Learning disability, learning disorder or learning difficulty is a condition in the brain that causes difficulties comprehending or processing information and can be caused by several different factors. Given the "difficulty learning in a typical manner", this does not exclude the ability to learn in a different manner. Therefore, some people can be more described as having a "learning difference", thus avoiding any misconception of being disabled with a lack of ability to learn and possible negative stereotyping. In the United Kingdom, the term "learning disability" refers to an intellectual disability, while difficulties such as dyslexia and dyspraxia are referred to as "learning difficulties". While learning disability, learning disorder and learning difficulty are used interchangeably, they differ in many ways. Disorder refers to significant learning problems in an academic area; these problems, are not enough to warrant an official diagnosis. Learning disability, on the other hand, is an official clinical diagnosis, whereby the individual meets certain criteria, as determined by a professional.
The difference is in degree and intensity of reported symptoms and problems, thus the two should not be confused. When the term "learning disorder" is used, it describes a group of disorders characterized by inadequate development of specific academic and speech skills. Types of learning disorders include reading and writing; the unknown factor is the disorder that affects the brain's ability to receive and process information. This disorder can make it problematic for a person to learn as or in the same way as someone, not affected by a learning disability. People with a learning disability have trouble performing specific types of skills or completing tasks if left to figure things out by themselves or if taught in conventional ways. Individuals with learning disabilities can face unique challenges that are pervasive throughout the lifespan. Depending on the type and severity of the disability and current technologies may be used to help the individual learn strategies that will foster future success.
Some interventions can be quite simplistic, while others are complex. Current technologies may require student training to be effective classroom supports. Teachers and schools can create plans together that tailor intervention and accommodations to aid the individuals in becoming independent learners. School psychologists and other qualified professionals quite help design the intervention and coordinate the execution of the intervention with teachers and parents. Representatives of organizations committed to the education and welfare of individuals with learning disabilities are known as National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities; the NJCLD used the term'learning disability' to indicate a discrepancy between a child’s apparent capacity to learn and his or her level of achievement. Several difficulties existed, with the NJCLD standard of defining learning disability. One such difficulty was its belief of central nervous system dysfunction as a basis of understanding and diagnosing learning disability.
This conflicted with the fact that many individuals who experienced central nervous system dysfunction, such as those with cerebral palsy, did not experience disabilities in learning. On the other hand, those individuals who experienced multiple handicapping conditions along with learning disability received inappropriate assessment and instruction; the NJCLD notes that it is possible for learning disability to occur with other handicapping conditions, the two should not be directly linked together or confused. In the 1980s, NJCLD, defined the term learning disability as: a heterogeneous group of disorders manifested by significant difficulties in the acquisition and use of listening, reading, reasoning or mathematical abilities; these disorders are intrinsic to the individual and presumed to be due to Central Nervous System Dysfunction. Though a learning disability may occur concomitantly with other handicapping conditions or environmental influences it is not the direct result of those conditions or influences.
The 2002 LD Roundtable produced the following definition:Concept of LD: Strong converging evidence supports the validity of the concept of specific learning disabilities. This evidence is impressive because it converges across different indicators and methodologies; the central concept of SLD involves disorders of learning and cognition that are intrinsic to the individual. SLD are specific in the sense that these disorders each affect a narrow range of academic and performance outcomes. SLD may occur in combination with other disabling conditions, but they are not due to other conditions, such as intellectual disability, behavioral disturbance, lack of opportunities to learn, or primary sensory deficits; the issue of defining learning disabilities has generated ongoing controversy. The term "learning disability" does not exist in DSM-IV, but it has been added to the DSM-5; the DSM-5 does not limit learning disorders to a particular diagnosis such as reading, mathematics, or written expression.
