The Austin A35 is a small family car, sold by Austin from 1956 until 1968. About 280,897 A35s of all types were produced. Introduced in 1956, it replaced the successful Austin A30; the name reflected the larger and more powerful 34 hp A-Series inline-four engine, enabling a higher top speed and better acceleration. The A35 is similar in appearance to the A30, except for a larger rear window aperture and a painted front grille, with chrome horse-shoe surround, instead of the chrome grille on the A30. Both have 13 in wheels; the semaphore turn-signal indicators were replaced with modern front- and rear-mounted flashing lights. A easier to operate remote-control gear-change was provided. Much of the improved performance is a result of different gearbox ratios; the A30 has the first three ratios close together a big gap to top. The A35's ratios give a higher speed in third gear. Like the A30, the A35 was offered as a two- or four-door saloon and two-door "Countryman" estate and as a van; the latter model continued in production through to 1968.
A rare coupe utility version was produced in 1956, with just 477 sold. Drawings were made for a sports tourer, but no prototype was built; the A35 passenger cars were replaced by the new body shape A40 Farina models in 1959 but the estate car version continued until 1962 and van until 1968. A two-door de luxe saloon with the 948 cc engine was tested by the British Motor magazine in 1956 and was found to have a top speed of 71.9 mph and could accelerate from 0-60 mph in 30.1 seconds. A fuel consumption of 41.5 miles per imperial gallon was recorded. Referring to the A35, from Staton Abbey; the Book of the Austin A30 and A35. Pitman Press: pp 148. ".... The new cars were proved by tests carried out on the German autobahnen, during which drivers of much larger cars were astonished to be passed by three small Austins which were being driven flat out all day, averaging 60 mph for 25000 miles!......" ".....a privately-owned works-tuned A35 was driven for seven days around the Montlhéry track, near Paris, in a record-breaking run at an average speed of 75 mph, covering nearly 12500 miles...."
With standard fit of drums all round, in both the A30 and the A35, the front hydraulic with rear hydro-mechanical brakes needed regular adjustment to keep the stopping distances reasonably short. The A35 was quite successful in 1950s saloon car racing, until supplanted by the Farina A40, but some still appear in historic events. In recent years a special Academy class of racing has been introduced by the HRDC, featuring A30 and A35 saloons; these cars feature sealed 1275 cc Marina engines, are a restricted class, meaning that owners are limited to a specific range of parts from specified suppliers. A model of an A35 van features in the 2005 Aardman Animations movie, Wallace & Gromit: The Curse of the Were-Rabbit, another was seen in A Matter of Loaf and Death. In 2009, as part of the show put on in the exhibition "Wallace & Gromit present a World of Cracking Ideas" at the Science Museum in London, a real A35 van was mocked up to look like the model used in the film. A 1959 4-door model was used as Beauregard's taxi in The Great Muppet Caper.
Former politician, the right honourable Ann Widdecombe, has appeared in two BBC television programmes reliving and recounting her childhood holidays in an A35. The first was a segment in The One Show where she and Christine Walkden took a trip in an A35. Ann appeared again with the same car in series 1 of Holiday of My Lifetime, this time alongside Len Goodman. In the French movie Oscar, the second most successful film in France in 1967, starring Louis de Funès and Claude Rich, the latter can be seen driving a black A35 2-door saloon throughout the opening credits, driving through Paris in the early morning hours. In a 1985/86 RTE Irish language programme Dilin ó dheamhas, an A35 countryman is seen being driven by a character called Dado. Saloons A2S5: 100,284, Saloons AS5: 28,961, Saloons Total: 129,245 Van & Countryman, AV5 & AP5: 138,356 Van AV6: 13,222 Countryman AP6: 74 Van AV8: 45,685 Van AV8: 14,230 Pick-up: 477 CKD 13,320 Total: 354,609 1956–62 - 948 cc A-Series I4, 34 hp at 4,750 rpm and 50 lb·ft at 2,000 rpm 1962–66 - 1,098 cc A-Series I4, 55 hp at 5,500 rpm and 61 lb·ft at 2,500 rpm 1963–68 - 848 cc A-Series I4, 34 hp at 5500rpm and 44 lb·ft at 2,900rpm Post War Baby Austins Sharratt, Barney ISBN 0-85045-710-6 Austin A30 & A35 Super Profile, Kim, Haynes Publishing Group ISBN 0-85429-469-4 Austin A30 & A35 1951 - 1962, Brooklands Books, ISBN 0-907073-70-0 Allen, Michael.
