Interstate 95 in Maine
Interstate 95 in the US state of Maine is a 303-mile-long highway running from the New Hampshire state line near Kittery, to the Canadian border near Houlton. It is the only two-digit Interstate Highway in Maine. In 2004, the highway's route between Portland and Gardiner was changed so that it encompasses the entire Maine Turnpike, which runs from Kittery to Augusta. I-95 enters Maine from New Hampshire on the Piscataqua River Bridge, which connects Portsmouth, New Hampshire with Kittery. At mile 2 in Kittery, the highway becomes the Maine Turnpike; the highway runs in a general northeasterly direction, parallel with U. S. Route 1, at this point. I-95 bypasses connecting to Old Orchard Beach. At Scarborough, I-95 meets the southern terminus of I-295; the highway turns north, serving the Portland International Jetport and bypassing Portland to the west. At Falmouth, the highway meets unsigned I-495 called the Falmouth Spur; until January 2004, I-95 followed the Falmouth Spur and I-295 between Gardiner.
The highway continues north along the Maine Turnpike through Gray to Auburn and Lewiston, which the turnpike bypasses to the south. The highway runs in an easterly direction to meet the northern terminus of I-295 at Gardiner. From there, I-95 parallels the Kennebec River past Waterville; the highway crosses the river at Fairfield and turns northeast along the Sebasticook River past Pittsfield to Newport. I-95 continues east alongside US 2 from Newport to Bangor, where I-395 connects to the city of Brewer; the highway runs along the northern edge of Bangor's center turns northeast, following the Penobscot River past Orono and Old Town. The highway continues north, still running near the river, towards Howland. Near Lincoln, I-95 runs north through uninhabited forest land, crossing the Penobscot River at Medway; the highway goes northeast and east, passing a series of small Aroostook County farming towns before reaching Houlton, where it connects to New Brunswick Route 95 and US 2 at the international border.
North of Bangor, traffic levels drop noticeably, with AADT averaging only about 5,000 in northern Penobscot County and going down to as low as 2,000–4,000 in Houlton. The Maine Turnpike Authority was created by the Maine Legislature in 1941 to build and operate a toll highway connecting Kittery and Fort Kent. In 1947, the first section of highway, designated the Maine Turnpike, opened between Kittery and Portland. In 1953, the Turnpike Authority began construction on an extension to the state capital at Augusta using the former right-of-way of the Portland–Lewiston Interurban railway from Portland through Falmouth; the original turnpike was the largest construction project in the state's history until the construction of the extension, which opened to the public on December 13, 1955. The Maine Turnpike was the first highway funded using revenue bonds, it does not receive funding from the state or federal government. When the first section opened in 1947, it was only the second long-distance superhighway in the United States following the October 1940 opening of the Pennsylvania Turnpike.
For these reasons, the Maine Turnpike was named a National Historic Civil Engineering Landmark by the American Society of Civil Engineers in 1999. In 1956, one year after the Portland-Augusta extension opened, Congress created the Interstate Highway System; the remaining sections to be built—from Augusta to Fort Kent—would be publicly funded freeways instead of toll roads under the Maine Turnpike Authority. Today this highway, which ends at Houlton instead of Fort Kent, is signed as Interstate 95 throughout and the Maine Turnpike between the New Hampshire line at Kittery and the junction with US 202 near Augusta; the Maine Turnpike had a posted speed limit of 70 mph in the early 1970s, but as Maine had no law against traveling less than 10 mph over the posted limit, the de facto speed limit was 79 mph. In 1974, as part of a federal mandate, the speed limit was reduced to 55 mph, with a new law including a "less than 10 over" violation. In 1987, Congress allowed states to post 65 mph on rural interstate highways.
