South Sudanese pound
The South Sudanese pound is the official currency of the Republic of South Sudan. It is subdivided into 100 piasters, it was approved by the Southern Sudan Legislative Assembly before secession on 9 July 2011 from Sudan. It was introduced on 18 July 2011, replaced the Sudanese pound at par; the banknotes feature the image of John Garang de Mabior, the deceased leader of South Sudan's independence movement. Six different denominations in the form of banknotes have been confirmed, five denominations will be issued in the form of coins. Three new banknotes for 5, 10, 25 piasters were issued 19 October 2011; the first circulation coins of the South Sudanese pound denominated in 10, 20, 50 piasters were issued 9 July 2015, on occasion of the fourth anniversary of independence from Sudan. In 2016, the Bank of South Sudan issued a 20 South Sudanese pound banknote to replace the 25 South Sudanese pound banknote. In 2018, the Bank of South Sudan introduced a 500 South Sudanese pounds banknote to ease daily cash transactions following years of inflation.
As part of a currency redesign to reduce confusion, a 1 Pound coin was released to replace the 1 Pound banknote, a coin for 2 Pounds has been released at the same time as the 1 Pound coin. The 10, 20 and 100 pound notes were all redesigned. In November 2016 the Governor of the Bank of South Sudan issued a statement dismissing as false reports claiming that the bank was printing new notes in denominations of 200, 500 and 1,000 pounds. Coins denominated 10, 20, 50 Piasters were put into circulation on 9 July 2015; as of 2016, South Sudan's coins are being struck at the South African Mint. Bimetallic coins denominated 1 Pound and 2 Pounds has been put into circulation during 2016; the Coat of arms of South Sudan with the country name'REPUBLIC OF SOUTH SUDAN' and the date will appear on the obverses. The various coins will include the following: 10 Piasters - Copper-plated Steel - Oil rig. 20 Piasters - Brass-plated Steel - Shoebill stork. 50 Piasters - Nickel-plated Steel - Northern white rhino. 1 Pound - Bronze-plated Steel centre / Nickel-plated Steel ring - Nubian giraffe.
2 Pounds - Nickel-plated Steel centre / Bronze-plated Steel ring - African Shield. Articles about the banknotes of South Sudan. Banknotes of South Sudan
Billon is an alloy of a precious metal with a majority base metal content. It is used chiefly for making coins and token coins; the word comes from the French bille, which means "log". The use of billon coins continued through the Middle Ages. During the sixth and fifth centuries BC, some cities on Lesbos used coins made of 60% copper and 40% silver. In both ancient times and the Middle Ages, leaner mixtures were adopted, with less than 2% silver content. Billon coins are best known from the Roman Empire, where progressive debasements of the Roman denarius and the Roman provincial tetradrachm in the second century AD led to declining silver and increasing bronze content in these denominations of coins. By the third quarter of the second century AD, these coins were entirely bronze, with only a thin coating or a wash of silver. Metal Bullion List of alloys Antoninianus Shakudō Coin Billon corporate blockchain platform
The Israeli pound or Israeli lira was the currency of the State of Israel from 9 June 1952 until 23 February 1980, when it was replaced with the shekel on 24 February 1980, again replaced with the New Shekel in 1985. Until 1952, the name used on the notes of the Anglo-Palestine Bank was Palestine pound, in Hebrew לירה א"י. In Arabic, the name was given as junayh filisţīnī. On 1 May 1951, all the assets and liabilities of the Anglo Palestine Bank were transferred to a new company called Bank Leumi Le-Yisrael and the currency name became: lira yisraelit in Hebrew, junayh isrāīlī in Arabic, Israel pound in English; the new currency was issued in 1952, entered circulation on June 9. From 1955, after the Bank of Israel was established and took over the duty of issuing banknotes, only the Hebrew name was used, along with the symbol "I£"; the British Mandate of Palestine, which administered the territory now known as Israel, the West Bank and Gaza prior to May 15, 1948, issued the Palestine pound, a currency equal in value and pegged to the British pound, divided into 1000 mils.