British Family Cars of the Fifties. Haynes Publishing Group. ISBN 0-85429-471-6. Austin Memories—History of Austin and Longbridge http://www.austina30a35ownersclub.co.uk
The Motor was a British weekly car magazine founded on 28 January 1903 and published by Temple Press. It was launched as Motorcycling and Motoring in 1902 before the title was shortened. From the March 14, 1964 issue the magazine name was Motor. In 1988 the journal was absorbed by its long-standing rival Autocar, which became, from the September 7 issue, Autocar & Motor. Six years with the September 21, 1994 issue, the name reverted to Autocar
Tata Motors Limited is an Indian multinational automotive manufacturing company headquartered in Mumbai. It is a subsidiary of an Indian conglomerate, its products include passenger cars, vans, buses, sports cars, construction equipment and military vehicles. Tata Motors has auto manufacturing and assembly plants in Jamshedpur, Lucknow, Sanand and Pune in India, as well as in Argentina, South Africa, Great Britain and Thailand, it has research and development centres in Pune, Jamshedpur and Dharwad, India and in South Korea, Great Britain and Spain. Tata Motors' principal subsidiaries purchased the English premium car maker Jaguar Land Rover and the South Korean commercial vehicle manufacturer Tata Daewoo. Tata Motors has a bus-manufacturing joint venture with Marcopolo S. A. a construction-equipment manufacturing joint venture with Hitachi, a joint venture with Fiat Chrysler which manufactures automotive components and Fiat Chrysler and Tata branded vehicles. Founded in 1945 as a manufacturer of locomotives, the company manufactured its first commercial vehicle in 1954 in a collaboration with Daimler-Benz AG, which ended in 1969.
Tata Motors entered the passenger vehicle market in 1988 with the launch of the TataMobile followed by the Tata Sierra in 1991, becoming the first Indian manufacturer to achieve the capability of developing a competitive indigenous automobile. In 1998, Tata launched the first indigenous Indian passenger car, the Indica, in 2008 launched the Tata Nano, the world's cheapest car. Tata Motors acquired the South Korean truck manufacturer Daewoo Commercial Vehicles Company in 2004 and purchased Jaguar Land Rover from Ford in 2008. Tata Motors is listed on the Bombay Stock Exchange, where it is a constituent of the BSE SENSEX index, the National Stock Exchange of India, the New York Stock Exchange; the company is ranked 226th on the Fortune Global 500 list of the world's biggest corporations as of 2016. On 17 January 2017, Natarajan Chandrasekaran was appointed chairman of the company Tata Group. Tata Group entered the commercial vehicle sector in 1954 after forming a joint venture with Daimler-Benz of Germany.
After years of dominating the commercial vehicle market in India, Tata Motors entered the passenger vehicle market in 1991 by launching the Tata Sierra, a sport utility vehicle based on the Tata Mobile platform. Tata subsequently launched the Tata Sumo and the Tata Safari. Tata launched the Indica in 1998, the first indigenous Indian passenger car. Although criticized by auto analysts, its excellent fuel economy, powerful engine, an aggressive marketing strategy made it one of the best-selling cars in the history of the Indian automobile industries. A newer version of the car, named Indica V2, was a major improvement over the previous version and became a mass favourite. Tata Motors successfully exported large numbers of the car to South Africa; the success of the Indica played a key role in the growth of Tata Motors. In 2004, Tata Motors acquired Daewoo's South Korea-based truck manufacturing unit, Daewoo Commercial Vehicles Company renamed Tata Daewoo. On 27 September 2004, Tata Motors rang the opening bell at the New York Stock Exchange to mark the listing of Tata Motors.
