Friuli–Venezia Giulia is one of the 20 regions of Italy, one of five autonomous regions with special statute. The regional capital is Trieste; the city of Venice is not despite the name. Friuli–Venezia Giulia has an area of 7,924 km2 and about 1.2 million inhabitants. A natural opening to the sea for many Central European countries, the region is traversed by the major transport routes between the east and west of southern Europe, it encompasses the historical-geographical region of Friuli and a small portion of the historical region of Venezia Giulia – known in English as the Julian March – each with its own distinct history and identity. The name of the region was spelled Friuli–Venezia Giulia until 2001, when, in connection with a modification of article nr. 116 of the Italian constitution, the official spelling Friuli Venezia Giulia was adopted. The term "Venezia Giulia" was coined by Graziadio Isaia Ascoli. Names in other regional languages include Friulian: Friûl-Vignesie Julie. Friuli–Venezia Giulia is Italy's north-easternmost region.
It is the fifth smallest region of the country. It borders Austria to Slovenia to the east. To the south it faces the Adriatic Sea and to the west its internal border is with the Veneto region; the region spans a wide variety of climates and landscapes from the mild Oceanic in the south to Alpine continental in the north. The total area is subdivided into a 42.5% mountainous-alpine terrain in the north, 19.3% is hilly to the south-east, while the remaining 38.2% comprises the central and coastal plains. Morphologically the region can be subdivided into four main areas; the mountainous area in the north: this part of the region includes Carnia and the ending section of the Alps, of which the highest peaks exceed 2,700 m above sea level. Its landscapes are characterised by vast pine forests and pastures, mountain lakes and numerous streams and small rivers descending from the mountains; the area is known for its tourist destinations during the winter season. The hilly area, situated to the south of the mountains and along the central section of the border with Slovenia.
The main product of agriculture in this area is wine, whose quality the white, is known worldwide. The easternmost part of the hilly area is known as Slavia Friulana, as it is inhabited by ethnic Slovenes; the central plains are characterised by poor and permeable soil. The soil has been made fertile with an extensive irrigation system and through the adoption of modern intensive farming techniques. In this part of the region most of the agricultural activities are concentrated; the coastal area can be further subdivided in two, western-eastern, subsections separated by the river Isonzo's estuary. To the west, the coast is shallow and sandy, with numerous tourist resorts and the lagoons of Grado and Marano Lagunare. To the east, the coastline rises into cliffs, where the Kras plateau meets the Adriatic, all the way to Trieste and Muggia on the border with Slovenia; the Carso has geological features and phenomena such as hollows, cave networks and underground rivers, which extend inland in the provinces of Trieste and Gorizia, with an altitude ranging between 300m and 600m.
The rivers of the region flow from Slovenia into the Adriatic. The two main rivers are the Tagliamento, which flows west-east in its upper part in the Carnic Alps and bends into a north-south flow that separates the Julian Alps from Alpine foothills and the Isonzo which flows from Slovenia into Italy; the Timavo is an underground river that flows for 38 km from Slovenia and resurfaces near its mouth north-west of Duino. The region Friuli–Venezia Giulia has a temperate climate. However, due to the terrain's diversity, it varies from one area to another. Walled by the Alps on its northern flank, the region is exposed to air masses from the East and the West; the region receives the southerly Sirocco from the Adriatic sea, which brings in heavy rainfall. Along the coast the climate is pleasant. Trieste records the smallest temperature differences between winter and summer and between day and night; the climate is Alpine-continental in the mountainous areas, where, in some locations, the coldest winter temperatures in Italy can be found.