Instead, it is a single diagnosis criterion describing drawbacks in general academic skills and includes detailed specifiers for the areas of reading and written expression. In the United St
Victor Adebowale, Baron Adebowale
Victor Olufemi Adebowale, Baron Adebowale, CBE is the Chief Executive of the social care enterprise Turning Point and was one of the first to become a People's Peer. He was appointed a Commander of the Order of the British Empire in the 2000 New Year Honours for services to the New Deal, the unemployed, homeless young people. In 2001 he became one of the first group of people to be appointed as people's peers and was created a life peer on 30 June 2001 taking the title Baron Adebowale, of Thornes in the County of West Yorkshire, sitting as a crossbencher. In 2009 he was listed as one of the 25 most influential people in housing policy over the past 25 years by the housing professionals magazine Inside Housing, he was reckoned by the Health Service Journal to be the 97th most influential person in the English NHS in 2015. Adebowale was born to Nigerian parents Ezekiel and Grace Adebowale, who both worked in the UK's NHS, his name "Adebowale" means "the crown comes home" in Yoruba. The use of last names that reference crowns in this way by the Yoruba people is indicative of royal ancestry within their various clans.
Adebowale was educated at Thornes House School and the Polytechnic of East London. He began his career in Local Authority Estate Management before joining the housing association movement, he spent time with Patchwork Community Housing Association and was Regional Director of the Ujima Housing Association, Britain’s largest black-led housing association. He was Director of the Alcohol Recovery Project and Chief Executive of youth homelessness charity Centrepoint. Adebowale was a member of the Social Exclusion Unit’s Policy Action Team on Young People and was Chair of the Review of Social Housing Co-ordination by the Institute of Public Policy Research. Adebowale joined Turning Point as Chief Executive in September 2001. Turning Point is a care organisation providing services for people with complex needs, including those affected by drug and alcohol misuse, mental health problems and those with a learning disability. In addition to providing direct services, Turning Point campaigns nationally on behalf of those with social care needs.
Adebowale has been involved in a number of taskforce groups, advising the government on mental health, learning disability and the role of the voluntary sector. He is Co-Chair of the Black and Minority Ethnic Mental Health National Steering Group and is a member of the Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs, he is a patron of Rich Mix Centre Celebrating Cultural Diversity, a patron of Tomorrow’s Project and of the National College for School Leadership. He was a member of the National Employment Panel, the New Economics Foundation Board and is a member of the Institute for Fiscal Studies Council, he is a Director of Leadership in Mind organisational development consultancy, a non-exec of the health IT consultancy IOCOM, Chair of Collaborate and in 2015/16 chaired The London Fairness Commission. He has advised governments of all parties on Employment, Housing and Public Service Reform. Adebowale has an honorary PhD from the University of Central England in Birmingham, an honorary doctor of letters from the University of Lincoln, an honorary PhD from the University of East London an honorary doctorate from the University of Bradford, where he is involved with their Centre for Inclusion and Diversity, most an honorary doctorate from the University of York.
He is an honorary fellow of London South Bank University and Honorary Senior Fellow in the Health Services Management Centre at the University of Birmingham. In 2009 he was awarded an honorary Doctor of Laws degree from Lancaster University. On 12 December 2008, Adebowale was installed as Chancellor of the University of Lincoln. Adebowale has a Post Graduate Diploma From the Tavistock institute and an MA in Advanced Organisational Consulting from the City University London. In 2015, Turning Point was involved in an employment tribunal claiming that Adebowale had unfairly dismissed the charity's IT director, Ibukun Adebayo; the tribunal did find that Adebayo's actions in accessing lewd emails about her from the charity's deputy chief executive to Adebowale, constituted gross misconduct, but ruled that this did not justify Adebowale's actions. Adebayo's lawyers said that the actions were unfair because the deputy chief executive's behaviour "was more serious than the claimant's by way of his seniority and position as sponsor of Turning Point's equal opportunities policy."