In 2005, Tata Motors acquired a 21% controlling stake in the Spanish bus and coach manufacturer Hispano Carrocera. Tata Motors continued its market area expansion through the introduction of new products such as buses and trucks. In 2006, Tata formed a joint venture with the Brazil-based Marcopolo, Tata Marcopolo Bus, to manufacture built buses and coaches. In 2008, Tata Motors acquired the English car maker Jaguar Land Rover, manufacturer of the Jaguar and Land Rover from Ford Motor Company. In May 2009, Tata unveiled the Tata World Truck range jointly developed with Tata Daewoo. Tata acquired full ownership of Hispano Carrocera in 2009. In 2009, its Lucknow plant was awarded the "Best of All" Rajiv Gandhi National Quality Award. In 2010, Tata Motors acquired an 80% stake in the Italian design and engineering company Trilix for €1.85 million. The acquisition formed part of the company's plan to enhance its design capabilities. In 2012, Tata Motors announced it would invest around ₹6 billion in the development of Futuristic Infantry Combat Vehicles in collaboration with DRDO.
In 2013, Tata Motors announced it will sell in India, the first vehicle in the world to run on compressed air and dubbed "Mini CAT". In 2014, Tata Motors introduced first Truck Racing championship in India "T1 Prima Truck Racing Championship". On 26 January 2014, the Managing Director Karl Slym was found dead, he fell from the 22nd floor to the fourth floor of the Shangri-La Hotel in Bangkok, where he was to attend a meeting of Tata Motors Thailand. On 2 November 2015, Tata Motors announced Lionel Messi as global brand ambassador at New Delhi, to promote and endorse passenger vehicles globally. On 27 December 2016, Tata Motors announced the Bollywood actor Akshay Kumar as brand ambassador for its commercial vehicles range. On 8 March 2017, Tata Motors announced that it has signed a memorandum of understanding with Volkswagen to develop vehicles for India's domestic market. On 3 May 2018, Tata Motors announced that it sold its aerospace and
Jaguar is the luxury vehicle brand of Jaguar Land Rover, a British multinational car manufacturer with its headquarters in Whitley, England. Jaguar Cars was the company, responsible for the production of Jaguar cars until its operations were merged with those of Land Rover to form Jaguar Land Rover on 1 January 2013. Jaguar's business was founded as the Swallow Sidecar Company in 1922 making motorcycle sidecars before developing bodies for passenger cars. Under the ownership of S. S. Cars Limited the business extended to complete cars made in association with Standard Motor Co, many bearing Jaguar as a model name; the company's name was changed from S. S. Cars to Jaguar Cars in 1945. A merger with the British Motor Corporation followed in 1966, the resulting enlarged company now being renamed as British Motor Holdings, which in 1968 merged with Leyland Motor Corporation and became British Leyland, itself to be nationalised in 1975. Jaguar was spun off from British Leyland and was listed on the London Stock Exchange in 1984, becoming a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index until it was acquired by Ford in 1990.
Jaguar has, in recent years, manufactured cars for the British Prime Minister, the most recent delivery being an XJ in May 2010. The company holds royal warrants from Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Charles. In 1990 Ford acquired Jaguar Cars and it remained in their ownership, joined in 2000 by Land Rover, till 2008. Ford sold both Jaguar and Land Rover to Tata Motors. Tata created Jaguar Land Rover as a subsidiary holding company. At operating company level, in 2013 Jaguar Cars was merged with Land Rover to form Jaguar Land Rover Limited as the single design, sales company and brand owner for both Jaguar and Land Rover vehicles. Since the Ford ownership era and Land Rover have used joint design facilities in engineering centres at Whitley in Coventry and Gaydon in Warwickshire and Jaguar cars have been assembled in plants at Castle Bromwich and Solihull; the Swallow Sidecar Company was founded in 1922 by two motorcycle enthusiasts, William Lyons and William Walmsley. In 1934 Walmsley elected to sell-out and in order to buy the Swallow business Lyons formed S.
