theaters at the Cotton States Exposition in the fall of 1895, the Phantoscope was sold to Thomas Edison, who changed the name of the projector to Edisons Vitascope. Nestor Studios was Hollywoods first movie studio, founded on October 27,1911 It was built by David Horsley for Nestor Motion Picture Company and it was owned and operated by David Horsley and his brother, William Horsley. The first motion picture stage in Hollywood was built behind the tavern, other East Coast studios had moved production to Los Angeles, prior to Nestors move west
In motion picture and television production, a sound effect is a sound recorded and presented to make a specific storytelling or creative point without the use of dialogue or music. The term often refers to a process applied to a recording, in professional motion picture and television production, dialogue and sound effects recordings are treated as separate elements. Dialogue and music recordings are never referred to as sound effects, even though the processes applied to such as reverberation or flanging effects, the term sound effect ranges back to the early days of radio. In its Year Book 1931 the BBC published an article about The Use of Sound Effects. It considers sounds effect deeply linked with broadcasting and states, It would be a mistake to think of them as anologous to punctuation marks. They should never be inserted into an already existing. The author of a broadcast play or broadcast construction ought to have used Sound Effects as bricks with which to build, treating them as of value with speech.
If it fails to do so its presence could not be justified, the sound of people talking in the background is considered a BG, but only if the speaker is unintelligible and the language is unrecognizable. These background noises are called ambience or atmos, Foley sound effects are sounds that synchronize on screen, and require the expertise of a foley artist to record properly. Footsteps, the movement of hand props, and the rustling of cloth are common foley units, design sound effects are sounds that do not normally occur in nature, or are impossible to record in nature. These sounds are used to suggest futuristic technology in a fiction film. Each of these sound effect categories is specialized, with sound editors known as specialists in an area of sound effects, Foley is another method of adding sound effects. With this technique the action onscreen is essentially recreated to try to match it as closely as possible, if done correctly it is very hard for audiences to tell what sounds were added and what sounds were originally recorded.
In the early days of film and radio, foley artists would add sounds in realtime or pre-recorded sound effects would be played back from analogue discs in realtime. Today, with effects held in digital format, it is easy to any required sequence to be played in any desired timeline. In the days of silent film, sound effects were added by the operator of an organ or photoplayer. Theater organ sound effects are usually electric or electro-pneumatic, and activated by a button pressed with the hand or foot, photoplayer operators activate sound effects either by flipping switches on the machine or pulling cow-tail pull-strings, which hang above. Sounds like bells and drums are made mechanically and horns electronically, due to its smaller size, a photoplayer usually has less special effects than a theater organ, or less complex ones
Principal photography is the phase of film production in which the movie is filmed, with actors on set and cameras rolling, as distinct from pre-production and post-production. Its start generally marks a point of no return for the financiers, feature films usually have insurance in place by the time principal photography begins. The death of a star before completing all planned takes. For example, sets are notoriously flammable, and most older studios feature water towers for that reason, professional-quality movie cameras are normally rented as needed, and most camera houses will not allow rentals of their equipment without proof of insurance. Once a film concludes principal photography, it is said to have wrapped, in these circumstances, additional material may have to be shot. If the material has already been shot once, or is substantial, the process is referred to as a re-shoot, learning materials related to Filmmaking at Wikiversity Media related to Filmmaking at Wikimedia Commons
Martha Campbell Plimpton is an American stage and television actress and former model. Her feature film debut was in The River Rat before rising to prominence in the Richard Donner film The Goonies and she has appeared in The Mosquito Coast, Running on Empty, Samantha, Raising Hope and Small Town Murder Songs. She is recognized on Broadway for her roles in The Coast of Utopia, Top Girls, Pal Joey and she has performed in theatre productions of The Playboy of the Western World, A Midsummer Nights Dream, The Glass Menagerie, The Sisters Rosensweig, and Uncle Vanya. She returned to Broadway in the fall of 2014 in a revival of A Delicate Balance co-starring Glenn Close, Plimpton currently stars in The Real ONeals, an ABC sitcom that premiered on March 2,2016. In 2009 Plimpton played as a helpless mom being robbed by two criminals in the music video Bully by Three Days Grace for their album Life Starts Now. Plimpton played Virginia Chance on the Fox sitcom Raising Hope, which earned her a Primetime Emmy Award nomination for Outstanding Lead Actress in a Comedy Series.
She has received three Tony Award nominations as well as a Primetime Emmy Award nomination for Outstanding Guest Actress in a Drama Series in 2002 and she won an Emmy for the same category in 2012 as attorney Patti Nyholm in the CBS legal drama The Good Wife. Plimpton was born in New York City and she is the daughter of actors Keith Carradine and Shelley Plimpton. Her parents met while performing in the original Broadway run of Hair and her paternal grandfather was actor John Carradine. She is a distant cousin of writer and editor George Plimpton. She attended the Professional Childrens School in Manhattan and her first stage appearance was when her mother brought her on stage in costume for the curtain call of the short-lived Broadway play The Leaf People another play in The Ass and the Heart. Plimpton began her career as a model, securing an early 1980s campaign for Calvin Klein, making an impression as a sophisticated and she made her feature film debut in 1981, when at the age of eleven, she had a small role in the film Rollover.