The Kras plateau has its own weather and climate, influenced during autumn and winter, by masses of cold air coming from the north-east. These generate a special feature of the local climate: the north-easterly wind Bora, which descends onto the Gulf of Trieste with gusts exceeding speeds of 150 km/h. In Roman times, modern Friuli–Venezia Giulia was located within Regio X Venetia et Histria of Roman Italy; the traces of its Roman origin are visible over all the territory. In fact, the city of Aquileia, founded in 181 BC, served as capital of the region and rose to prominence in the Augustan period. Starting from the Lombard settlements, the historical paths of Friuli and Venezia Giulia begin to diverge. In 568, Cividale del Friuli became the capital of the first Lombard dukedom in Italy. In 774, the Franks, favoured the growth of the church of Aquileia and established Cividale as a March. In 1077, Patriarchate of Aquileia was given temporal power by the Holy Roman Emperors and this power was extended temporarily even
Fogliano Redipuglia is a comune in the Province of Gorizia in the Italian region Friuli-Venezia Giulia, located about 35 kilometres northwest of Trieste and about 13 kilometres southwest of Gorizia. Fogliano Redipuglia borders the following municipalities: Doberdò del Lago, Gradisca d'Isonzo, Ronchi dei Legionari, San Pier d'Isonzo, Villesse. Fogliano Redipuglia lies at the eastern end of the shifting front of the Italian Campaign against Austria-Hungary in World War I, today is home to Italy's largest war memorial on Monte Sei Busi in Redipuglia; the campaign overall featured the dozen or so Battles of the Isonzo including a number in this area but the Battle of Caporetto, a heavy defeat for the Italians with 11,000 killed, 20,000 wounded and 265,000 captured. As points of interest, famed World War II German officer Erwin Rommel fought in this battle as a junior officer, American author Ernest Hemingway drove an ambulance for the Italian Army. After Caporetto, the Austria-Hungarian advance was forced to stop anyway due to lack of supplies, after a year the Italians were able to reinforce and regain this territory by destroying the Austro-Hungarian Army in the Battle of Vittorio Veneto, which defeat led to the final end of the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
The huge war memorial from 1938 contains the corpses of 39,857 identified Italian soldiers, 69,330 unidentified. In a nearby cemetery are buried another around 14,000 Austro-Hungarian soldiers. Trench fortifications can be seen next to the war memorial, as well as a display of large World War I artillery pieces. Pope Francis visited Redipuglia's military memorial on 13 September 2014 to mark the centenary of World War I to pray for those who died in all wars. Virtual tour of the monument with 360° surround photography -
Grado, Friuli-Venezia Giulia
Grado is a town and comune in the north-eastern Italian region of Friuli-Venezia Giulia, located on an island and adjacent peninsula of the Adriatic Sea between Venice and Trieste. Once a fishing center, today it is a popular tourist destination, known as L'Isola del Sole famous because it is a spa town. Grado is the birthplace of Biagio Marin, a poet who sang about the island in the local Venetian dialect. In Roman times the city, known as ad Aquae Gradatae, was first port for ships entering the Natissa, headed upstream to Aquileia. During the late years of the Western Roman Empire many people fled from Aquileia to Grado in order to find a safer place, more protected from the invasions coming from the east. In 452, Bishop of Aquileia, took refuge at Grado. Grado was the home base of the patriarchate's fleet. In 568, after the invasion of the Lombards, the seat of the Patriarchate of Aquileia was transferred to Grado by the Patriarch Paulinus. After the Schism of the Three Chapters, two different patriarchs were elected: the patriarch of Grado exerted his jurisdiction over the Latin-origin people living on the coast and in the Venetian Lagoon, while that of Old-Aquileia moved to Cividale, had its jurisdiction over the interior.
A long-lasting dispute over the authority of the two patriarchs ensued. In 993, the patriarch of Aquileia, conquered Grado, but was unable to keep possession of it; the matter was settled only in 1027 when the pope declared the supremacy of the See of Aquileia over Grado and the Venetian province. The seat of the patriarchate was transferred to Venice in 1451 by Pope Nicholas V. Reduced to a minor hamlet, Grado was sacked by the English, who burned the city archives in 1810 and by the French in 1812. Grado was acquired by Austria in 1815, to which it belonged until 1918, when it was ceded to Italy after its victory in World War I. Today there are frequent finds of inscriptions, marble sculpture and small bronzes that once furnished its villas; the remains of one of these villas have been excavated on the islet of Gorgo in the lagoon. Modern landmarks include: The Basilica of Sant'Eufemia, with the octagonal Baptistry; the church was once preceded by a quadri-portico, one of the columns of, now in the centre of the Patriarch's Square.
The current appearance of the church dates from the reconstruction by Fra Elia, with a simple hut façade and a bell tower on the right side, surmounted by a statue portraying St. Michael and known as the Anzolo; the interior has two aisles. The main point of interest is the mosaic pavement from the 6th century, restored in 1946–48; the basilica of Santa Maria delle Grazie. Begun in the 4th to 5th centuries, it was renovated in the 6th century and restored in Baroque in 1640; the Barbana Sanctuary. It is located in a small island in the Grado Lagoon; the original church was since rebuilt and enlarged. Of the ancient fortress only a tower, turned into a private residence, parts of the walls can still be seen. Under the Town Hall are remains of the Palaeo-Christian basilica of Piazza Vittoria; the Valle Cavanata Nature Reserve is a 327-hectare protected area situated in the easternmost part of the Grado Lagoon. Today, Grado attracts scores of tourists each year to its campgrounds. A large water park run by a municipal corporation is the main attraction, complete with indoor and outdoor swimming pools, a health center offering spa treatments.