S. Cars Limited, finding new capital by issuing shares to the public. Jaguar first appeared in September 1935 as a model name on an SS 2½-litre sports saloon. A matching open two seater sports model with a 3½-litre engine was named SS Jaguar 100. On 23 March 1945 the S. S. Cars shareholders in general meeting agreed to change the company's name to Jaguar Cars Limited. Said chairman William Lyons "Unlike S. S. the name Jaguar is distinctive and cannot be connected or confused with any similar foreign name."Though five years of pent-up demand ensured plenty of buyers production was hampered by shortage of materials steel, issued to manufacturers until the 1950s by a central planning authority under strict government control. Jaguar sold Motor Panels, a pressed steel body manufacturing company bought in the late 1930s, to steel and components manufacturer Rubery Owen, Jaguar bought from John Black's Standard Motor Company the plant where Standard built Jaguar's six-cylinder engines. From this time Jaguar was dependent for their bodies on external suppliers, in particular independent Pressed Steel and in 1966 that carried them into BMC, BMH and British Leyland.
Jaguar made its name by producing a series of successful eye-catching sports cars, the Jaguar XK120, Jaguar XK140, Jaguar XK150, Jaguar E-Type, all embodying Lyons' mantra of "value for money". The sports cars were successful in international motorsport, a path followed in the 1950s to prove the engineering integrity of the company's products. Jaguar's sales slogan for years was "Grace, Pace", a mantra epitomised by the record sales achieved by the MK VII, IX, Mks I and II saloons and the XJ6. During the time this slogan was used; the core of Bill Lyons' success following WWII was the twin-cam straight six engine, conceived pre-war and realised while engineers at the Coventry plant were dividing their time between fire-watching and designing the new power plant. It had a hemispherical cross-flow cylinder head with valves inclined from the vertical; as fuel octane ratings were low from 1948 onwards, three piston configuration were offered: domed and dished. The main designer, William "Bill" Heynes, assisted by Walter "Wally" Hassan, was determined to develop the Twin OHC unit.
Bill Lyons agreed over misgivings from Hassan. It was risky to take what had been considered a racing or low-volume and cantankerous engine needing constant fettling and apply it to reasonable volume production saloon cars; the subsequent engine was the mainstay powerplant of Jaguar, used in the XK 120, Mk VII Saloon, Mk I and II Saloons and XK 140 and 150. It was employed in the E Type, itself a development from the race winning and Le Mans conquering C and D Type Sports Racing cars refined as the short-lived XKSS, a road-legal D-Type. Few engine types have demonstrated such ubiquity and longevity: Jaguar used the Twin OHC XK Engine, as it came to be known, in the Jaguar XJ6 saloon from 1969 through 1992, employed in a J60 variant as the power plant in such diverse vehicles as the British Army's Combat Vehicle Reconnaissance family of vehicles, as well as the Fox armoured reconnaissance vehicle, the Ferret Scout Car, the Stonefield four-wheel-drive all-terrain lorry. Properly maintained, the standard production XK Engine would a
Ford Motor Company
Ford Motor Company is an American multinational automaker that has its main headquarter in Dearborn, Michigan, a suburb of Detroit. It was founded by Henry Ford and incorporated on June 16, 1903; the company sells automobiles and commercial vehicles under the Ford brand and most luxury cars under the Lincoln brand. Ford owns Brazilian SUV manufacturer Troller, an 8% stake in Aston Martin of the United Kingdom and a 32% stake in Jiangling Motors, it has joint-ventures in China, Thailand and Russia. The company is controlled by the Ford family. Ford introduced methods for large-scale manufacturing of cars and large-scale management of an industrial workforce using elaborately engineered manufacturing sequences typified by moving assembly lines. Ford's former UK subsidiaries Jaguar and Land Rover, acquired in 1989 and 2000 were sold to Tata Motors in March 2008. Ford owned the Swedish automaker Volvo from 1999 to 2010. In 2011, Ford discontinued the Mercury brand, under which it had marketed entry-level luxury cars in the United States, Canada and the Middle East since 1938.
