World War I
World War I known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously described as "the war to end all wars", it led to the mobilisation of more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, making it one of the largest wars in history, it is one of the deadliest conflicts in history, with an estimated nine million combatants and seven million civilian deaths as a direct result of the war, while resulting genocides and the 1918 influenza pandemic caused another 50 to 100 million deaths worldwide. On 28 June 1914, Gavrilo Princip, a Bosnian Serb Yugoslav nationalist, assassinated the Austro-Hungarian heir Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo, leading to the July Crisis. In response, on 23 July Austria-Hungary issued an ultimatum to Serbia. Serbia's reply failed to satisfy the Austrians, the two moved to a war footing. A network of interlocking alliances enlarged the crisis from a bilateral issue in the Balkans to one involving most of Europe.
By July 1914, the great powers of Europe were divided into two coalitions: the Triple Entente—consisting of France and Britain—and the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy. Russia felt it necessary to back Serbia and, after Austria-Hungary shelled the Serbian capital of Belgrade on the 28th, partial mobilisation was approved. General Russian mobilisation was announced on the evening of 30 July; when Russia failed to comply, Germany declared war on 1 August in support of Austria-Hungary, with Austria-Hungary following suit on 6th. German strategy for a war on two fronts against France and Russia was to concentrate the bulk of its army in the West to defeat France within four weeks shift forces to the East before Russia could mobilise. On 2 August, Germany demanded free passage through Belgium, an essential element in achieving a quick victory over France; when this was refused, German forces invaded Belgium on 3 August and declared war on France the same day. On 12 August and France declared war on Austria-Hungary.
In November 1914, the Ottoman Empire entered the war on the side of the Alliance, opening fronts in the Caucasus and the Sinai Peninsula. The war was fought in and drew upon each power's colonial empire as well, spreading the conflict to Africa and across the globe; the Entente and its allies would become known as the Allied Powers, while the grouping of Austria-Hungary and their allies would become known as the Central Powers. The German advance into France was halted at the Battle of the Marne and by the end of 1914, the Western Front settled into a battle of attrition, marked by a long series of trench lines that changed little until 1917. In 1915, Italy opened a front in the Alps. Bulgaria joined the Central Powers in 1915 and Greece joined the Allies in 1917, expanding the war in the Balkans; the United States remained neutral, although by doing nothing to prevent the Allies from procuring American supplies whilst the Allied blockade prevented the Germans from doing the same the U. S. became an important supplier of war material to the Allies.
After the sinking of American merchant ships by German submarines, the revelation that the Germans were trying to incite Mexico to make war on the United States, the U. S. declared war on Germany on 6 April 1917. Trained American forces would not begin arriving at the front in large numbers until mid-1918, but the American Expeditionary Force would reach some two million troops. Though Serbia was defeated in 1915, Romania joined the Allied Powers in 1916 only to be defeated in 1917, none of the great powers were knocked out of the war until 1918; the 1917 February Revolution in Russia replaced the Tsarist autocracy with the Provisional Government, but continuing discontent at the cost of the war led to the October Revolution, the creation of the Soviet Socialist Republic, the signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk by the new government in March 1918, ending Russia's involvement in the war. This allowed the transfer of large numbers of German troops from the East to the Western Front, resulting in the German March 1918 Offensive.
