Ferdinand Gregorovius was a German historian who specialized in the medieval history of Rome. Gregorovius was the son of Neidenburg district justice council Ferdinand Timotheus Gregorovius and his wife Wilhelmine Charlotte Dorothea Kausch. Gregorovius family members lived for over 300 years in Prussia and had many jurist and artists. One famous ancestor of Ferdinand's was Johann Adam Gregorovius, born 1681 in Johannisburg, district of Gumbinnen. An earlier ancestor named. Ferdinand Gregorovius was born at Neidenburg, East Prussia, studied theology and philosophy at the University of Königsberg. In 1838, he joined the Corps Masovia. After teaching for many years, Gregorovius took up residence in Italy in 1852, remaining in that country for over twenty years. In 1876, he was made honorary citizen of Rome, the first German to be awarded this honor. A street and a square are named after him, he returned to Germany, where he died in Munich. He is best known for Wanderjahre in Italien, his account of the travels on foot that he took through Italy in the 1850s, the monumental Die Geschichte der Stadt Rom im Mittelalter, a classic for Medieval and early Renaissance history.
He wrote biographies of Pope Alexander VI and Lucrezia Borgia, as well as works on Byzantine history and medieval Athens, translated Italian authors into German, among them Giovanni Melis. According to Jesuit Father John Hardon, S. J. Gregorovius was "a bitter enemy of the popes." Der Ghetto und die Juden in Rom, Mit Einem Geleitwort von Leo Baeck, Im Schocken Verlag/Berlin, 1935 Der Tod des Tiberius Geschichte des römischen Kaisers Hadrian und seiner Zeit The Emperor Hadrian Siciliana Corsica. Schwäbisch Hall: E. Fischhaber, 1855. Geschichte der Stadt Rom im Mittelalter Translated into English'The History of Rome in the Middle Ages'.. Von der Zeit Justinians bis zur türkischen Eroberung Lucretia Borgia und ihre Zeit John Leslie Garner's trans. of the 3rd German edition Die Grabmäler der Römischen Päpste, first edition 1857 in German in 1881 as Die Grabdenkmäler der Päpste and in English as The Tombs of the Popes Victoria Press, Rome 1904 Die Insel Capri. Idylle vom Mittelmeer M. Douglass Fairbairn's trans.
Works by Ferdinand Gregorovius at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Ferdinand Gregorovius at Internet Archive Works by Ferdinand Gregorovius at LibriVox Works by Ferdinand Gregorovius at Open Library Ferdinand Gregorovius Latian Summers
Marozia, born Maria and known as Mariuccia or Mariozza, was a Roman noblewoman, the alleged mistress of Pope Sergius III and was given the unprecedented titles senatrix and patricia of Rome by Pope John X. Edward Gibbon wrote of her that the "influence of two sister prostitutes and Theodora was founded on their wealth and beauty, their political and amorous intrigues: the most strenuous of their lovers were rewarded with the Roman tiara, their reign may have suggested to darker ages the fable of a female pope; the bastard son, two grandsons, two great grandsons, one great great grandson of Marozia—a rare genealogy—were seated in the Chair of St. Peter." Pope John XIII was the offspring of her younger sister Theodora. From this description, the term "pornocracy" has become associated with the effective rule in Rome of Theodora and her daughter Marozia through male surrogates. Marozia was born about 890, she was the daughter of the Roman consul Theophylact, Count of Tusculum, of Theodora, the real power in Rome, whom Liutprand of Cremona characterized as a "shameless whore... exercised power on the Roman citizenry like a man."
At the age of fifteen, Marozia became the mistress of Theophylact's cousin Pope Sergius III, whom she knew when he was bishop of Portus. The two had John. That, at least, is the story found in two contemporary sources, the Liber Pontificalis and the Antapodosis sive Res per Europam gestae, by Liutprand of Cremona, but a third contemporary source, the annalist Flodoard, says John XI was brother of Alberic II, the latter being the offspring of Marozia and her husband Alberic I. Hence John too may have been the son of Marozia and Alberic I. Marozia married Alberic I, duke of Spoleto, in 909, their son Alberic II was born in 911 or 912. By the time Alberic I was killed at Orte in 924, the Roman landowners had won complete victory over the traditional bureaucracy represented by the papal curia. Rome was under secular control, the historic nadir of the papacy. In order to counter the influence of Pope John X, Marozia subsequently married his opponent Guy of Tuscany, who loved his beautiful wife as much as he loved power.
Together they attacked Rome, arrested Pope John X in the Lateran, jailed him in the Castel Sant'Angelo. Either Guy had him smothered with a pillow in 928 or he died from neglect or ill treatment. Marozia seized power in Rome in a coup d'état; the following popes, Leo VI and Stephen VII, were both her puppets. In 931 she managed to impose her son as pontiff, under the name of John XI. John was only twenty-one at the time; when her husband died in 929, Marozia negotiated a marriage with his half-brother Hugh of Arles, elected King of Italy. Hugh was married, but had that marriage annulled so that Hugh and Marozia could be wed. Alberic II, Marozia's son, led the opposition to the rule of Hugh. After deposing them in 932, at the wedding ceremonies, Alberic II imprisoned his mother until her death. Hugh escaped the city. Marozia would remain in prison for some 5 years. Marozia may well have had the misfortune of having eloquent detractors: the Liber Pontificalis and the chronicle of Liutprand of Cremona are the main sources for the details of her life.