Banknotes in circulation were issued by the Palestine Currency Board, subject to the British Secretary of State for the Colonies. Israel inherited the Palestine pound, but shortly after the establishment of the state, new banknotes were issued by the London-based Anglo-Palestine bank of the Zionist movement; the new coins were the first to bear the new state's name, the banknotes had "The Anglo-Palestine Bank Limited" written on them. While the first coins minted by Israel still bore the name "mil", the next ones bore the Hebrew name prutah. A second series of banknotes was issued after the Anglo-Palestine Bank moved its headquarters to Tel Aviv and became the Bank Leumi; the pegging to the UK Pound was abolished on January 1, 1954, in 1960, the subdivision of the pound was changed from 1000 prutot to 100 agorot. During the 1960s, a debate over the non-Hebrew name of the Israeli currency resulted in a law ordering the Minister of Finance to change the name pound into a Hebrew name, shekel; the law allowed the minister to decide on a proper date for the change.
The law did not come into effect until February 1980, when the Israeli government decided to change the monetary system and introduce the Israeli old shekel, at a rate of 1 shekel = 10 pounds. Israel's first coins were aluminium 25 mil pieces, dated 1948 and 1949, which were issued in 1949 before the adoption of the pruta. In 1949, coins were issued in denominations of 1, 5, 10, 25, 50, 100 and 250 prutah; the coins were conceived, by Israeli graphic designer Otte Wallish. All coins and banknotes issued in Israel before June 1952 were part of the Palestine pound. In 1960, coins were issued denominated in agora. There were 5, 10 and 25 agorot pieces. In 1963, 1/2 and 1 pound coins were introduced, followed by 5 lirot coins in 1978. In 1948, the government issued fractional notes for 100 mils; the Anglo-Palestine Bank issued banknotes for 500 mils, 1, 5, 10 and 50 lirot between 1948 and 1951. In 1952, the government issued a second series of fractional notes for 50 and 100 prutah with 250 prutah notes added in 1953.
In 1952, the "Bank Leumi Le-Israel" took over paper money production and issued the same denominations as the Anglo-Palestine Bank except that the 500 mils was replaced by a 500 prutah note. The Bank of Israel began note production in 1955 issuing notes for 500 pruta, 1, 5, 10 and 50 lirot. In 1968, 100 lirot notes were introduced, followed by 500 lirot notes in 1975. In the third banknote issue, released between 1973 and 1975, a feature was added to assist vision-impaired and blind people in identifying the denomination of a note. A tactile set of dots was used, with three on the five pound note, two on the 10 pound note, one on the 50 pound note, none on the 100 pound note, a large bar the length of three dots on the 500 pound note. Bank of Israel Economy of Israel Paul Kor Bank of Israel catalogue of Israeli currency since 1948 Israeli Lirah coins with pictures
The Biafran pound was the currency of the breakaway Republic of Biafra between 1968 and 1970. The first notes denominated in 5 shillings and £1 were introduced on January 29, 1968. A series of coins was issued in 1969. In February 1969, a second family of notes was issued consisting of 5 shilling, 10 shilling, £1, £5 and £10 denominations. Despite not being recognised as currency by the rest of the world when they were issued, the banknotes were afterwards sold as curios and are now traded among banknote collectors at well above their original nominal value; the most common note is the 1968 and 1969 1 pound notes, with the 10 pound note and all coins being rare. Nigerian pound Nigerian naira Postage stamps and postal history of Biafra Banknotes of Biafra."Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-06-29. Retrieved 2006-01-13. CS1 maint: Archived copy as title CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown Coins with Nigerian naira Information from Biafraland. A detailed article on the banknotes of the Biafran pound pjsymes.com.au Coins from Biafra - Online Coin Club
The Turkish lira is the currency of Turkey and the self-declared Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus. The lira, along with the related currencies of Europe and the Middle East, has its roots in the ancient Roman unit of weight known as the libra which referred to the Troy pound of silver; the Roman libra adoption of the currency spread it throughout Europe and the Near East, where it continued to be used into medieval times. The Turkish lira, the French livre, the Italian lira, the British pound are the modern descendants of the ancient currency; the Ottoman lira was introduced as the main unit of currency in 1844, with the former currency, kuruş, remaining as a 1⁄100 subdivision. The Ottoman lira remained in circulation until the end of 1927. Historical banknotes from the second and fourth issues have portraits of İsmet İnönü on the obverse side; this change was done according to the 12 January 1926 issue of the official gazette and canceled by the Democrat Party after World War II. After periods of the lira pegged to the British pound and the French franc, a peg of 2.8 Turkish lira = 1 U.