This offensive was successful, but the Allies rallied and drove the Germans back in their Hundred Days Offensive. Bulgaria was the first Central Power to sign an armistice—the Armistice of Salonica on 29 September 1918. On 30 October, the Ottoman Empire capitulated. On 4 November, the Austro-Hungarian empire agreed to the Armistice of Villa Giusti after being decisively defeated by Italy in the Battle of Vittorio Veneto. With its allies defeated, revolution at home, the military no longer willing to fight, Kaiser Wilhelm abdicated on 9 November and Germany signed an armistice on 11 November 1918. World War I was a significant turning point in the political, cultural and social climate of the world; the war and its immediate aftermath sparked numerous uprisings. The Big Four (Britain, the United States, It
Sofia Villani Scicolone, known professionally as Sophia Loren, is an Italian film actress and singer. Encouraged to enroll in acting lessons after entering a beauty pageant, Loren began her film career at age 16 in 1950, she appeared in several bit parts and minor roles in the early part of the decade, until her five-picture contract with Paramount in 1956 launched her international career. Notable film appearances around this time include The Pride and the Passion, It Started in Naples, her talents as an actress were not recognized until her performance as Cesira in Vittorio De Sica's Two Women. She holds the record for having earned six David di Donatello Awards for Best Actress: Two Women. After starting a family in the early 1970s, Loren chose to make only occasional film appearances. In years, she has appeared in American films such as Grumpier Old Men and Nine. Aside from the Academy Award, she has won a Grammy Award, five special Golden Globes, a BAFTA Award, a Laurel Award, the Volpi Cup for Best Actress at the Venice Film Festival, the Best Actress Award at the Cannes Film Festival, the Honorary Academy Award in 1991.
In 1995, she received the Golden Globe Cecil B. DeMille Award for lifetime achievements, one of many such awards. In 1999, Loren was named by the American Film Institute as one of the 25 greatest female stars of Classic Hollywood Cinema, she is the only living actress on the list. Sofia Villani Scicolone was born on 20 September 1934 in the Clinica Regina Margherita in Rome, the daughter of Romilda Villani and Riccardo Scicolone, a construction engineer of noble descent. Loren's father Riccardo Scicolone refused to marry Villani, leaving the piano teacher and aspiring actress without financial support. Loren met with her father three times, at age five, age seventeen and in 1976 at his deathbed, citing that she forgave him but had never forgotten the abandonment of her mother. Loren's parents had another child together, her sister Maria, in 1938. Loren has two younger paternal half-brothers and Giuseppe. Romilda and Maria lived with Loren's grandmother in Pozzuoli, near Naples. During the Second World War, the harbour and munitions plant in Pozzuoli was a frequent bombing target of the Allies.
During one raid, as Loren ran to the shelter, she was wounded in the chin. After that, the family moved to Naples. After the war and her family returned to Pozzuoli. Loren's grandmother Luisa opened a pub in their living room. Romilda Villani played the piano, Maria sang, Loren waited on tables and washed dishes; the place was popular with the American GIs stationed nearby. At age 16, Loren as Sofia Lazzaro entered the Miss Italia 1950 beauty pageant and was assigned as Candidate #2, being one to the four sharing contestants representing the Lazio region, she was selected as one of the last three finalists and won the title of “Miss Elegance 1950”, while Liliana Cardinale won the title of “Miss Cinema” and Anna Maria Bugliari won the grand title of Miss Italia. In 2010, Loren returned as a judge in the 71st Miss Italia pageant. At age 17, as Sofia Lazzaro, she enrolled in acting class and was selected as an uncredited extra in Mervyn LeRoy's 1951 film Quo Vadis, filmed when she was 17 years old.
That same year, she appeared in Italian film Era lui... sì! sì!, where she played an odalisque, was credited as Sofia Lazzaro. She appeared in several bit parts and minor roles in the early part of the decade, including the La Favorita. Carlo Ponti changed her name and public image to appeal to a wider audience as Sophia Loren, being a twist on the name of the Swedish actress Märta Torén and suggested by Goffredo Lombardo, her first starring role was in Aida. After playing the lead role in Two Nights with Cleopatra, her breakthrough role was in The Gold of Naples, directed by Vittorio De Sica. Too Bad She's Bad released in 1954, became the first of many films in which Loren co-starred with Marcello Mastroianni. Over the next three years, she acted in many films, including Scandal in Sorrento, Lucky to Be a Woman, Boy on a Dolphin, Legend of the Lost and The Pride and the Passion. Loren became an international film star following her five-picture contract with Paramount Pictures in 1958. Among her films at this time were Desire Under the Elms with Anthony Perkins, based upon the Eugene O'Neill play.
