A computer appliance is a computer with software or firmware, designed to provide a specific computing resource. Such devices became known as appliances because of the similarity in role or management to a home appliance, which are closed and sealed, are not serviceable by the user or owner; the hardware and software are delivered as an integrated product and may be pre-configured before delivery to a customer, to provide a turn-key solution for a particular application. Unlike general purpose computers, appliances are not designed to allow the customers to change the software and the underlying operating system, or to flexibly reconfigure the hardware. Another form of appliance is the virtual appliance, which has similar functionality to a dedicated hardware appliance, but is distributed as a software virtual machine image for a hypervisor-equipped device. Traditionally, software applications run on top of a general-purpose operating system, which uses the hardware resources of the computer to meet the computing needs of the user.
The main issue with the traditional model is related to complexity. It is complex to integrate the operating system and applications with a hardware platform, complex to support it afterwards. By constraining the variations of the hardware and software, the appliance becomes deployable, can be used without nearly as wide IT knowledge. Additionally, when problems and errors appear, the supporting staff rarely needs to explore them to understand the matter thoroughly; the staff needs training on the appliance management software to be able to resolve most of problems. In all forms of the computer appliance model, customers benefit from easy operations; the appliance has one combination of hardware and operating system and application software, pre-installed at the factory. This prevents customers from needing to perform complex integration work, simplifies troubleshooting. In fact, this "turnkey operation" characteristic is the driving benefit that customers seek when purchasing appliances. To be considered an appliance, the device needs to be integrated with software, both are supplied as a package.
This distinguishes appliances from "home grown" solutions, or solutions requiring complex implementations by integrators or Value-added resellers. The appliance approach helps to decouple the various systems and applications, for example in the data center. Once a resource is decoupled, in theory it can be centralized to become shared among many systems, centrally managed and optimized, all without requiring changes to any other system; the major disadvantage of deploying a computer appliance is that since they are designed to supply a specific resource, they most include a customized operating system running over specialized hardware, neither of which are to be compatible with the other systems deployed. Customers lose flexibility. On the other hand, a proprietary embedded operating system, or operating system within an application, can make the appliance much more secure from common cyber attacks; the variety of computer appliances reflects the wide range of computing resources they provide to applications.
Some examples: Storage appliances provide massive amounts of storage and additional higher level functionality for multiple attached systems using the transparent local storage area networks computer paradigm. Network appliances are general purpose routers which provide firewall protection, Transport Layer Security, access to specialized networking protocols and bandwidth multiplexing for the multiple systems they front-end. Backup and disaster recovery appliances computer appliances that are integrated backup software and backup targets, sometimes with hypervisors to support local DR of protected servers, they are a gateway to a full DRaaS solution. Firewall- and Security appliances computer appliances that are designed to protect computer networks from unwanted traffic. IIoT and MES Gateway appliances Computer appliances that are designed to translate data bidirectionally between control systems and enterprise systems. Proprietary, firmware applications running on the appliance use point-to-point connections to translate data between field devices in their native automation protocols and MES systems through their APIs, ODBC, or RESTful interfaces.
Anti-spam appliances for e-mail spam Software appliances a software application that might be combined with just enough operating system for it to run on industry standard hardware or in a virtual machine. In essence, the software distribution or the firmware, running a computer appliance. Virtual machine appliances consist of a "hypervisor style" embedded operating system running on appliance hardware; the hypervisor layer is matched to the hardware of the appliance, cannot be varied by the customer, but the customer may load other operating systems and applications onto the appliance in the form of virtual machines. Aside from its deployment within data centers, many computer appliances are directly used by the general public; these include: Digital video recorder Residential gateway Network-attached storage Video game console The world of industrial automation has been rich in appliances. These appliances have been hardened to withstand vibration extremes; these appliances are highly configurable, enabling customization to meet a wide variety of applications.
The key benefits of an appliance in automation are: Reduced downtime - a failed appliance is replaced with a COTS "commercial off-
In a motor vehicle, the powertrain or powerplant comprises the main components that generate power and deliver it to the road surface, water, or air. This includes the engine, drive shafts and the final drive. More in hybrid powertrains the battery, the electric motor and the control algorithm are seen as elements of the powertrain. A motor vehicle's driveline or drivetrain consists of the parts of the powertrain excluding the engine, it is the portion of a vehicle, after the prime mover, that changes depending on whether a vehicle is front-wheel, rear-wheel, or four-wheel drive, or less-common six-wheel or eight-wheel drive. In a wider sense, the powertrain includes all of its components used to transform stored energy into kinetic energy for propulsion purposes; this includes non -- wheel-based vehicles. The most recent developments in powertrain are driven by the electrification of it in multiple components. Electrical energy needs to be provided this leads to larger batteries. Electrical engines can be found as part of other elements, e.g. the axle.
In hybrid powertrains the torque generated by the combustion engine and the electric motor have to be brought together and distributed to the wheels. The control of this process can be quite involved but the rewards are improved acceleration and much lower emissions. Powertrain development for diesel engines involves the following: exhaust gas recirculation, advanced combustion. Spark ignition engine development include: fuel injection, including the gasoline direct injection variant, as well as improving volumetric efficiency by using multi-valves per cylinder, variable valve timing, variable length intake manifolds, turbocharging. Changes include new fuel qualities to allow new combustion concepts. So-called "combined combustion systems" or "diesotto" cycles are based on synthetic fuels. BEVs, FCEVs and PHEV powertrains are expected to reach parity with ICE powertrains in 2025; the manufacturing of powertrain components and systems is important to industry, including the automotive and other vehicle sectors.