Turning Point Profile at Parliament of the United Kingdom Current session contributions in Parliament at Hansard Voting record at PublicWhip.org Record in Parliament at TheyWorkForYou.com Profile at Westminster Parliamentary Record Profile at BBC News Democracy Live Articles authored at Journalisted "Victor Adebowale collected news and commentary". The Guardian
Care Quality Commission
The Care Quality Commission is an executive non-departmental public body of the Department of Health and Social Care of the United Kingdom. It was established in 2009 to inspect health and social care services in England, it was formed from three predecessor organisations: the Healthcare Commission the Commission for Social Care Inspection the Mental Health Act CommissionThe CQC's stated role is to make sure that hospitals, care homes and general practices and other care services in England provide people with safe and high-quality care, to encourage them to improve. It carries out this role through checks it carries out during the registration process all new care services must complete and monitoring of a range of data sources that can indicate problems with services. Part of the commission's remit is protecting the interests of people whose rights have been restricted under the Mental Health Act; until 31 March 2009, regulation of health and adult social care in England was carried out by the Healthcare Commission and the Commission for Social Care Inspection.
The Mental Health Act Commission had monitoring functions with regard to the operation of the Mental Health Act 1983. The commission was established as a single, integrated regulator for England's health and adult social care services by the Health and Social Care Act 2008 to replace these three bodies; the Commission was created in shadow form on 1 October 2008 and began operating on 1 April 2009. Chair: Peter Wyman chair of Yeovil District Hospital NHS Foundation Trust Dr Malte Gerhold, Interim Executive Director of Strategy and Intelligence Eileen Milner, Executive Director of Customer and Corporate Services Kirsty Shaw, Chief Operating Officer The Commission has three chief inspectors who are board members: Professor Ted Baker: chief inspector of hospitals Andrea Sutcliffe: chief inspector for social care Dr Steve Field: chief inspector of general practice Louis Appleby, National Clinical Director for offender health the National Director for mental health. Appointed 3 June 2013. Paul Corrigan, former health policy advisor to Tony Blair and former special advisor to Alan Milburn and John Reid.
Appointed 3 June 2013. Jennifer Dixon, chief executive of the Nuffield Trust and past board member of the Healthcare Commission. Appointed 3 June 2013. Robert Francis QC Appointed 4 June 2014. Michael Mire, a senior partner at McKinsey & Company. Appointed 3 June 2013. Jane Mordue, interim chair of Healthwatch England, former deputy chair of Citizens Advice Paul Rew Appointed 4 June 2014. Mark Saxton. Appointed 1 March 2018. Liz Sayce. Appointed January 2018. Jora Gill Sir John Oldham. Appointed January 2018. Previous board members have included: Chief executive: Cynthia Bower 2009–2012 Chief executive: David Behan 2012-2018 Chair: David Prior 2013–2015, Jo Williams 2010–2012, Barbara Young, Baroness Young of Old Scone 2008–2009. Sir Mike Richards: chief inspector of hospitals 2013-2017 In August 2013 the CQC stated that it was finding it difficult to meet their inspection target of GP practices and had therefore drafted in'bank' inspectors and authorised staff overtime to deal with the backlog. In October 2014 Field announced that the Commission was going to begin inspecting health systems across whole geographical areas from 2015, including social care and NHS 111.
There are suggestions. Behan admitted in March 2015 that the Commission would not be able to inspect all acute trusts before the end of 2015 as it had intended. In February 2015 it reported that it was missing its targets for following up on the safeguarding information it received that might indicate that patients are at risk, he said the CQC would update its oversight in line with the growth of new provider models and would begin looking at care quality along pathways to a greater degree and, for the first time, across localities. The organisation failed to meet its inspection targets during the second quarter of 2015–16. 70 % of adult social care inspections had been 61 % of primary medical services. An exception to this was inspections of hospital acute services where targets were exceeded, an additional 2 inspections having been made in this sector. In December 2015 the Public Accounts Committee was critical of the regulator, said that it was "behind where it should be, six years after it was established”.