In 1960, she starred in Vittorio De Sica's Two Women, a stark, gritty story of a mother, trying to protect her 12-year-old daughter in war-torn Italy. The two end up gang-raped inside a church as they travel back to their home city following cessation of bombings there. Cast as the daughter, Loren fought against type and was cast as the mother. Loren's performance earned her many awards, including the Cannes Film Festival's best performance prize, an Academy Award for Best Actress, the first major Academy Award for a non-English-language perf
Sir Thomas Sean Connery is a retired Scottish actor and producer, who has won an Academy Award, two BAFTA Awards, one being a BAFTA Academy Fellowship Award, three Golden Globes, including the Cecil B. DeMille Award and a Henrietta Award. Connery was the first actor to portray the character James Bond in film, starring in seven Bond films, between 1962 and 1983. In 1988, Connery won the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor for his role in The Untouchables, his film career includes such films as Marnie, The Name of the Rose, The Man Who Would Be King, Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade, The Hunt for Red October, Finding Forrester, Murder on the Orient Express and The Rock. Connery has been polled in The Sunday Herald as "The Greatest Living Scot" and in a EuroMillions survey as "Scotland's Greatest Living National Treasure", he was voted by People magazine as both the “Sexiest Man Alive” in 1989 and the “Sexiest Man of the Century” in 1999. Connery was knighted in the 2000 New Year Honours for services to film drama.
Thomas Sean Connery, named Thomas after his grandfather, was born in Fountainbridge, Scotland on 25 August 1930. His mother, Euphemia McBain "Effie", was a cleaning woman, his father, Joseph Connery, was a factory worker and lorry driver, his paternal grandfather's parents emigrated to Scotland from Ireland in the mid-19th century. The remainder of his family was of Scottish descent, his maternal great-grandparents were native Scottish Gaelic speakers from Fife, Uig on Skye, his father was a Roman Catholic, his mother was a Protestant. He has Neil. Connery has said that he was called Sean, his middle name, long before becoming an actor, explaining that when he was young he had an Irish friend named Séamus and that those who knew them both had decided to call Connery by his middle name whenever both were present, he was referred to in his youth as "Tommy". Although he was small in primary school, he grew around the age of 12, reaching his full adult height of 6 ft 2 in at 18, he was known during his teen years as "Big Tam", has stated that he lost his virginity to an adult woman in an ATS uniform at the age of 14.
Connery's first job was as a milkman in Edinburgh with St. Cuthbert's Co-operative Society. In 2009, Connery recalled a conversation in a taxi: When I took a taxi during a recent Edinburgh Film Festival, the driver was amazed that I could put a name to every street we passed. "How come?" he asked. "As a boy I used to deliver milk round here," I said. "So what do you do now?" That was rather harder to answer. Connery joined the Royal Navy, during which time he acquired two tattoos, of which his official website says "unlike many tattoos, his were not frivolous—his tattoos reflect two of his lifelong commitments: his family and Scotland.... One tattoo is a tribute to his parents and reads'Mum and Dad,' and the other is self-explanatory,'Scotland Forever.'"Connery was discharged from the navy on medical grounds because of a duodenal ulcer, a condition that affected most of the males in previous generations of his family. Afterwards, he returned to the co-op worked as, among other things, a lorry driver, a lifeguard at Portobello swimming baths, a labourer, an artist's model for the Edinburgh College of Art, after a suggestion by former Mr. Scotland, Archie Brennan, a coffin polisher.
The modelling earned him 15 shillings an hour. Artist Richard Demarco, at the time a student who painted several early pictures of Connery, described him as "very straight shy, too beautiful for words, a virtual Adonis". Connery began bodybuilding at the age of 18, from 1951 trained with Ellington, a former gym instructor in the British army. While his official website claims he was third in the 1950 Mr. Universe contest, most sources place him in the 1953 competition, either third in the Junior class or failing to place in the Tall Man classification. Connery stated that he was soon deterred from bodybuilding when he found that the Americans beat him in competitions because of sheer muscle size and, unlike Connery, refused to participate in athletic activity which could make them lose muscle mass. Connery was a keen footballer, he was offered a trial with East Fife. While on tour with South Pacific, Connery played in a football match against a local team that Matt Busby, manager of Manchester United, happened to be scouting.