Following the relaxation, Maine increased its speed limit. In May 2011, a bill was introduced to raise the speed limit on I-95 from Old Town to Houlton from 65 mph to 75 mph, it passed, with Maine the first state east of the Mississippi River since the 1970s to establish a 75 mph speed limit. A further law passed in 2013 by the Maine Legislature allowed the Maine Department of Transportation and the Turnpike Authority to change speed limits with the approval of the Maine State Police. Per that law, Maine DOT increased the 65 mph limit to 70 mph on several sections of Interstate 95 on May 27, 2014; these areas included the section from mile marker 114 just outside Augusta to mile 126 just before Waterville. In addition, the section from Fairfield to Bangor saw an increase to 70 mph. Speed limits on sections controlled by the Turnpike Authority increased on August 11, 2014; the sections from mile marker 2.1 in Kittery to mile marker 44.1 in Scarborough and the section from mile marker 52.3 in Falmouth to mile marker 109 in Augusta increased from 65 mph to 70 mph.
The section from mile marker 44.1 in Scarborough to mile marker 52.3 in Falmouth increased from 55 mph to 60 mph. The Maine Turnpike is a toll road for all of its length except south of York and between Auburn and
The Ohio Turnpike the James W. Shocknessy Ohio Turnpike, is a 241.26-mile-long, limited-access toll highway in the U. S. state of Ohio, serving as a primary corridor to Pittsburgh. The road runs east–west in the northern section of the state, with the western end at the Indiana–Ohio border near Bryan where it meets the Indiana Toll Road, the eastern end at the Ohio–Pennsylvania border near Petersburg, where it meets the Pennsylvania Turnpike; the road is owned and maintained by the Ohio Turnpike and Infrastructure Commission, headquartered in Berea. Built from 1949 to 1955, construction for the roadway was completed a year prior to the Interstate Highway System; the modern Ohio Turnpike is signed as three interstate numbers: I-76, I-80, I-90. The entire length of the Ohio Turnpike is 241.3 miles, from the western terminus in Northwest Township near Edon, where it meets the Indiana Toll Road at the Ohio–Indiana border, to the eastern terminus in Springfield Township near Petersburg where it meets the Pennsylvania Turnpike at the Ohio–Pennsylvania border.
Most of the turnpike, 218.7 miles between the Indiana border and an interchange with Interstate 76 near Youngstown, is signed as part of I-80, while the eastern 22.6 miles, between the I-80/I-76 interchange and the Pennsylvania border, is signed as part of I-76. For 142.8 miles, between the Indiana border and Elyria, I-90 is cosigned with I-80 as part of the turnpike. The Ohio Turnpike does not pass directly into any major city, but does provide access to the four major metro areas in northern Ohio through connected routes. Two auxiliary Interstate highways, I-271 near Cleveland and I-475 near Toledo, cross the turnpike, but do not have direct connections. In Northwest Ohio, the turnpike passes through the southern part of the Toledo metropolitan area, with direct access to Toledo through I-75 and I-280. In Northeast Ohio, the turnpike passes through the southern suburbs of Greater Cleveland and the northern edge of the Akron metro area, with direct access to Cleveland via I-71, I-77, I-480.
Akron is connected to the turnpike via State Route 8 in the north and I-76 on the east. The turnpike is located on the western and southern edges of the Mahoning Valley, with direct access to Youngstown through the remaining portion of I-80 east of the Turnpike, I-680. In North Jackson, I-80 and I-76 swap each other's right-of-way. In Petersburg, the concurrent routes cross the state lines into Pennsylvania, automatically becoming the Pennsylvania Turnpike. In 1947 a bill was introduced in the Ohio General Assembly authorizing a financed roadway. Consisting of a system of five highways, the turnpike was reduced to one when the other four were made redundant by the Federal Aid Highway Act of 1956. Construction for the road cost $326 million and was recorded the biggest project in state history, with 10,000 employees, more than 2,300 bulldozers, graders and other machines over a 38-month period. On December 1, 1954, the first 22-mile stretch opened near the present-day exit 218 for I-76 and I-80.