Ford is the second-largest U. S.-based automaker and the fifth-largest in the world based on 2015 vehicle production. At the end of 2010, Ford was the fifth largest automaker in Europe; the company went public in 1956 but the Ford family, through special Class B shares, still retain 40 percent voting rights. During the financial crisis at the beginning of the 21st century, it was close to bankruptcy, but it has since returned to profitability. Ford was the eleventh-ranked overall American-based company in the 2018 Fortune 500 list, based on global revenues in 2017 of $156.7 billion. In 2008, Ford produced 5.532 million automobiles and employed about 213,000 employees at around 90 plants and facilities worldwide. Henry Ford's first attempt at a car company under his own name was the Henry Ford Company on November 3, 1901, which became the Cadillac Motor Company on August 22, 1902, after Ford left with the rights to his name; the Ford Motor Company was launched in a converted factory in 1903 with $28,000 in cash from twelve investors, most notably John and Horace Dodge.
The first president was not Ford, but local banker John S. Gray, chosen to assuage investors' fears that Ford would leave the new company the way he had left its predecessor. During its early years, the company produced just a few cars a day at its factory on Mack Avenue and its factory on Piquette Avenue in Detroit, Michigan. Groups of two or three men worked on each car, assembling it from parts made by supplier companies contracting for Ford. Within a decade, the company would lead the world in the expansion and refinement of the assembly line concept, Ford soon brought much of the part production in-house in a vertical integration that seemed a better path for the era. Henry Ford was 39 years old when he founded the Ford Motor Company, which would go on to become one of the world's largest and most profitable companies, it has been in continuous family control for over 100 years and is one of the largest family-controlled companies in the world. The first gasoline powered automobile had been created in 1885 by the German inventor Carl Benz.
More efficient production methods were needed to make automobiles affordable for the middle class, to which Ford contributed by, for instance, introducing the first moving assembly line in 1913 at the Ford factory in Highland Park. Between 1903 and 1908, Ford produced the Models A, B, C, F, K, N, R, S. Hundreds or a few thousand of most of these were sold per year. In 1908, Ford introduced the mass-produced Model T, which totalled millions sold over nearly 20 years. In 1927, Ford replaced the T with the first car with safety glass in the windshield. Ford launched the first low-priced car with a V8 engine in 1932. In an attempt to compete with General Motors' mid-priced Pontiac and Buick, Ford created the Mercury in 1939 as a higher-priced companion car to Ford. Henry Ford purchased the Lincoln Motor Company in 1922, in order to compete with such brands as Cadillac and Packard for the luxury segment of the automobile market. In 1929, Ford was contracted by the government of the Soviet Union to set up the Gorky Automobile Plant in Russia producing Ford Model A and AAs thereby playing an important role in the industrialisation of that country.
The creation of a scientific laboratory in Dearborn, Michigan in 1951, doing unfettered basic research, led to Ford's unlikely involvement in superconductivity research. In 1964, Ford Research Labs made a key breakthrough with the invention of a superconducting quantum interference device or SQUID. Ford offered the Lifeguard safety package from 1956, which included such innovations as a standard deep-dish steering wheel, optional front, for the first time in a car, rear seatbelts, an optional padded dash. Ford introduced child-proof door locks into its products in 1957, and, in the same year, offered the first retractable hardtop on a mass-produced six-seater car. In late 1955, Ford established the Continental division as a separate luxury car division; this division was responsible for the manufacture and sale of the famous Continental Mark II. At the same time, the Edsel division was created to design and market that car starting with the 1958 model year. Due to limited sales of the Continental and the Edsel disaster, Ford merged Lincoln and Edsel into "M
A car is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transportation. Most definitions of car say they run on roads, seat one to eight people, have four tires, transport people rather than goods. Cars came into global use during the 20th century, developed economies depend on them; the year 1886 is regarded as the birth year of the modern car when German inventor Karl Benz patented his Benz Patent-Motorwagen. Cars became available in the early 20th century. One of the first cars accessible to the masses was the 1908 Model T, an American car manufactured by the Ford Motor Company. Cars were adopted in the US, where they replaced animal-drawn carriages and carts, but took much longer to be accepted in Western Europe and other parts of the world. Cars have controls for driving, passenger comfort, safety, controlling a variety of lights. Over the decades, additional features and controls have been added to vehicles, making them progressively more complex; these include rear reversing cameras, air conditioning, navigation systems, in-car entertainment.