According to reports, Busby was impressed with his physical prowess and offered Connery a contract worth £25 a week after the game. Connery admits that he was tempted to accept, but he recalls, "I realised that a top-class footballer could be over the hill by the age of 30, I was 23. I decided to become an actor and it turned out to be one of my more intelligent moves." Looking to pick up some extra money, Connery helped out backstage at the King's Theatre in late 1951. He became interested in the proceedings, a career was launched. During a bodybuilding competition held in London in 1953, one of the competitors mentioned that auditions were being held for a production of South Pacific, Connery landed a small part as one of the Seabees chorus boys. By the time the production reached Edinburgh, he had been given the part of Marine Cpl Hamilton Steeves and was understudying two of the juvenile leads, his salary was raised from £12 to £14–10s a week; the production returned the following year out of popular demand, Connery was promoted to the featured role of Lieutenant Buzz Adams, which Larry Hagman had
Cufflinks are items of jewelry that are used to secure the cuffs of dress shirts. Cufflinks can be manufactured from a variety of different materials, such as glass, leather, precious metal or combinations of these. Securing of the cufflinks is achieved via toggles or reverses based on the design of the front section, which can be folded into position. There are variants with chains or a rigid, bent rear section; the front sections of the cufflinks can be decorated with gemstones, inset material or enamel and designed in two or three-dimensional form. Cufflinks are designed only for use with shirts which have cuffs with buttonholes on both sides but no buttons; these may be either single or double-length cuffs, may be worn either "kissing", with both edges pointing outward, or "barrel-style", with one edge pointing outward and the other one inward so that its hem is overlapped. In the US, the "barrel-style" was popularized by a famous 19th-century entertainer and clown, Dan Rice. Cufflink designs vary with the most traditional the "double-panel", consisting of a short post or chain connecting two disc-shaped parts, both decorated.
Whale-back and toggle-back cufflinks have a flat decorated face for one side, while the other side shows only the swivel-bar and its post. The swivel bar is placed vertically to put the links on and off horizontally to hold them in place when worn; the decorated face on the most visible side is larger. Links of knotted brightly coloured silk enjoyed renewed popularity in the 1990s, joined by an elasticated section; the visible part of a cufflink is monogrammed or decorated in some way, such as with a birthstone or something which reflects a hobby or association. There are numerous styles including traditional, or contemporary. Cufflinks can and have been worn with casual wear, informal attire or business suits, all the way to dressy styles such as semi-formal, formal wear, where they become required and are matched with shirt studs. Colourful and whimsical cufflink designs are only suitable for casual and informal events, signals someone, fun-loving and friendly. However, formal wear has stricter expectations, with pearl cufflinks being preferred for white tie events Traditionally it was considered important to coordinate the metal of one's cufflinks with other jewelry such as watch case, belt buckle, tie bar or rings.
Sartorial experts prescribe gold to be worn during the daytime and silver for evening wear, but neither expectation is considered as critical as it once was. An alternative type of cufflink is the cheaper silk knot, two conjoined monkey's fist or Turk's head knots; the Paris shirtmaker Charvet is credited with their introduction in 1904. They became popular: "Charvet buttons of twisted braid are quite the style" noted The New York Times in 1908. French cuff shirts are accompanied with a set of colour-coordinated silk knots instead of double-button cufflinks, they are now not from silk, consist of a fabric over an elasticated core. Owing to the popularity of this fashion, metal cufflinks shaped to look like a silk knot are worn. Interchangeable cufflinks have started to come back in to the marketplace in recent years. Cartier introduced their type in the 1960's consisting of a bar with a loop at either end that would allow a motif to be inserted at either end perpendicular to the bar. Cartier referred to the interchangeable motifs as batons.
A set including the bars would come with batons made from coral, lapis lazuli, rock crystal, tiger's eye and malachite. Bars would have been made from sterling silver or 18k gold. Cartier re-introduced these interchangeable cufflinks with batons made from striped chalcedony, silver obsidian, malachite and red tiger’s eye; the accompanying bars are made from 18k palladium plated sterling silver. The securing mechanism is the same for either series using a small screw inset in to the looped end of the bar; the pressure exerted a by the screw on the baton holds them in place. Another type of interchangeable system was created by co.. The patent-pending cufflink system comes apart allowing the motif, referred to as an anker, to slide on. Putting the cufflink back together secures the anker into the cufflink allowing it to be worn. Pranga & co's cufflink is simple and similar in concept to charm bracelet bead systems popularized by companies like Pandora Jewelry; the ankers used in the cufflinks are interchangeable with various charm bracelets systems and visa-versa.