Several motorists attended a dedication ceremony, with over 1,000 people joining a caravan, following a snow plow and a patrol cruiser, to become the first to drive the turnpike. The remaining section from exit 218 west to Indiana opened on October 1, 1955. A connecting ramp near the Indiana state line closed on August 16, 1956, the day before the Indiana Toll Road was opened; the turnpike was named after the first chairman of the commission, James W. Shocknessy, in 1976; the turnpike offered 18 access points. Additional access points have since been provided, bringing the total number, including the Westgate and Eastgate toll barriers, to 31. Not included in this count is the unnumbered interchange at SR 49, which opened on December 29, 1992. There are no ramp tolls at this interchange. In 1996, the turnpike began a project to add one lane in each direction from Toledo to Youngstown; the project, using financing from increased tolls, was projected to be finished in 2005, but was not completed until the end of the 2014 construction season.
In 1998, the Ohio Turnpike Commission began phasing in distance-based exit numbers. In 2009, the Ohio Turnpike Commission began accepting E-ZPass for toll payment at all plazas, added gates to toll lanes to prevent motorists from evading tolls. Ken Blackwell, the defeated candidate in the 2006 Ohio governor's race, had announced a plan for privatizing the turnpike, similar to plans enacted in Illinois and Indiana. In 2010 and 2011, Governor John Kasich stated that he would consider a turnpike lease, but only during a prosperous economic period. In August 2011, Kasich stated his intention to create a task force to produce a leasing plan and considered the option of reassigning the maintenance of the highway to the Ohio Department of Transportation, he decided against both, instead proposing to issue more debt under the renamed Ohio Turnpike and Infrastructure Commission, with cash tolls raised annually over a ten-year period to compensate. The Ohio Turnpike opened on October 1, 1955, with a 65 mph limit for cars and 55 mph limit for trucks.
The automobile speed limit was increased on September 30, 1963, in concert with other Ohio rural Interstates to 70 mph. Due to th
New Jersey Turnpike
The New Jersey Turnpike, known colloquially as "the Turnpike", is a system of controlled-access highways in New Jersey, maintained by the New Jersey Turnpike Authority. The 117.20-mile mainline's southern terminus is at the interchange with U. S. Route 130 and Route 49, where the split of Interstate 295 and US 40 occurs, near the border of Pennsville and Carneys Point townships in Salem County, one mile east of the Delaware Memorial Bridge, its northern terminus is at US 46 in Bergen County. Construction of the mainline from concept to completion took 23 months, from 1950 to 1952, it was opened to traffic in November 1951, between its southern terminus and exit 10. The turnpike is a major thoroughfare providing access to various localities in New Jersey, as well as Delaware and New York. According to the International Bridge and Turnpike Association, the turnpike is the nation's sixth-busiest toll road and is one of the most traveled highways in the United States; the northern part of the mainline turnpike, along with the entirety of its extensions and spurs, is part of the Interstate Highway System, designated as I-95 between exit 6 and its northern end.
South of exit 6, it has the unsigned Route 700 designation. There are three extensions and two spurs, including the Newark Bay Extension at exit 14, which carries I-78. All segments except for the I-95 Extension are tolled; the route is divided into four roadways between exit 6 and exit 14. The inner lanes are restricted to carrying only cars, with the outer lanes for cars and buses; the turnpike has 12-foot-wide lanes, 10-foot-wide shoulders and 13 rest areas named after notable New Jersey residents. The Interstate Highway System took some of its design guidelines from those for the turnpike; the turnpike is considered iconic in popular culture having been referenced in music and television. The mainline of the New Jersey Turnpike splits from I-295 in Carneys Point Township and runs along a north-northeast route to Ridgefield Park, where the road continues as I-95, it is designated Route 700, an unsigned route, from exit 1 to exit 6, as I-95 from exit 6 to exit 18. The number of lanes ranges from four lanes south of exit 4, six lanes between exit 4 and exit 6, 12 lanes between exit 6 and exit 11, 14 lanes between exit 11 and exit 14.