In 1984, she appeared in the Deep South drama The River Rat opposite Tommy Lee Jones and her breakthrough performance was as Stef Steinbrenner in the 1985 film The Goonies. She appeared that year on the sitcom Family Ties and this began Plimpton being cast in the role of a rebellious tomboy, beginning with her performance as the Reverend Spellgood s daughter in the 1986 film The Mosquito Coast, starring Harrison Ford. The critically praised but commercially unsuccessful 1987 film Shy People was followed by a performance in the 1988 ensemble comedy Stars and Bars and this was released shortly before Running on Empty, an Academy Award-nominated film starring River Phoenix, for which she was nominated for a Young Artist Award. She began a career making small independent film appearances with supporting roles in big-budget films and she appeared in the 1988 Woody Allen film Another Woman. She co-starred with Jami Gertz as a patient in the German film Zwei Frauen. The film was nominated for Outstanding Feature Film at the German Film Awards, Plimpton shaved her head to play a cancer patient in Zwei Frauen
A rehearsal is an activity in the performing arts that occurs as preparation for a performance in music, theatre and related arts, such as opera, musical theatre and film production. It is undertaken as a form of practising, to ensure that all details of the subsequent performance are adequately prepared and coordinated, the term rehearsal typically refers to ensemble activities undertaken by a group of people. The music rehearsal takes place in a rehearsal space. A rehearsal may involve as few as two people, as with a play for two actors, an art song performance by a singer and a pianist or a folk music duo of a singer. On the other end of the spectrum, a rehearsal can be held for a large orchestra with over 100 performers. Some small groups may have their rehearsals led by a bandleader, the dress rehearsal is a full-scale rehearsal where the actors and/or musicians perform every detail of the performance. For a theatrical performance, cast members wear their costumes, the actors may use props and backdrops, they do not use scripts, although the stage manager and director might.
For a musical performance, the dress rehearsal does not require wearing formal concert outfits, in theatre, a performing arts ensemble rehearses a work in preparation for performance before an audience. Rehearsals that occur early in the process are sometimes referred to as run-throughs. Abbreviated Q-2-Qs in which only the opening and closing sequences of each act or scene are performed is sometimes referred to as tops and it is rare for any but the most technically complex performances to have Q-2-Q rehearsals outside of technical week. Cue to cues are often preceded by a dry tech, in which the technicians rehearse their technical cues without the performers present at the rehearsal. A dress rehearsal is a rehearsal or series of rehearsals in which the ensemble dresses in costume, the entire performance will be run from beginning to end, exactly as the real performances will be, including pauses for intermissions. An open dress is a rehearsal to which specific individuals have been invited to attend as audience members.
They may include patrons and friends of the ensemble, the dress rehearsal is often the last set of rehearsals before the concert performance and falls at the end of technical week. Audience members typically pay a price to attend a preview performance. In traditional Japanese Noh theatre, performers primarily rehearse separately, only rehearsing together once and this is to emphasize the transience of the show, in the philosophy of ichi-go ichi-e, one chance, one meeting. A professional ensemble will typically only rehearse an orchestral work for two or three rehearsals which are several days before the first performance. A professional ensemble is much less likely than an orchestra to play the entire piece all the way through in the first rehearsals
Phoebe Cates Kline, better known as Phoebe Cates, is an American retired film actress and singer. She is known for her roles in several 1980s films, most notably Fast Times at Ridgemont High, Cates was born in New York City, to a family of television and Broadway production insiders. She is the daughter of Lily and Joseph Cates, who was a major Broadway producer and a figure in television. Her late uncle, Gilbert Cates, produced numerous specials, often in partnership with Catess father. Her father and maternal grandmother were Russian Jews, and her grandfather was Chinese-Filipino. Cates mother was born in Shanghai, Cates attended the Hewitt School, the Professional Childrens School and the Juilliard School. When she was ten, she wanted to become a dancer and she eventually got a scholarship to the School of American Ballet, but after suffering a serious knee injury at age 15, she gave up her dancing career. She next began a career as a model, which was short-lived. Cates, did not like the industry, It was just the same thing, after a while I did it solely for the money.
After ending her career, Cates decided to begin acting. Although her father was an actor as well, he was not enthusiastic about his daughters new acting career. Catess acting debut was at age 18 in Paradise, in which she played Sarah and did several full nude scenes in the movie and she sang the films main theme song, and recorded an album of the same name. In a 1982 interview, she recalled having trouble with the change of career, because as a model, she had to be conscious of the camera, whereas in front of the movie camera, she could not. Cates regretted being in the movie and said, What I learned was never to do a movie like that again, according to her co-star Willie Aames, She will have nothing to do with the film. She wont do any promotion with me, in 1982, Cates starred in Fast Times at Ridgemont High, which features what Rolling Stone described as the most memorable bikini-drop in cinema history. She was quoted as saying that she had the most fun in filming that movie, Catess film roles were more modest and largely oriented toward younger audiences, such as the two Gremlins films and the 1991 film Drop Dead Fred.