Although the first cufflinks appeared in the 1600s, they did not become common until the end of the 18th century. Their development is related to that of the men's shirt. Men have been wearing shirt-like items of clothing since the invention of woven fabric 5,000 years BC. Although styles and methods of manufacturing changed, the underlying form remained the same: a tunic opened to the front with sleeves and collar; the shirt was worn directly next to the skin, it was washable and thereby protected the outer garments from contact with the body. Conversely, it protected the skin against the rougher and heavier fabrics of jackets and coats by
Ready-to-wear or prêt-à-porter is the term for factory-made clothing, sold in finished condition in standardized sizes, as distinct from made to measure or bespoke clothing tailored to a particular person's frame. Off-the-peg is sometimes used for items other than clothing such as handbags. Ready-to-wear has rather different place in the spheres of fashion and classic clothing. In the fashion industry, designers produce ready-to-wear clothing, intended to be worn without significant alteration because clothing made to standard sizes fits most people, they use standard patterns, factory equipment, faster construction techniques to keep costs low, compared to a custom-sewn version of the same item. Some fashion houses and fashion designers produce mass-produced and industrially manufactured ready-to-wear lines but others offer garments that are not unique but are produced in limited numbers. Ready-to-wear military uniforms were mass-produced in the United States during the War of 1812. High-quality ready-to-wear garments for men became available soon thereafter, as the simple, flattering cuts and muted tones of the contemporary fashion made proportionate sizing possible in mass production.
In 1868, Isidore and Modeste Dewachter offered ready-to-wear clothing for men and children to Belgian clientele when they opened the first chain department stores, Dewachter frères. By 1904, the chain was managed by Isidore's son and had grown to 20 cities and towns in Belgium and France, with some cities having multiple stores. Louis Dewachter became an internationally known landscape artist, painting under the pseudonym Louis Dewis. In the early 19th century, women's fashion was ornate and dependent on a precise fit, so ready-to-wear garments for women did not become available until the beginning of the 20th century. Before, women would alter their styled clothing in order to stay up to date with fashion trends. Women with larger incomes purchased new tailored clothing in current styles while middle-class and lower-class women adjusted their clothing to fit changes in fashion by adding new neck collars, shortening skirts, or cinching shirt waists; the widespread adoption of ready-to wear clothing reflected a variety of factors including economic disparities, a desire for an independent fashion industry, an increase in media attention.
The demand for affordable and fashionable women's clothing sparked designers and department stores to manufacture clothing in bulk quantities that were accessible to women of all classes and incomes. Through the emergence of the US ready-to-wear market, designers like Chanel with their shift dress or the mail-order catalogs sent to rural farms by Sears allowed women to purchase clothing faster and at a cheaper price. Another significant factor created by the ready-to-wear industry was the US development of a style independent from Europe; the US fashion market turned away from Parisian style in favor of an individualized apparel industry promoted through advertisements and articles in magazines like Women's Wear Daily, Harper’s Bazaar, Ladies Home Journal. Ready-to-wear sparked new interests in health and diet as manufactured clothing set specific, standardized sizes in attire in order to increase quantities for profit. Women of larger sizes had difficulties finding apparel in department stores, as most manufacturers maintained and sold the limited sizes across the nation.
Overall ready-to-wear fashion exposed women to the newest styles and fashion trends, leading to a substantial increase in profits by US factories from $12,900,583 in 1876 to $1,604,500,957 in 1929. The ready-to-wear fashion revolution led to an expansion of the US fashion industry that made fashionable apparel accessible, cost effective, commensurable. Interest in ready to wear was sparked by democratizing influences in fashion including the works of Yves Saint Laurent. Fashion houses that produce a women's haute couture line, such as Chanel, Dior and Saint Laurent produce a ready-to-wear line, which returns a greater profit because of the higher volume of garments made and the greater availability of the clothing; the construction of ready-to-wear clothing is held to a different standard than that of haute couture due to its industrial nature. High-end ready-to-wear lines are sometimes based upon a famous gown or other pattern, duplicated and advertised to raise the visibility of the designer.