Before the advent of the Interstate Highway System, the entire Turnpike was designated by the New Jersey Department of Transportation as Route 700. The Pennsylvania Turnpike Extension was Route 700P, the Newark Bay Extension was Route 700N. None of these state highway designations have been signed; the turnpike begins within the median of I-295 at exit 1 along the border of Carneys Point and Pennsville Townships, where the northbound lanes of I-295 split to the southeast. Here, the turnpike is cosigned with US 40 and has three three northbound lanes and two southbound lanes. A northbound entrance from Old Pennsville-Auburn Road is provided near an NJDOT fuel station to the south of the highway. Soon afterwards, the turnpike crosses the Salem Canal, the northbound lanes of I-295 cross over the turnpike. Heading east, US 40 leaves the highway at an interchange with County Route 540. A mile north of this point is the Exit 1 Toll Plaza, where northbound drivers must obtain a ticket, southbound drivers must surrender their ticket and pay the proper toll.
Two Express E-ZPass lanes are provided in each direction. Paralleling I-295, the turnpike continues north/northeast through rural Salem County with two lanes in each direction before approaching the John Fenwick Service Area northbound and the Clara Barton Service Area southbound. After entering Gloucester County the turnpike reaches exit 2 for US 322 in Woolwich Township; the highway heads northeast past farmland before reaching residential development near Deptford Township. Approaching Bellmawr, the turnpike passes over Route 42 with no access, comes to exit 3 for Route 168. Still two lanes in each direction, the turnpike continues heading northeast and comes within yards of I-295. In Cherry Hill, the turnpike passes under Route 70 with no access, enters Mount Laurel and comes to exit 4 for Route 73. North of this point, the turnpike has three lanes in each direction. Still running within close proximity with I-295, the turnpike passes under Route 38 and comes to the northbound James Fenimore Cooper Service Area.
The road crosses over Rancocas Creek and passes to the northwest of Rancocas State Park. Here, the distance between I-295 and the turnpike increases, the turnpike reaches exit 5 for Burlington-Mount Holly Road. Northeast of here, the turnpike continues as a six-lane highway towards Mansfield. Beginning just south of exit 6, the turnpike splits into a "dual-dual" configuration similar to a local-express configuration; the outer lanes are open to all vehicles and the inner lanes are limited to cars only, unless signed otherwise because of unusual conditions. Starting in Mansfield Township, the turnpike has a total of 12 lanes, six in each direction. At exit 6, I-95 joins the turnpike. 2 miles north of here is exit 7, providing access to US 206. Continuing northeast, the Woodrow Wilson and Richard Stockton Service
The Pennsylvania Turnpike is a toll highway operated by the Pennsylvania Turnpike Commission in the U. S. state of Pennsylvania. A controlled-access highway, it runs for 360 miles across the state; the turnpike begins at the Ohio state line in Lawrence County, where the road continues west into Ohio as the Ohio Turnpike. It ends at the New Jersey border at the Delaware River–Turnpike Toll Bridge over the Delaware River in Bucks County, where the road continues east as the Pearl Harbor Memorial Extension of the New Jersey Turnpike; the highway runs east–west through the state, connecting the Pittsburgh and Philadelphia areas. It crosses the Appalachian Mountains in central Pennsylvania; the turnpike is part of the Interstate Highway System. The road uses a ticket system of tolling between the Neshaminy Falls toll plazas. An additional eastbound toll plaza is located at Gateway, near the Ohio border, while a cashless westbound toll gantry using toll-by-plate is located at the Delaware River Bridge.
E-ZPass, a form of electronic toll collection, is accepted at all toll plazas. During the 1930s the Pennsylvania Turnpike was designed to improve automobile transportation across the mountains of Pennsylvania, using seven tunnels built for the abandoned South Pennsylvania Railroad in the 1880s; the road opened on October 1940, between Irwin and Carlisle. It was one of the earlier long-distance limited-access highways in the United States, served as a precedent for additional limited-access toll roads and the Interstate Highway System. Following World War II, the turnpike was extended east to Valley Forge in 1950 and west to the Ohio border in 1951. In 1954, the road was extended further east to the Delaware River; the mainline turnpike was finished in 1956 with the completion of the Delaware River Bridge. During the 1960s an additional tube was bored at four of the two-lane tunnels, while the other three tunnels were bypassed. Improvements continue to be made to the road: rebuilding the original section to modern standards, widening portions of the turnpike to six lanes, adding interchanges.