S. dollar was adopted in 1946 and maintained until 1960, when the currency was devalued to 9 Turkish lira = 1 dollar. From 1970, a series of hard soft pegs to the dollar operated as the value of the Turkish lira began to fall. 1966 – 1 U. S. dollar = 9 Turkish lira 1980 – 1 U. S. dollar = 90 Turkish lira 1988 – 1 U. S. dollar = 1,300 Turkish lira 1995 – 1 U. S. dollar = 45,000 Turkish lira 2001 – 1 U. S. dollar = 1,650,000 Turkish liraThe Guinness Book of Records ranked the Turkish lira as the world's least valuable currency in 1995 and 1996, again from 1999 to 2004. The Turkish lira had slid in value so far that one original gold lira coin could be sold for 154,400,000 Turkish lira before the 2005 revaluation. In December 2003, the Grand National Assembly of Turkey passed a law that allowed for redenomination by the removal of six zeros from the Turkish lira, the creation of a new currency, it was introduced on 1 January 2005, replacing the previous Turkish lira at a rate of 1 second Turkish lira = 1,000,000 first Turkish lira.
With the revaluation of the Turkish lira, the Romanian leu became the world's least valued currency unit. At the same time, the Government introduced two new banknotes with the denominations of 50 and 100. In the transition period between January 2005 and December 2008, the second Turkish lira was called Yeni Türk lirası, it was abbreviated "YTL" and subdivided into 100 new kuruş. Starting in January 2009, the "new" marking was removed from the second Turkish lira, its official name becoming just "Turkish lira" again, abbreviated "TL". All obverse sides of current banknotes have portraits of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk; until 2016, the same held for the reverse sides of all current coins, but in 2016 one-lira coins were issued to commemorate the "martyrs and veterans" of the 2016 Turkish coup d'état attempt, the reverse sides of some of which depict hands holding up a Turkish flag while others show in stylized form a collection of five-pointed stars topped by a Turkish flag. From 1 January 2009, the phrase "new" was removed from the second Turkish lira, its official name in Turkey becoming just "Turkish lira" again.
The center and ring alloys of the 50 kuruş and 1 Turkish lira coins were reversed. A new series of banknotes, the "E-9 Emission Group" entered circulation on 1 January 2009, with the E-8 group ceasing to be valid after 31 December 2009; the E-9 banknotes refer to the currency as "Turkish lira" rather than "new Turkish lira" and include a new 200-Turkish-lira denomination. The new banknotes have different sizes to prevent forgery; the main specificity of this new series is that each denomination depicts a famous Turkish personality, rather than geographical sites and architectural features of Turkey. The dominant color of the 5-Turkish-lira banknote has been determined as "purple" on the second series of the current banknotes. In 2018, the lira's exchange rate accelerated deterioration, reaching a level of 4.5 USD/TRY by mid-May and of 4.9 a week later. Among economists, the accelerating loss of value was attributed to Recep Tayyip Erdoğan preventing the Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey from making the necessary interest rate adjustments.