In high-end fashion, ready-to-wear collections are presented by fashion houses each season during a period known as Fashion Week. This takes place on a city-by-city basis, the most prominent of these include London, New York and Paris, are held twice a year—the Fall/Winter shows take place in February, the Spring/Summer collections are shown in September. Smaller lines including the Cruise and Pre-Fall collections, which add to the retail value of a brand, are presented separately at the fashion designer's discretion. Ready-to-wear fashion weeks occur separately and earlier than those of haute couture
A cuff is a layer of fabric at the lower edge of the sleeve of a garment at the wrist, or at the ankle end of a trouser leg. The function of turned-back cuffs is to protect the cloth of the garment from fraying, when frayed, to allow the cuffs to be repaired or replaced, without changing the garment. Cuffs are made by turning back the material, or a separate band of material can be sewn on, or worn separately, attached either by buttons or studs. A cuff may have lace or some other trimming. In US usage, the word trouser cuffs refers to the folded, finished bottoms of the legs of a pair of trousers. Between the 15th and 18th centuries, rich men wore sleeve cuffs ornamented with fine lace. Still today, Catholic clergy have the cuffs of their choir dress ornamented with fine lace. Except on casual attire, shirt cuffs are divided down one edge and fastened together, so they can let a hand through and fit more snugly around the wrist; some sweaters and athletic garments have cuffs that either contain elastic or are woven so as to stretch around a hand or foot and still fit snugly, accomplishing the same purpose.
Divided shirt cuffs are of three kinds, depending on how they fasten: Button cuffs called barrel cuffs, have buttonholes on the one side and buttons on the other. Link cuffs, which have buttonholes on both sides and are meant to be closed with cufflinks or silk knots, they are most fastened in either the "kissing" style, where the insides of both sides are pressed together, or unusually with the outer face touching the inner face, as with a button cuff. Link cuffs come in two kinds: Single cuffs, the original linked cuff, are required for white tie and are the more traditional choice for black tie; some traditionalists may wear this style with lounge suits as well. French, or double, are twice as long and worn folded back on themselves. French cuffs were once considered to be more formal than button cuffs, although they are seeing a resurgence in business wear in Europe. Though traditionally French cuffs could only be worn with a lounge suit or more formal clothing, this is now not followed by most, while some wear these cuffs without a tie or jacket.
They remain the preferred choice for semi-formal, occations. French cuffs should be paired with cufflinks. Convertible cuffs may be closed with cufflinks. Anatomy of the single or double cuff: The fabric is folded back onto itself, thus the inside of the shirt sleeve becomes the outside of the cuff and the outside of the shirt sleeve, becomes the inside of the cuff. Most trouser legs are finished by hemming the bottom to prevent fraying. Trousers with turn-ups, after hemming, are rolled outward and sometimes pressed or stitched into place; the functional reason for the cuffs is to add weight to the bottom of the leg, to help the drape of the trousers. Parents may use cuffs to extend the life of children's clothes by buying pants that are too long, cuffing the leg and unrolling it as the child grows. However, it started as men rolling up their trousers to avoid getting mud splashed on them when roads were still unpaved. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, young people in some countries would fold or roll the bottoms of their pants.
This "tight-rolled pants" or "pegged pants" fad made a comeback in the 2010s, beginning in London. The buttons and buttonholes at the end of suit jacket sleeves are decorative and non-functional. "Surgeon’s cuffs" can be opened at the wrist, are traditionally associated with bespoke tailoring
A sleeping bag is an insulated covering for a person a lightweight quilt that can be closed with a zipper or similar means to form a tube, which functions as lightweight, portable bedding in situations where a person is sleeping outdoors. Its primary purpose is to provide warmth and thermal insulation through its synthetic or down insulation, it typically has a water-resistant or water-repellent cover that protects, to some extent, against wind chill and light precipitation, but a tent is used in addition to a sleeping bag, as it performs those functions better. The bottom surface provides some cushioning, but a sleeping pad or camp cot is used in addition for that purpose; the bottom surface of a sleeping bag may be moderately water repellent, but a plastic tarp or groundsheet is used to protect against moist ground. There are a range of sleeping bag models designed for different purposes. Insulated sleeping bags are designed for summer camping use or for indoor use by children during slumber parties.