Her face graced the covers of teen magazines such as Seventeen, Tiger Beat, Teen Beat, in 1984, she starred in the TV mini-series Lace, based on a novel which Shirley Conran had written. She played the role of Lili to get away from a sameness in her movie portrayals, during her audition, she so impressed the writer that he wanted to hire her there and then
Post-production, or postproduction, is part of the process of filmmaking, video production, and photography. It occurs in the making of pictures, television programs, radio programs, audio recordings, photography. It is a term for all stages of production occurring after shooting or recording individual program segments, traditional post-production has been eroded away by video editing software that operates on a non-linear editing system. Post-production is many different processes grouped under one name and these typically include, Video editing the picture of a television program using an edit decision list Writing and editing the soundtrack. Adding visual special effects - mainly computer-generated imagery and digital copy from which release prints will be made, sound design, sound effects, ADR, and music, culminating in a process known as sound re-recording or mixing with professional audio equipment. Transfer of colour motion picture film to video or DPX with a telecine, the process of editing a movie is seen as the second directing because through post-production it is possible to change the intention of the movie.
Furthermore, through the use of color grading tools and the addition of music and sound, for instance, a blue-tinted movie is associated with a cold atmosphere and the choice of music and sound increases the effect of the shown scenes to the audience. Post-production was named a dying industry by Phil Izzo, the once exclusive service offered by high-end post-production facilities have been eroded away by video editing software that operates on a non-linear editing system. As such, traditional services are being surpassed by digital. In television, the phases of post-production include, video editing, sound editing and visual effects insertions, viewing and it is imperative that post-production executes and oversees the preparation until the final product is completely ready. Professional post-producers usually apply a certain range of image editing operations to the raw image format provided by a photographer or an image-bank, there is a range of proprietary and free and open-source software, running on a range of operating systems available to do this work.
The first stage of post-production usually requires loading the RAW images into the post-production software, if there is more than one image, and they belong to a set, ideally post-producers try to equalize the images before loading them. After that, if necessary, the step would be to cut the objects in the images with the Pen Tool for a perfect. The next stage would be cleaning the image using tools such as the tool, clone tool. The next stages depend on what the client ordered, if its a photo-montage, the post-producers would usually start assembling the different images into the final document, and start to integrate the images with the background. In advertising, it usually requires assembling several images together in a photo-composition, types of work usually done, Advertising that requires one background and one or more models. Fashion photography that usually requires a really heavy post-production for editorial and/or advertising, techniques used in music post-production include comping and pitch correction, and adding effects.
This process is referred to as mixing and can involve equalization
A screenplay or script is a written work by screenwriters for a film, video game, or television program. These screenplays can be original works or adaptations from existing pieces of writing, in them, the movement, actions and dialogues of the characters are narrated. A screenplay written for television is known as a teleplay, the format is structured in a way that one page usually equates to one minute of screen time. In a shooting script, each scene is numbered, and technical direction may be given, in a spec or a draft in various stages of development, the scenes are not numbered, and technical direction is at a minimum. The standard font for a screenplay is 12 point,10 pitch Courier Typeface, the major components are action and dialogue. The action is written in the present tense, the dialogue are the lines the characters speak. Unique to the screenplay is the use of slug lines, a slug line, called a master scene heading, occurs at the start of every scene, and is usually made up of three parts.
Part one states whether the scene is set inside outside, or both, Part two states location of the scene. Part three, separated from Part two by a hyphen, refers to the time of the scene, each slug line begins a new scene. In a shooting script, the lines are numbered consecutively. These scene numbers serve as mile-post markers in a script and this allows any part of the script to be referred to by scene number. In the United States letter size paper and Courier 12 point are mandatory, the tab settings of the scene elements, which constitute the screenplays layout. The dialogue must be centered and the names must be capitalized, a script usually begins with FADE IN, followed by the first scene description. It might get more specific, e. g. FADE IN ON AN ECU of Ricky as he explains the divorce to Bob, a script will usually end with FADE TO BLACK, though there are variables, like CUT TO BLACK for abrupt endings. The style consists of a grammar that is specific to screenplays and this grammar consists of two aspects, A prose that is manifestation-oriented, i. e. focuses largely on what is audible and what is visible on screen.
This prose may only supply interpretations and explanation if clarity would otherwise be adversely affected, American screenplays are printed single-sided on three-hole-punched paper using the standard American letter size. They are together with two brass brads in the top and bottom hole. The middle hole is left empty as it would make it harder to quickly read the script