Most in 2018, an ongoing interchange project saw the redesignation of the easternmost three miles of the road from I-276 to I-95. Though still considered part of the turnpike mainline, it is no longer signed with turnpike markers; the turnpike runs east–west across Pennsylvania, from the Ohio state line in Lawrence County to the New Jersey state line in Bucks County. It passes through the Pittsburgh and Philadelphia areas, along with farmland and woodland; the highway crosses the Appalachian Mountains, in the central part of the state, through four tunnels. The Pennsylvania Turnpike Commission, created in 1937 to construct, finance and maintain the road, controls the highway. Five members comprise the commission, including the secretary of the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation and four other members appointed by the governor of Pennsylvania. In 2015, the roadway had an annual average daily traffic count ranging from a high of 120,000 vehicles between Norristown and I-476 to a low of 12,000 vehicles between the Ohio border and I-79/US 19.
As part of the Interstate Highway System, the turnpike is part of the National Highway System. The Pennsylvania Turnpike is designated a Blue Star Memorial Highway honoring those who have served in the United States Armed Forces. In addition to the east–west Pennsylvania Turnpike, the Pennsylvania Turnpike Commission operates the Northeast Extension of the Pennsylvania Turnpike, the Beaver Valley Expressway, the Mon-Fayette Expressway, the Amos K. Hutchinson Bypass, the Southern Beltway; the Pennsylvania Turnpike begins at the Ohio state line in Lawrence County, beyond which it continues west as the Ohio Turnpike. From the state line, the turnpike heads southeast as a four-lane freeway designated as I-76 through the rural area south of New Castle. A short distance from the Ohio border, the eastbound lanes come to the Gateway toll plaza; the highway crosses into Beaver County, where it reaches its first interchange with I-376 in Big Beaver. After this interchange, the turnpike reaches the exit for PA 18 in Homewood before crossing the Beaver River on the Beaver River Bridge.
The road enters Butler County, where it comes to Cranberry Township. Here, an interchange serves U. S. Route 19 and I-79; the turnpike continues through a mix of rural land and suburban residential development north of Pittsburgh into Allegheny County. The road approaches the Warrendale toll plaza, where toll ticketing begins, continues southeast to an interchange with PA 8 in Hampton Township; the turnpike comes to the Allegheny Valley exit in Harmar Township, which provides access to PA 28 via Freeport Road. East of this interchange, the road heads south and crosses the Allegheny River on the six-lane Allegheny River Turnpike Bridge. After the Allegheny River crossing the turnpike returns to four lanes, passing through the Oakmont Country Club; the highway heads southeast to an eastern suburb of Pittsburgh. East of Monroeville, the turnpike continues through eastern Allegheny County befor
Florida's Turnpike, designated as unsigned State Road 91, is a toll road in the U. S. state of Florida, maintained by Florida's Turnpike Enterprise. Spanning 309 miles along a north–south axis, the turnpike is in two sections; the SR 91 mainline runs 265 miles, from its southern terminus at an interchange with Interstate 95 in Miami Gardens to an interchange with I-75 in Wildwood at its northern terminus. The Homestead Extension of Florida's Turnpike continues from the southern end of the mainline for another 48 miles to US Highway 1 in Florida City; the slogan for the road is "The Less Stressway". The mainline opened in stages between 1957 and 1964, while the extension was completed in 1974; the turnpike runs through Miami, Fort Lauderdale, West Palm Beach, where it parallels I-95, through Orlando, where it crosses I-4. Florida's Turnpike is one of the busiest highways in the country; the main section of Florida's Turnpike begins at the northern end of the Golden Glades Interchange in Miami Gardens as a six-lane highway, passes through the Golden Glades Toll Barrier, a cashless toll point, similar to the ones on the HEFT.