Most cars in use in the 2010s are propelled by an internal combustion engine, fueled by the combustion of fossil fuels. Electric cars, which were invented early in the history of the car, began to become commercially available in 2008. There are benefits to car use; the costs include acquiring the vehicle, interest payments and maintenance, depreciation, driving time, parking fees and insurance. The costs to society include maintaining roads, land use, road congestion, air pollution, public health, health care, disposing of the vehicle at the end of its life. Road traffic accidents are the largest cause of injury-related deaths worldwide; the benefits include on-demand transportation, mobility and convenience. The societal benefits include economic benefits, such as job and wealth creation from the automotive industry, transportation provision, societal well-being from leisure and travel opportunities, revenue generation from the taxes. People's ability to move flexibly from place to place has far-reaching implications for the nature of societies.
There are around 1 billion cars in use worldwide. The numbers are increasing especially in China and other newly industrialized countries; the word car is believed to originate from the Latin word carrus or carrum, or the Middle English word carre. In turn, these originated from the Gaulish word karros, it referred to any wheeled horse-drawn vehicle, such as a cart, carriage, or wagon. "Motor car" is attested from 1895, is the usual formal name for cars in British English. "Autocar" is a variant, attested from 1895, but, now considered archaic. It means "self-propelled car"; the term "horseless carriage" was used by some to refer to the first cars at the time that they were being built, is attested from 1895. The word "automobile" is a classical compound derived from the Ancient Greek word autós, meaning "self", the Latin word mobilis, meaning "movable", it entered the English language from French, was first adopted by the Automobile Club of Great Britain in 1897. Over time, the word "automobile" fell out of favour in Britain, was replaced by "motor car".
"Automobile" remains chiefly North American as a formal or commercial term. An abbreviated form, "auto", was a common way to refer to cars in English, but is now considered old-fashioned; the word is still common as an adjective in American English in compound formations like "auto industry" and "auto mechanic". In Dutch and German, two languages related to English, the abbreviated form "auto" / "Auto", as well as the formal full version "automobiel" / "Automobil" are still used — in either the short form is the most regular word for "car"; the first working steam-powered vehicle was designed — and quite built — by Ferdinand Verbiest, a Flemish member of a Jesuit mission in China around 1672. It was a 65-cm-long scale-model toy for the Chinese Emperor, unable to carry a driver or a passenger, it is not known with certainty if Verbiest's model was built or run. Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot is credited with building the first full-scale, self-propelled mechanical vehicle or car in about 1769, he constructed two steam tractors for the French Army, one of, preserved in the French National Conservatory of Arts and Crafts.
His inventions were, handicapped by problems with water supply and maintaining steam pressure. In 1801, Richard Trevithick built and demonstrated his Puffing Devil road locomotive, believed by many to be the first demonstration of a steam-powered road vehicle, it was unable to maintain sufficient steam pressure for long periods and was of little practical use. The development of external combustion engines is detailed as part of the history of the car but treated separately from the development of true cars. A variety of steam-powered road vehicles were used during the first part of the 19th century, including steam cars, steam buses and steam rollers. Sentiment against them led to the Locomotive Acts of 1865. In 1807, Nicéphore Niépce and his brother Claude created what was the world's first internal combustion engine, but they chose to install it in a boat on the river Saone in France. Coincidentally, in 1807 the Swiss inventor François Isaac de Rivaz designed his own'de Rivaz internal combustion engine' and used it to develop the world's first vehicle to be powered by such an engine.
Bentley Motors Limited is a British manufacturer and marketer of luxury cars and SUVs—and a subsidiary of the Volkswagen Group since 1998. Headquartered in Crewe, the company was founded as Bentley Motors Limited by W. O. Bentley in 1919 in Cricklewood, North London—and became known for winning the 24 Hours of Le Mans in 1924, 1927, 1928, 1929, 1930, 2003. Prominent models extend from the historic sports-racing Bentley 4 1/2 Bentley Speed Six. Today most Bentleys are assembled at the company's Crewe factory, with a small number assembled at Volkswagen's Dresden factory and with bodies for the Continental manufactured in Zwickau and for the Bentayga manufactured at the Volkswagen Bratislava Plant; the joining and eventual separation of Bentley and Rolls-Royce followed a series of mergers and acquisitions, beginning with the 1931 purchase by Rolls-Royce of Bentley in receivership. In 1971, Rolls-Royce itself was forced into receivership and the UK government nationalised the company—splitting into two companies the aerospace division and automotive divisions—the latter retaining the Bentley subdivision.