The town boasts a well-preserved pedestrian-only center, in which many shops and restaurants are located. Grado offers facilities for many sporting activities, including tennis, wind-surfing, golf. From Grado can be done excursions by boat to the Grado Lagoon, visit the many dozen islands inside it. Sankt Lorenzen bei Knittelfeld, Austria Feistritz bei Knittelfeld, Austria Bisconti F. Temi di iconografia paleocristiana, Vatican City, 2000. Bovini G. "Grado paleocristiana", in Archeologia Cristiana, Bologna 1973. Farioli R. "Mosaici pavimentali dell'alto Adriatico e dell'Africa settentrionale in età bizantina", in Antichità Altoadriatiche, vo. V.paleocristiana, Ravenna 1975. Farioli R. Pavimenti musivi di Ravenna, Ravenna 1975. Efthalia Rentetzi, "Un'inedita figura di pesce. Parentele stilistiche tra i mosaici pavimentali di s. Maria delle Grazie e s. Eufemia a Grado", in Artonweb. Punti di visa sull'arte. Efthalia Rentetzi, "Un frammento inedito di S. Eufemia a Grado. Il pavimento musivo del Salutatorium", in Arte Cristiana, fasc..
850, Volume XCVI, p. 51-52. List of islands of Italy Marano Lagunare Grado Lagoon Friuli-Venezia Giulia Battle of Grado Official institutional website of City Official tourist website of City Scuola Insieme, a local Italian language school, offers details on history and activities in and around Grado. Richard Stillwell, ed. Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites, 1976: "Ad Aquas Gradatas, Italy" Information about Grado
Medea, Friuli-Venezia Giulia
Medea is a comune in the Province of Gorizia in the Italian region Friuli-Venezia Giulia, located about 45 kilometres northwest of Trieste and about 15 kilometres west of Gorizia. As of 31 December 2004, it had a population of 918 and an area of 7.3 square kilometres. The municipality of Medea contains the frazioni Ara Pacis, Monte di Medea, Sant’Antonio. Medea borders the following municipalities: Chiopris-Viscone, Mariano del Friuli, Romans d'Isonzo, San Vito al Torre
The Soča or Isonzo is a 138-kilometre long river that flows through western Slovenia and northeastern Italy. An Alpine river in character, its source lies in the Trenta Valley in the Julian Alps in northwestern Slovenia, at an elevation of 876 metres; the river runs past the towns of Bovec, Tolmin, Kanal ob Soči, Nova Gorica, Gorizia, entering the Adriatic Sea close to the town of Monfalcone. It has a nival-pluvial regime in its upper pluvial-nival in its lower course. Prior to the First World War, the river ran parallel to the border between Kingdom of Italy and the Austro-Hungarian Empire. During World War I, it was the scene of bitter fighting between the two countries, culminating in the Battle of Caporetto in 1917; the river was recorded in antiquity as Aesontius and Isontius. Attestations include super Sontium, a flumine Isontio, in Lisonçum, an die Ysnicz, an der Snicz; the Slovene name Soča is derived from the form *Sǫťa, borrowed from Latin Sontius. In turn, this is based on the substrate name *Aisontia derived from the PIE root *Hei̯s-'swift, rushing', referring to a moving river.
Another possible origin is the pre-Romance root *ai̯s-'water, river'. The present course of the river is the result of several dramatic changes that occurred during the past 2,000 years. According to the Roman historian Strabo, the river named Aesontius, which in Roman times flowed past Aquileia to the Adriatic Sea, was the Natisone and Torre river system. In 585, a landslide cut off the upper part of the Natisone riverbed, causing its avulsion and subsequent stream capture by the Bontius River; the original subterranean discharge of the Bontius into the Timavo became obstructed, another avulsion returned the new watercourse into the bed of the lower Natisone. During the next centuries the estuary of this new river—the Soča—moved eastward until it captured the short coastal river Sdobba, through which the Soča now discharges into the Adriatic Sea; the former estuary in the newly formed lagoon of Grado became an independent coastal rivulet. Due to its emerald-green water, the river is marketed as "The Emerald Beauty."