About 2 miles north of the toll gantry, it passes by Hard Rock Stadium, home to the Miami Dolphins of the National Football League, to the west before intersecting with the northern end of the HEFT at the Miami-Dade/Broward County line 4 miles from Golden Glades, continuing the HEFT's mile marker. The highway goes through the inland suburbs of Miramar and Davie, with an exit at Hollywood Boulevard at mile 50, passing west of the Seminole Hard Rock Hotel and Casino Hollywood just south the Griffin Road interchange. In Davie, about 8 miles north of the Homestead Extension interchange, it intersects with I-595, providing direct access to Alligator Alley and Ft. Lauderdale International Airport. After two more interchanges, one with Sunrise Boulevard in Plantation and Commercial Boulevard in Tamarac, it crosses the Cypress Creek Toll Plaza in North Lauderdale, the second on the mainline. Just 1 mile north of the toll plaza, it intersects with the Pompano Beach Service Plaza, the first of seven full-service plazas on the mainline, where the Turnpike's operations center is located.
Still in Pompano Beach, it has a northbound-only exit at Atlantic Boulevard, followed by full interchanges with Coconut Creek Parkway/Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Boulevard and Sample Road, it enters Deerfield Beach with an interchange with the Sawgrass Expressway in Coconut Creek, the final interchange in Broward County. The Turnpike enters Palm Beach County, with one interchange each in Boca Raton, Delray Beach and Boynton Beach. In central Palm Beach County at mile marker 88, the ticket system of the turnpike begins at the Lantana Toll Plaza; the turnpike narrows to a four-lane highway as it goes through a less developed portion of Palm Beach County, crossing interchanges with Lake Worth Road, followed by the Lake Worth/West Palm Beach Service Plaza at mile marker 94. In West Palm Beach, the highway has interchanges with US 98/SR 80, a SunPass-only interchange at Jog Road, followed by an interchange at Okeechobee Boulevard that heads directly into downtown West Palm Beach. North of the interchange, the highway enters stretch of sparse development between this point and Port St. Lucie, intersecting with the Beeline Highway, another SunPass only interchange before leaving West Palm Beach.
Just north of the SR 786 interchange in Palm Beach Gardens, I-95 parallels the Turnpike to the east for about 20 miles, with I-95 visible from the turnpike as it has an interchange with SR 706 in Jupiter and into Martin County. It breaks off as it crosses the Thomas B. Manuel Bridge over the St. Lucie Canal, crossing I-95 without an interchange just south of the SR 714 interchange, the only exit in Martin County. I-95 heads west towards the western fringes of St. Lucie County development, while the turnpike takes a path through the central areas of the county; the turnpike has two interchanges in Port St. Lucie, one at Becker Road, the third SunPass-only exit, SR 716, followed by the Port St. Lucie-Fort Pierce service plaza at mile marker 144; the turnpike intersects I-95 one last time just south of SR 70 in Fort Pierce, as I-95 continues to head up the east coast of Florida and the turnpike curves inland towards Orlando. North of the SR 70 interchange, the turnpike enters a rural area, with cattle farms and orange groves lining the road for most of the section between Fort Pierce and Kissimmee, with only one interchange: SR 60 in Yeehaw Junction.
There are two service plazas in this area, one at Fort Drum at mile marker 184 and the other, Canoe Creek, at mile marker 229. Between Fort Pierce and Yeehaw Junction, the turnpike travels in a nearly east-west direction heading inland, with a 40.5-mile gap between the two exits, the second longest of any US expressway. Between Yeehaw Junction and Kissimmee, the turnpike, returning to a north-northwest direction towards Orlando, has a 48.9-mile stretch without an exit, the longest of any US expressway. At mile marker 236, the ticket system ends at the Three Lakes toll plaza, as the turnpike enters the Orlando area and development starts to reappear on the turnpike; the SunPass-only interchange located at Kissimmee Park Road, a partial interchange featuring a northbound on- and southbound off-ram
A toll road known as a turnpike or tollway, is a public or private road for which a fee is assessed for passage. It is a form of road pricing implemented to help recoup the cost of road construction and maintenance. Toll roads have existed in some form since antiquity, with tolls levied on passing travellers on foot, wagon, or horseback; the amount of the toll varies by vehicle type, weight, or number of axles, with freight trucks charged higher rates than cars. Tolls are collected at toll booths, toll houses, stations, bars, or gates; some toll collection points are unmanned and the user deposits money in a machine which opens the gate once the correct toll has been paid. To cut costs and minimise time delay many tolls are collected by some form of automatic or electronic toll collection equipment which communicates electronically with a toll payer's transponder; some electronic toll roads maintain a system of toll booths so people without transponders can still pay the toll, but many newer roads now use automatic number plate recognition to charge drivers who use the road without a transponder, some older toll roads are being upgraded with such systems.