Well-insulated bags are designed for cold weather use. The most well-insulated and lightweight sleeping bags, which are designed for serious hikers and adventurers, are more expensive than insulated sleeping bags. One subcategory of cold-weather sleeping bag, the mummy bag, is so named because it has an insulated hood for the head. A bivouac sack is a waterproof cover for a sleeping bag that may be used in place of a tent by minimalist, experienced hikers. A bivy bag may be carried by day hikers as a backup or emergency shelter, to be used if they cannot make it back to their starting point by nightfall due to inclement weather or getting lost; the "Euklisia Rug", from Ancient Greek εὖ and κλισία, patented by mail-order pioneer Pryce Pryce-Jones in 1876, may have been the first forerunner of the modern sleeping bag. Pryce-Jones, a Newtown, Montgomeryshire Welsh entrepreneur developed the bag and exported around the world in the late 19th century. Documents show he sold 60,000 of these rugs to the Russian army - and the British army bought them.
There are records of civilian uses too - among missionaries in Africa and pioneers in the Australian outback. A basic sleeping bag is a square blanket or quilt, fitted with a zipper on two or three sides, which enables users to get into the bag and close it up. A sleeping bag of this type is packed by being folded in half or thirds, rolled up, bound with straps or cords with cord locks; the basic design works well for most camping needs but is inadequate under more demanding circumstances. The second major type of sleeping bag, sometimes called a mummy bag because of its shape, is different in a number of important ways, it tapers from the head end to the foot end, reducing its volume and surface area, improving its overall heat retention properties. Some bags are designed to accommodate women's body shapes. Most mummy bags do not unzip all the way to the feet, because the zipper is a weak point in any sleeping bag's insulating qualities. Together with the tapered shape, this design feature helps protect the feet, which are more vulnerable to heat loss than other parts of the body.
Another design feature is a drawstring, equipped with a cord lock, at the head end to help prevent the escape of warm air. A mummy bag cannot be rolled like a rectangular bag. Instead, it is stuffed into a stuff sack or compression sack; the bottom of a sleeping bag does not provide significant insulation, because body weight crushes the loft of the insulation material. It is therefore necessary to use a pad or other less crush-able insulation underneath the sleeper in cold weather. Due to this, some sleeping bags do not include insulation on the bottom; some include a sleeve for holding a sleeping pad. Additionally, some campers ultralight backpackers or hammock campers, have started to use a top quilt a sleeping bag without a back; some top quilts include a foot box. Many insulating materials are available for sleeping bags. Inexpensive sleeping bags for warm weather use or use by children indoors have a layer of synthetic quilt insulation. Outdoor professionals and serious amateur adventurers prefer either synthetic fill, or natural fill, they have debated the merits of these materials for years.
Synthetic fill does not absorb water and provides some warmth when soaked. These properties may save the owner's life if, for example, the sleeping bag is accidentally dropped into water on a cold day. Synthetic material is firm and resilient, so it insulates well underneath a person's weight. On the flipside, synthetic fill cannot be compressed as much as down and it weighs more, causing such bags to take up more space and weight when not in use. Furthermore, synthetic insulation tends to break down faster than its natural counterpart. Down fill weighs less than synthetic and retains heat better, but costs more. Down must be kept dry. Newer, more technically advanced sleeping bags have water-resistant shells and can be used in damper conditions, it is recommended to keep a sleeping bag in a larger sack as opposed to the small traveling sack during long periods of storage. However, many regular backpackers and hikers agree that hanging a sleeping bag, taking care to move the position of the bag on the hanger at intervals so as to not create a "dead spot"