Meg Hillier MP, the chair of the PAC, noted. Hillier said "The fact these errors were picked up offers some reassurance, but this is unacceptable from a public body in which taxpayers are placing their trust.”In July 2016 the commission issued an apology after admitting that up to 500 Disclosure and Barring Service certificates submitted by applicants to become registered managers and providers had been lost during a planned office refurbishment. In the period of August 2016 to January 2017 the CQC sent questionnaires to inpatients of NHS hospitals, service users in the month of July 2016. 77,850 surveys were sent out. In October 2016 a briefing paper issued by the organisation stated that no directorate was meeting objectives for producing reports on time. Of services, inspected over half had not improved their rating when re-inspected, with 45% staying at the same rating and 10% having a lower rating. Following the cyber attacks on NHS systems in May 2017 it was announced that the CQC will be asking probing questions to assess data security as part of its inspection process.
After the Grenfell Tower fire in June 2017 let
Mental Health Foundation
The Mental Health Foundation is a leading British mental health charity whose work focuses on the prevention of mental health problems. The Foundation carries out research and implements programmes and interventions, provides tools and resources for the population, campaigns for political and societal change; the charity works across the UK and has offices in London and Cardiff. The Mental Health Foundation is celebrating its 70th birthday in 2019. In 1949 Derek Richter, a neurochemist, Ian Henderson, a stockbroker, formed the Mental Health Research Fund, with the aim of increasing research funding into mental health. In 1972, the organisation took a step forward, shifting its focus away from laboratory research and towards working directly with – and learning from – people who experience mental health problems; the following year, it was renamed the Mental Health Foundation. The last decades of the 20th century saw the Foundation expanded its work as an information provider and campaigning organisation, promoting the idea that that good mental health and wellbeing is for everyone and not just those experiencing problems – a central tenet of its work today.
The Mental Health Foundation continues to work at the forefront of mental health focusing on overlooked and under-researched areas such as personality disorders and mental health problems that affect black and minority ethnic people and communities. Their public mental health campaigns on topics such as exercise and depression, smoking and friendship have raised awareness of their respective impacts on to mental health and helped to reduce the stigma associated with mental health problems; each year, starting on the second Monday of May, the Mental Health Foundation hosts Mental Health Awareness Week, the UK’s national week to raise awareness of mental health and mental health problems and inspire action to promote the message of good mental health for all. Mental Health Awareness Week was first held in 2001 and has now become one of the biggest mental health awareness events in the world. Mental Health Awareness Week 2019 will take place from Monday 13 to Sunday 19 May; the theme is Body Image -- how we feel about our bodies.
The green ribbon is an international symbol of mental health, adopted by the Mental Health Foundation to help create a movement for good mental health for all. The Mental Health Foundation's green ribbon ambassadors include Academy Award winner Olivia Colman, actor David Harewood, TV presenter Graham Norton and Great British Bake Off winner Nadiya Hussain; the movement uses the hashtag #PinItForMentalHealth. Mindfulness is part of the Mental Health Foundation’s strategy for a fresh emphasis on prevention, focusing on evidence-based solutions that work and have impact. Launched in 2010, Be Mindful delivers the elements of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy in an effective digital format; the Be Mindful course was created so that anyone, anywhere and learn to practise mindfulness in daily life and enjoy the many benefits, including reduced stress and anxiety. Be Mindful is NHS-approved and is listed on the NHS Apps Library, having been assessed and satisfying rigorous NHS quality standards for clinical effectiveness, safety and accessibility.
The Foundation's total income for the financial year ending 31 March 2018 was £5.8m, with sources including donations and grants. The Mental Health Foundation is an incorporated UK charity headed by a board of 12 Trustees. Keith Leslie, the Chairman of the board of trustees was appointed in 2014; the current president of the Foundation is Dinesh Bhugra and the patron is Princess Alexandra, The Honourable Lady Ogilvy. Foundation for People with Learning Disabilities Mental health in the United Kingdom Official website Facebook Twitter Instagram Be Mindful