Rolls-Royce Motors was subsequently sold to engineering conglomerate, Vickers and in 1998, Vickers sold Rolls-Royce to Volkswagen AG. Intellectual property rights to both the name Rolls-Royce as well as the company's logo had been retained not by Rolls-Royce Motors, but by aerospace company, Rolls-Royce Plc, which had continued to license both to the automotive division, thus the sale of "Rolls-Royce" to VW included the Bentley name and logos, vehicle designs, model nameplates and administrative facilities, the Spirit of Ecstasy and Rolls-Royce grille shape trademarks —but not the rights to the Rolls-Royce name or logo. The aerospace company, Rolls-Royce Plc sold both to BMW AG. Before World War I, Walter Owen Bentley and his brother, Horace Millner Bentley, sold French DFP cars in Cricklewood, North London, but W. O, as Walter was known, always wanted to build his own cars. At the DFP factory, in 1913, he noticed an aluminium paperweight and thought that aluminium might be a suitable replacement for cast iron to fabricate lighter pistons.
The first Bentley aluminium pistons were fitted to Sopwith Camel aero engines during World War I. In August 1919, W. O. registered Bentley Motors Ltd. and in October he exhibited a car chassis, with dummy engine, at the London Motor Show. Ex–Royal Flying Corps officer Clive Gallop designed an innovative four valves per cylinder engine for the chassis. By December the engine was running. Delivery of the first cars was scheduled for June 1920, but development took longer than estimated so the date was extended to September 1921; the durability of the first Bentley cars earned widespread acclaim and they competed in hill climbs and raced at Brooklands. Bentley's first major event was the 1922 Indianapolis 500, a race dominated by specialized cars with Duesenberg racing chassis, they entered a modified road car driven by works driver, Douglas Hawkes, accompanied by riding mechanic, H. S. "Bertie" Browning. Hawkes completed the full 500 miles and finished 13th with an average speed of 74.95 miles per hour after starting in 19th position.
The team was rushed back to England to compete in the 1922 RAC Tourist Trophy. In an ironic reference to his heavyweight boxer's stature, Captain Woolf Barnato was nicknamed "Babe". In 1925, he acquired a 3-litre. With this car he won numerous Brooklands races. Just a year he acquired the Bentley business itself; the Bentley enterprise was always underfunded, but inspired by the 1924 Le Mans win by John Duff and Frank Clement, Barnato agreed to finance Bentley's business. Barnato had incorporated Baromans Ltd in 1922, which existed as his investment vehicle. Via Baromans, Barnato invested in excess of £100,000, saving the business and its workforce. A financial reorganisation of the original Bentley company was carried out and all existing creditors paid off for £75,000. Existing shares were devalued from £ 1 each to 5 % or their original value. Barnato held 149,500 of the new shares giving him control of the company and he became chairman. Barnato injected further cash into the business: £35,000 secured by debenture in July 1927.
With renewed financial input, W. O. Bentley was able to design another generation of cars; the Bentley Boys were a group of British motoring enthusiasts that included Barnato, Sir Henry "Tim" Birkin, steeple chaser George Duller, aviator Glen Kidston, automotive journalist S. C. H. "Sammy" Davis, Dudley Benjafield. The Bentley Boys favoured Bentley cars. Many were independently wealthy and many had a military background, they kept the marque's reputation for high performance alive. In 1929, Birkin developed the 4½-litre, lightweight Blower Bentley at Welwyn Garden City and produced five racing specials, starting with Bentley Blower No.1, optimised for the Brooklands racing circuit. Birkin overruled Bentley and put the model on the market before it was developed; as a result, it was unreliable. In March 1930, during the Blue Train Races, Barnato raised the stakes on Rover and its Rover Light Six, having raced and beaten Le Train Bleu for the first time, to better that record with his 6½-litre Bentley Speed Six on a bet o