Criticisms of toll roads include the time taken to stop and pay the toll, the cost of the toll booth operators—up to about one-third of revenue in some cases. Automated toll-paying systems help minimise both of these. Others object to paying "twice" for the same road: with tolls. In addition to toll roads, toll bridges and toll tunnels are used by public authorities to generate funds to repay the cost of building the structures; some tolls are set aside to pay for future maintenance or enhancement of infrastructure, or are applied as a general fund by local governments, not being earmarked for transport facilities. This is sometimes prohibited by central government legislation. Road congestion pricing schemes have been implemented in a limited number of urban areas as a transportation demand management tool to try to reduce traffic congestion and air pollution. Toll roads have existed for at least the last 2,700 years, as tolls had to be paid by travellers using the Susa–Babylon highway under the regime of Ashurbanipal, who reigned in the 7th century BC.
Aristotle and Pliny refer to other parts of Asia. In India, before the 4th century BC, the Arthashastra notes the use of tolls. Germanic tribes charged tolls to travellers across mountain passes. A 14th-century example is Castle Loevestein in the Netherlands, built at a strategic point where two rivers meet. River tolls were charged on boats sailing along the river; the Øresund in Scandinavia was once subject to a toll to the Danish Monarch, who derived a sizable portion of his revenue from it. Many modern European roads were constructed as toll roads in order to recoup the costs of construction, maintenance and as a source of tax money, paid by someone other than the local residents. In 14th-century England, some of the most used roads were repaired with money raised from tolls by pavage grants. Widespread toll roads sometimes restricted traffic so much, by their high tolls, that they interfered with trade and cheap transportation needed to alleviate local famines or shortages. Tolls were used in the Holy Roman Empire in the 15th centuries.
Industrialisation in Europe needed major improvements to the transport infrastructure which included many new or improved roads, financed from tolls. The A5 road in Britain was built to provide a robust transport link between Britain and Ireland and had a toll house every few miles. In the 20th century, road tolls were introduced in Europe to finance the construction of motorway networks and specific transport infrastructure such as bridges and tunnels. Italy was the first European country to charge motorway tolls, on a 50 kilometres motorway section near Milan in 1924, it was followed by Greece, which made users pay for the network of motorways around and between its cities in 1927. In the 1950s and 1960s, France and Portugal started to build motorways with the aid of concessions, allowing rapid development of this infrastructure without massive state debts. Since road tolls have been introduced in the majority of the EU member states. In the United States, prior to the introduction of the Interstate Highway System and the large federal grants supplied to states to build it, many states constructed their first controlled-access highways by floating bonds backed by toll revenues.
Starting with the Pennsylvania Turnpike in 1940, followed by similar roads in New Jersey, New York and others, numerous states throughout the 1950s established major toll roads. With the establishment of the Interstate Highway System in the late 1950s, toll road construction in the U. S. slowed down as the federal government now provided the bulk of funding to construct new freeways, regulations required that such Interstate highways be free from tolls. Many older toll roads were added to the Interstate System under a grandfather clause that allowed tolls to continue to be collected on toll roads that predated the system; some of these such as the Connecticut Turnpike and the Richmond–Petersburg Turnpike removed their tolls when the initial bonds were paid off. Many states, have maintained the tolling of these roads as a consistent source of revenue; as the
A stairway, stairwell, flight of stairs, or stairs, is a construction designed to bridge a large vertical distance by dividing it into smaller vertical distances, called steps. Stairs round, or may consist of two or more straight pieces connected at angles. Special types of stairs include ladders; some alternatives to stairs are elevators and inclined moving walkways as well as stationary inclined sidewalks. A stair, or a stairstep, is one step in a flight of stairs. In buildings, stairs is a term applied to a complete flight of steps between two floors. A stair flight is a run of steps between landings. A staircase or stairway is one or more flights of stairs leading from one floor to another, includes landings, newel posts, handrails and additional parts. A stairwell is a compartment extending vertically through a building. A stair hall is the stairs, hallways, or other portions of the public hall through which it is necessary to pass when going from the entrance floor to the other floors of a building.