Erdoğan, who claimed interest rates beyond his control to be "the mother and father of all evil", said that "the central bank can't take this independence and set aside the signals given by the president." Despite Erdogan's apparent opposition, Turkey's Central Bank raised interest rates sharply. In the campaign for the 2018 general election in Turkey, a widespread conspiracy theory claimed that the Turkish lira's decline were the work of a shadowy group, made up of Americans, Dutch and "some Jewish families" who would want to deprive incumbent President Erdogan of support in the elections. According to a poll from April 2018, 42 percent of Turks, 59 percent of governing AK Party voters, saw the decline in the lira as a plot by foreign powers. According to Turkish foreign minister Mevlüt Çavuşoğlu and analysis, Trumps wish to let the Turkish-USA current tensions to long up to the November 2018 US elections so to appeal to his christian base and gain some points for his party; the current currency
The Gibraltar pound is the currency of Gibraltar. It is pegged to – and exchangeable with – the British pound sterling at par value. Coins and banknotes of the Gibraltar pound are printed by the Government of Gibraltar; until 1872, the currency situation in Gibraltar was complicated, with a system based on the real being employed which encompassed British and Gibraltarian coins. From 1825, the real was tied to the pound at the rate of 1 Spanish dollar to 4 shillings 4 pence. In 1872, the Spanish currency became the sole legal tender in Gibraltar. In 1898, the Spanish–American War made the Spanish peseta drop alarmingly and the pound was introduced as the sole currency of Gibraltar in the form of British coins and banknotes. In 1898, the British pound was made sole legal tender, although the Spanish peseta continued in circulation until the Spanish Civil War. Since 1927, Gibraltar has issued its own banknotes and, since 1988, its own coins. Gibraltar decimalised in 1971 at the same time as the UK, replacing the system of 1 pound = 20 shillings = 240 pence with one of 1 pound = 100 pence.
The since repealed Currency Notes Act 1934, conferred on the Government of Gibraltar the right to print its own notes. Notes issued are either backed by Bank of England notes at a rate of one pound to one pound sterling, or can be backed by securities issued by the Government of Gibraltar. Although Gibraltar notes are denominated in "pounds sterling", they are not legal tender anywhere in the United Kingdom. Gibraltar's coins are the same weight and metal as British coins, although the designs are different, they are found in circulation across Britain. Under the Currency Notes Act 2011 the notes and coins issued by the Government of Gibraltar are legal tender and current coin within Gibraltar. British coins and Bank of England notes circulate in Gibraltar and are universally accepted and interchangeable with Gibraltarian issues. In 1988, coins in denominations of 1, 2, 5, 10, 20 and 50 pence and 1 pound were introduced which bore specific designs for and the name of Gibraltar, they were the same sizes and compositions as the corresponding British coins, with 2 pound coins introduced in 1999.
A new coin of 5 pounds was issued in 2010 with the inscription "Elizabeth II · Queen of Gibraltar". This issue caused controversy in Spain, where the title of King of Gibraltar corresponds to the crown of Castile; the £2 coin has featured a new design every year since its introduction, as it depicts each of the 12 Labours of Hercules. In 2004 the Government of Gibraltar minted a new edition of its coins to commemorate the tercentenary of British Gibraltar. At the outbreak of World War I, Gibraltar was forced to issue banknotes to prevent paying out sterling or gold; these notes were issued under emergency wartime legislation, Ordinance 10 of 1914. At first the typeset notes were signed by hand by Treasurer Greenwood, though he used stamps; the notes bore the embossed stamp of the Anglo-Egyptian Bank Ltd. and circulated alongside British Territory notes. The 1914 notes were issued in denominations of 2s, 10s, £1, £5 and £50; the 2s and £50 notes were not continued when a new series of notes was introduced in 1927.
The 10s note was replaced by the 50p coin during the process of decimalization. In 1975, £10 and £20 notes were introduced, followed by £50 in 1986; the £1 note was discontinued in 1988. In 1995, a new series of notes was introduced which, for the first time, bore the words "pounds sterling" rather than just "pounds"; the government of Gibraltar introduced a new series of banknotes beginning with the £10 and £50 notes issued on July 8, 2010. On May 11, 2011, the £5, £20 and £100 notes were issued. Economy of Gibraltar Currency board Christopher Ironside, OBE, coin designer: reverse design of the 25 New Pence coin, Barbary ape. Banknotes of Gibraltar: Catalog of Gibraltar Shillings and Pounds The current banknotes of Gibraltar
The pound was the currency of Bermuda until 1970. It was equivalent to the pound sterling, alongside which it circulated, was divided into 20 shillings each of 12 pence. Bermuda decimalised in 1970, replacing the pound with the Bermudian dollar at a rate of 1 dollar = 8 shillings 4 pence, equal to the U. S. dollar. The first Bermudian currency issue was the so-called "hogge money", 2, 3 and 6 pence, 1 shilling coins issued between 1612 and 1624, their name derives from the appearance of a pig on the obverse. At this time, Bermuda was known as this name appears on the coins; the next coins to be issued were copper pennies in 1793. When Bermuda adopted the sterling currency system in the first half of the nineteenth century, the coinage that circulated was the same coinage that circulated in the United Kingdom. No special varieties of the sterling coinage were issued for general use in Bermuda. However, special silver 1 crown coins were issued in 1959 and again in 1964; these commemoratives were similar in appearance to the British crown coins, but featured Bermudian designs on their reverses.