It is said to be one of the rare rivers in the world that retain such a colour throughout their length. Giuseppe Ungaretti, one of the greatest Italian poets, describes the Isonzo in the poem "The Rivers." The Soča inspired the poet Simon Gregorčič to write his best-known poem Soči, one of the masterpieces of Slovene poetry. This region served as a location for the 2008 Disney film Chronicles of Narnia: Prince Caspian; the Soča is well known for its unique trout species Salmo marmoratus, which lives in the upper course of the crystal-clear river. This species is endangered due to the introduction of other non-indigenous trout species sometime between World War I and World War II; the valley was the stage of major military operations including the twelve battles of the Isonzo on the Italian front in World War I between May 1915 and November 1917, in which over 300,000 Austro-Hungarian and Italian soldiers lost their lives. The Isonzo campaign comprised the following battles: First Battle of the Isonzo: 23 June – 7 July 1915 Second Battle of the Isonzo: 18 July – 3 August 1915 Third Battle of the Isonzo: 18 October – 3 November 1915 Fourth Battle of the Isonzo: 10 November – 2 December 1915 Fifth Battle of the Isonzo: 9–17 March 1916 Sixth Battle of the Isonzo: 6–17 August 1916 Seventh Battle of the Isonzo: 14–17 September 1916 Eighth Battle of the Isonzo: 10–12 October 1916 Ninth Battle of the Isonzo: 1–4 November 1916 Tenth Battle of the Isonzo: 12 May – 8 June 1917 Eleventh Battle of the Isonzo: 19 August – 12 September 1917 Twelfth Battle of the Isonzo: 24 October – 7 November 1917 known as the Battle of Caporetto Karst topography Battles of the Isonzo Gorizia Goriška Condition of Soča at Log Čezsoški and Solkan - graphs, in the following order, of water level and temperature data for the past 30 days The Walks of Peace in the Soča Region Foundation.
The Foundation preserves and presents the historical and cultural heritage of the First World War in the area of the Isonzo Front for the study and educational purposes. Galleries of Soca river in kayak Awarded "EDEN - European Destinations of Excellence" non traditional tourist destination 2008
Gradisca d'Isonzo is a town and comune of the Province of Gorizia in Friuli-Venezia Giulia, north-eastern Italy. The lawyer, philologist Philippe Sarchi was born in Gradisca d'Isonzo; the municipality is located in north-eastern Italy on the right bank of the Isonzo River, about 12 kilometres southwest of Gorizia. It received town privileges on 14 July 1936; as of 2011, the population of Gradisca is about 6,580. The town is an important centre of the Friulian culture in the Julian Venetia region; the town's name is a Slavic toponym: in archaic Slovene, gradišče was a term indicating a fortified site or a ruin and is a widespread toponym in the Slovene Lands. The strategic important area on the Isonzo River was already settled in Roman times and under the Lombard kingdom exposed to the attacks by Hungarian forces on Northern Italy; the rural settlement of Gradisca is mentioned for the first time in 1176, when it had a mixed population of Slavic and Latin origin. It belonged to the estate of Farra, held by the Patriarchs of Aquileia.
From 1420 onwards their lands were conquered by the Republic of Venice and incorporated into the Venetian Domini di Terraferma in 1473. The Venetians fortified Gradisca as a bastion against Ottoman raids part of a massive defence line along the Isonzo River relying on plans designed by Leonardo da Vinci. During the War of the League of Cambrai against Venice, Gradisca was conquered by Emperor Maximilian I in 1511, thenceforth it was a Habsburg possession ruled within the County of Gorizia as part of the Inner Austrian lands. In 1615 a Venetian attempt to reconquer; the town was however kept by the Imperial House of Habsburg. The Eggenberg dynasty, formally elevated to Princes of the Holy Roman Empire in 1654, held Gradisca until 1717, enlarging and enriching it as a princely residence. With the extinction of the Eggenbergs, the county returned to the House of Habsburg, being re-united with the remaining County of Gorizia; the union resulted in the creation of the Princely County of Gorizia and Gradisca in 1754, which existed until the dissolution of Austria-Hungary in 1918.
The town remained in the Cisleithanian side after the Compromise of 1867 as head of the district of the same name, one of the 11 Bezirkshauptmannschaften in the Austrian Littoral province. During Austrian domination, the town retained its predominantly Italian character. According to the last Austrian census of 1910, 60.0% of the population of the town spoke Italian or Friulian, 13.8% spoke Slovene, a mere 2.3% spoke German as their first language. In 1914, at the outbreak of World War I, the population of Gradisca fought under Austria-Hungary. In 1921 the town became part of Italy. Castle, built by the Venetians in the late 15th century over a pre-existing fortress known from 1176, it was enlarged under the Austrian domination being turned into a jail. Among the people imprisoned here was Federico Confalonieri. Cathedral Church of Santo Spirito, with an altarpiece by Pompeo Randi. Giordano Colausig, footballer Gorizia and Gradisca Media related to Gradisca d'Isonzo at Wikimedia Commons
San Pier d'Isonzo
San Pier d'Isonzo is a town and comune in the province of Gorizia, northern Italy, near Turriaco