Box stairs are stairs built between walls with no support except the wall strings. Stairs may be in a straight run, leading from one floor to another without a turn or change in direction. Stairs may change direction by two straight flights connected at a 90 degree angle landing. Stairs may return onto themselves with 180 degree angle landings at each end of straight flights forming a vertical stairway used in multistory and highrise buildings. Many variations of geometrical stairs may be formed of circular and irregular constructions. Stairs may be a required component of egress from buildings. Stairs are provided for convenience to access floors, roofs and walking surfaces not accessible by other means. Stairs may be a fanciful physical construct such as the stairs that go nowhere located at the Winchester Mystery House. Stairs are a subject used in art to represent real or imaginary places built around impossible objects using geometric distortion, as in the work of artist M. C. Escher. "Stairway" is a common metaphor for achievement or loss of a position in the society.
Each step is composed of riser. Tread The part of the stairway, stepped on, it is constructed to the same specifications as any other flooring. The tread "depth" is measured from the outer edge of the step to the vertical "riser" between steps; the "width" is measured from one side to the other. Riser The vertical portion between each tread on the stair; this may be missing for an "open" stair effect. Nosing An edge part of the tread that protrudes over the riser beneath. If it is present, this means that, measured horizontally, the total "run" length of the stairs is not the sum of the tread lengths, as the treads overlap each other. Many building codes require stair nosings for commercial, industrial, or municipal stairs as they provide anti-slip properties and increase pedestrians safety. Starting step or Bullnose Where stairs are open on one or both sides, the first step above the lower floor or landing may be wider than the other steps and rounded; the balusters form a semicircle around the circumference of the rounded portion and the handrail has a horizontal spiral called a "volute" that supports the top of the balusters.
Besides the cosmetic appeal, starting steps allow the balusters to form a wider, more stable base for the end of the handrail. Handrails that end at a post at the foot of the stairs can be less sturdy with a thick post. A double bullnose can be used. Stringer, Stringer board or sometimes just String The structural member that supports the treads and risers in standard staircases. There are three stringers, one on either side and one in the center, with more added as necessary for wider spans. Side stringers are sometimes dadoed to receive treads for increased support. Stringers on open-sided stairs are called "cut stringers". Winders Winders are steps, they are used to change the direction of the stairs without landings. A series of winders form a spiral stairway; when three steps are used to turn a 90° corner, the middle step is called a kite winder as a kite-shaped quadrilateral. Trim Various moldings are used in some instances support stairway elements. Scotia or quarter-round are placed beneath the nosing to support its overhang.
A decorative step at the bottom of the staircase which houses the volute and volute newel turning for a continuous handrail. The balustrade is the system of railings and balusters that prevents people from falling over the edge. Banister, Railing or Handrail The angled member for handholding, as distinguished from the vertical balusters which hold it up for stairs that are open on one side; the term "banister" is sometimes used to mean just the handrail, or sometimes the handrail and the balusters or sometimes just the balusters. Volute A handrail end element for the bullnose step that curves inward like a spiral. A volute is said to be right or left-handed depending on which side of the stairs the handrail is as one faces up the stairs. Turnout Instead of a complete spiral volute, a turnout is a quarter-turn rounded end to the handrail. Gooseneck The vertical handrail that joins a sloped handrail to a higher handrail on the balcony or landing is a