Turrialba Volcano is an active volcano in central Costa Rica that has been explosively eruptive in recent years including 2016 and in January, March and April 2017. The stratovolcano is 3,340 m high and is about 45 minutes from the Atlantic slope town of Turrialba, the summit has three craters, the largest of which has a diameter of 50 m. Below the summit is a range and montane forest, with ferns, bromeliads, lichens. Most of the forest is primary or secondary forest. Turrialba is adjacent to Irazú and both are among Costa Ricas largest volcanoes, Turrialba has had at least five large explosive eruptions in last 3500 years. On clear days both the Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea can be seen from the summit, the volcano is named after its canton, Turrialba, in Costa Ricas Cartago Province. There is no consensus on the origin of the name Turrialba. The general consensus is that Turrialba derives from the local Indian and this volcano is monitored by the Deep Earth Carbon Degassing Project. During the 19th century, the volcano erupted and emitted ash several times, the last major eruption was in 1866. Small signs of activity start in 1996, in January 2001, the volcano reported increased activity, displaying strong fumarole activity at the central craters. The volcanic activities have increased since 2005, on March 31,2007, the volcano started to show some activity with ash eruptions. The National Park area opened for visitors was closed from 2009 to 2011, on January 8,2010, a phreatic eruption occurred, creating a new opening near the crater on the southwest, and the temperature increased from 200 to 600 °C. Two villages, La Central and El Retiro, were evacuated, on January,2012 a new opening on the west of the crater was created after a phreatic eruption. On April 12,2012, an eruption occurred. On May 21,2013, at 08,52, a gas explosion widened several openings near the crater that appeared in 2010 and 2012. In July 2013 researchers found that tremors around the area increased from about twenty earthquakes a day, on October 17,2014, the quantity of tremors increased from around 50-100 a day, to 200 a day. On October 29,2014, at around 10,10 and this eruption sent a large amount of volcanic material to areas up to 40 km away. On March 12,2015, eruptions at around 11,00 and 14,12 sent ashes through all the Central Valley, the Juan Suantamaría and Tobías Bolaños international airports were closed due to visibility being less than 100 meters
Image: Turrialba volcano eruption 2014. Costa Rica (3)
The three craters of the volcano, the oldest one is to right, the newest and most active is to the left.
Turrialba emits a translucent plume of volcanic gases in this natural-colour satellite image.