Competitiveness drives companies to engineer and produce powertrain systems that over time are more economical to manufacture, higher in product quality and reliability, higher in performance, more fuel efficient, less polluting, longer in life expectancy. In turn these requirements have led to designs involving higher internal pressures, greater instantaneous forces, increased complexity of design and mechanical operation; the resulting designs in turn impose more severe requirements on parts shape and dimension. Quality control over these parameters is achieved through metrology technology applied to all of the steps in powertrain manufacturing processes. In automotive manufacturing, the frame plus the "running gear" makes the chassis. A body, not necessary for integrity of the structure, is built on the chassis to complete the vehicle. Commercial vehicle manufacturers may have "chassis only" and "cowl and chassis" versions that can be outfitted with specialized bodies; these include buses, motor homes, fire engines, etc.
The frame plus the body makes a glider. The final drive is the last in the set of components. In a road vehicle, it incorporates the differential. In a railway vehicle, it sometimes incorporates the reversing gear. Examples include the Self-Changing Gears RF 28 and RF 11 used in the British Rail Class 03 and British Rail Class 04 diesel shunting locomotives. Car safety Electric vehicle Electric vehicle conversion Giubo Gear train Hybrid vehicle drivetrain New powertrain technologies conference, 27 and 28- March-2007. Http://www.caradvice.com.au/105/car-frame-chassis/ Honda F1 Race Car Frame. Drivetrain Quiz HIL Test Bench Technical Paper: A Closed-Loop Drive-train Model
Motorsport or motor sport is a global term used to encompass the group of competitive sporting events which involve the use of motorised vehicles, whether for racing or non-racing competition. The terminology can be used to describe forms of competition of two-wheeled motorised vehicles under the banner of motorcycle racing, includes off-road racing such as motocross. Four- wheeled motorsport competition is globally governed by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile; the Union Internationale Motonautique governs powerboat racing while the Fédération Aéronautique Internationale governs air sports. In 1894, a French newspaper organised a race from Paris to Rouen and back, starting city to city racing. In 1900, the Gordon Bennett Cup was established. Closed circuit racing arose. Brooklands was the first dedicated motor racing track in the United Kingdom. Following World War I, European countries organised Grand Prix races over closed courses. In the United States, dirt track racing became popular.
After World War II, the Grand Prix circuit became more formally organised. In the United States, stock car racing and drag racing became established. Motorsports became divided by types of motor vehicles into racing events, their appropriate organisations. Motor racing is the subset of motorsport activities which involve competitors racing against each other; the Red Bull RB8, the 2012 Formula One World Championship winning car Formula racing is a set of classes of motor vehicles, with their wheels outside, not contained by, any bodywork of their vehicle. These have been globally classified as specific'Formula' series - the most common being Formula One, many others include the likes of Formula 3, Formula Ford, Formula Renault and Formula Palmer Audi. However, in North America, the IndyCar series is their pinnacle open-wheeled racing series. More new open-wheeled series have been created, originating in Europe, which omit the'Formula' moniker, such as GP2 and GP3. Former ` Formula' series include Formula Two.
Formula One is a class of single-seat and open-wheel grand prix closed course racing, governed by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile, organized by the owned company Formula One Group. The formula regulations contain a strict set of rules which govern vehicle power and size. Formula E is a class of open-wheel auto racing; the series was conceived in 2012, the inaugural championship started in Beijing on 13 September 2014. The series is sanctioned by the FIA and races a spec chassis/battery combination with manufacturers allowed to develop their own electric power-trains; the series has gained significant traction in recent years. A series originated on June 1909 in Portland, Oregon at its first race. Shortly after, Indianapolis Motor Speedway opened in 1909 and held races that ranged from 50-200 miles, its premier race is the Indianapolis 500 which began on May 11th, 1911 and a tradition was born. Today, Indycar operates a full schedule with over 40 different drivers; the current schedule includes 14 tracks over the course of 17 races per season.
Josef Newgarden was crowned current champion of the Indycar Series at Sonoma Raceway on September 17th, 2017 in Sonoma, California. Enclosed wheel racing is a set of classes of vehicles, where the wheels are enclosed inside the bodywork of the vehicle, similar to a North American'stock car'. Sports car racing is a set of classes of vehicles, over a closed course track, including sports cars, specialised racing types; the premiere race is the 24 Hours of Le Mans which takes place annually in France during the month of June. Sports car racing rules and specifications differentiate in North America from established international sanctioning bodies. Stock car racing is a set of vehicles that race over a speedway track, organized by NASCAR. While once stock cars, the vehicles are now purpose built, but resemble the body design and shape of production cars. Bootleggers throughout the Carolinas are credited for the origins of NASCAR due to the resistance during the prohibition. Many of the vehicles were modified to increase top speed and handling, to provide the bootleggers with an advantage toward the vehicles local law enforcement would use in the area.
An important part to the modifications of stock cars, was to increase the performance of the vehicle while maintaining the same exterior look giving it the name Stock car racing. Many legends in NASCAR originated as bootleggers in the Great Smoky Mountains of North Carolina like Junior Johnson. Organized oval racing began on Daytona Beach in Florida as a hobby but gained interest from all over the country; as oval racing became larger and larger, a group gathered in hopes to form a sanctioning body for the sport. NASCAR was organized in 1947. Daytona Beach and Road Course was founded where land speed records were set on the beach, including part of A1A; the highlight of the stock car calendar is the season-opening Daytona 500 nicknamed'The Great American Race', held at Daytona International Speedway in Daytona Beach, Florida. NASCAR has now held over 2,500 sanctioned events over the course of 70 seasons. Richard Petty is known as the king of NASCAR with over 200 recorded wins in the series and has competed in 1,184 races in his career.
Touring car racing is a set of vehicles, modified street cars, that race over closed purpose built race tracks and street courses. Off-Road Racing is a group