The first issue has a map of the islands to mark their 350th anniversary of settlement. The second coin shows the islands' coat of arms; because of the rising price of precious metals, the 1964 issue is somewhat smaller in diameter and the silver content was dropped from 92.5% to 50%. Their respective mintages were 100,000 and 500,000. Both coins remain available to collectors. In 1914, the government introduced 1 pound notes. In 1920, 5 shilling notes were introduced, followed by 10 shillings in 1927 and 5 pounds in 1941; the 5 shilling note ceased production in 1957, with 10 pound notes introduced in 1964. For nearly four hundred years Spanish dollars, known as pieces of eight, were in widespread use on the world's trading routes, including the Caribbean Sea region. However, following the revolutionary wars in Latin America, the source of these silver trade coins dried up; the last Spanish dollar was minted at the Potosi mint in 1825. The United Kingdom had adopted a successful gold standard in 1821, so the year 1825 was an opportune time to introduce the British sterling coinage into all the British colonies.
An imperial order-in-council was passed in that year for the purposes of facilitating this aim by making sterling coinage legal tender in the colonies at the specified rating of $1 = 4s 4d. As the sterling silver coins were attached to a gold standard, this exchange rate did not realistically represent the value of the silver in the Spanish dollars as compared to the value of the gold in the British gold sovereign, as such, the order-in-council had the reverse effect in many colonies, it had the effect of driving sterling coinage out, rather than encouraging its circulation. Remedial legislation had to be introduced in 1838 so as to change over to the more realistic rating of $1 = 4s 2d. However, in Jamaica, British Honduras, in the Bahamas the official rating was set aside in favour of what was known as the'Maccaroni' tradition in which a British shilling, referred to as a'Maccaroni', was treated as one quarter of a dollar; the common link between these four territories was the Bank of Nova Scotia which brought in the'Maccaroni' tradition, resulting in the successful introduction of both sterling coinage and sterling accounts.
It wasn't until 1 January 1842 that the authorities in Bermuda formally decided to make sterling the official currency of the colony to circulate concurrently with Doubloons at the rate of $1 = 4s 2d. Contrary to expectations, unlike in the Bahamas where US dollars circulated concurrently with sterling, the Bermudas did not allow themselves to be drawn into the U. S. currency area. The Spanish dollars fell away in the 1850s but returned again in the 1870s following the international silver crisis of 1873. In 1874, the Bermuda merchants agreed unanimously to decline to accept the heavy imports of U. S. currency except at a heavy discount, it was exported again. And in 1876, legislation was passed to demonetize the silver dollars. In 1882, the local'legal tender act' demonetized the gold doubloon, which had in effect been the real standard in Bermuda, this left pounds and pence as the sole legal tender; the British pound sterling remained the official currency of Bermuda until 1970. It was decided to take the action that British Honduras had done 85 years earlier.
In line with the international trend towards decimalization, Bermuda introduced a new currency in the form of a dollar, fixed at an equal value to the US dollar. The new Bermuda dollars operated in conjunction with decimal fractional coinage, hence ending the pounds and pence system in that colony in the year before it was ended in the United Kingdom itself; the decision to align with the US dollar was at least in part influenced by the devaluation of sterling in 1967 and Bermuda's increasing tendency to keep its reserves in US dollars. Although Bermuda changed to a U. S. based currency and changed the bulk of its reserves from sterling to U. S. dollars in 1970, it still remained a member of the sterling area since at that time, the pound sterling and the US dollar had a fixed exchange rate of £1 = $2.40. Following the US dollar crisis of 1971 which ended the international Bretton Woods agreement of 1944, the US dollar devalued, but the Bermuda dollar maintained its link to sterling. On 22 June 1972, the United Kingdom unilaterally ended its sterling area based exchange control laws, hence excluding Bermuda from its sterli