Although given the level of widespread violence and corruption of the period, there was more than little to be exaggerated. Alberic II was in his turn father of Octavian, who became Pope John XII in 955. Popes Benedict VIII, John XIX, Benedict IX, antipope Benedict X of the House of Tusculani were Marozia's descendants. By Guy of Tuscany she had a daughter named Berta Theodora. Chamberlin, E. R.. The Bad Popes. Williams, George. Papal genealogy, the families and descendants of the popes. Di Carpegna Falconieri, Marozia, in Dizionario biografico degli italiani, 70, pp. 681–685
Old St. Peter's Basilica
Old St. Peter's Basilica was the building that stood, from the 4th to 16th centuries, where the new St. Peter's Basilica stands today in Vatican City. Construction of the basilica, built over the historical site of the Circus of Nero, began during the reign of Emperor Constantine I; the name "old St. Peter's Basilica" has been used since the construction of the current basilica to distinguish the two buildings. Construction began by orders of the Roman Emperor Constantine I between 318 and 322, took about 40 years to complete. Over the next twelve centuries, the church gained importance becoming a major place of pilgrimage in Rome. Papal coronations were held at the basilica, in 800, Charlemagne was crowned emperor of the Holy Roman Empire there. In 846, Saracens damaged the basilica; the raiders seem to have known about Rome's extraordinary treasures. Some holy – and impressive – basilicas, such as St. Peter's Basilica, were outside the Aurelian walls, thus easy targets, they were "filled to overflowing with rich liturgical vessels and with jeweled reliquaries housing all of the relics amassed".
As a result, the raiders pillaged the holy shrine. In response Pope Leo IV built the Leonine wall and rebuilt the parts of St. Peter's, damaged. In 1099, Urban II convened a council including St Anselm. Among other topics, it repeated the bans on lay investiture and on clergy's paying homage to secular lords. By the 15th century the church was falling into ruin. Discussions on repairing parts of the structure commenced upon the pope's return from Avignon. Two people involved in this reconstruction were Leon Battista Alberti and Bernardo Rossellino, who improved the apse and added a multi-story benediction loggia to the atrium facade, on which construction continued intermittently until the new basilica was begun. Alberti pronounced the basilica a structural abomination: I have noticed in the basilica of St. Peter's in Rome a crass feature: an long and high wall has been constructed over a continuous series of openings, with no curves to give it strength, no buttresses to lend it support... The whole stretch of wall has been pierced by too many openings and built too high...
As a result, the continual force of the wind has displaced the wall more than six feet from the vertical. At first Pope Julius II had every intention of preserving the old building, but his attention soon turned toward tearing it down and building a new structure. Many people of the time were shocked by the proposal, as the building represented papal continuity going back to Peter; the original altar was to be preserved in the new structure. The design was a typical basilica form with the plan and elevation resembling those of Roman basilicas and audience halls, such as the Basilica Ulpia in Trajan's Forum and Constantine's own Aula Palatina at Trier, rather than the design of any Greco-Roman temple. Constantine went to great pains to build the basilica on the site of Saint Peter's grave, this fact influenced the layout of the building; the Vatican Hill, on the west bank of the Tiber River, was leveled. Notably, since the site was outside the boundaries of the ancient city, the apse with the altar was located in the west so that the basilica's façade could be approached from Rome itself to the east.
The exterior however, unlike earlier pagan temples, was not lavishly decorated. The church was capable of housing from 3,000 to 4,000 worshipers at one time, it consisted of five aisles, a wide central nave and two smaller aisles to each side, which were each divided by 21 marble columns, taken from earlier pagan buildings. It was over 350 feet long, built in the shape of a Latin cross, had a gabled roof, timbered on the interior and which stood at over 100 feet at the center. An atrium, known as the "Garden of Paradise", stood at the entrance and had five doors which led to the body of the church; the altar of Old St. Peter's Basilica used several Solomonic columns. According to tradition, Constantine took these columns from the Temple of Solomon and gave them to the church; when Gian Lorenzo Bernini built his baldacchino to cover the new St. Peter's altar, he drew from the twisted design of the old columns. Eight of the original columns were moved to the piers of the new St. Peter's; the great Navicella mosaic in the atrium is attributed to Giotto di Bondone.
The giant mosaic, commissioned by Cardinal Jacopo Stefaneschi, occupied the whole wall above the entrance arcade facing the courtyard. It depicted St. Peter walking on the waters; this extraordinary work was destroyed during the construction of the new St. Peter's in the 16th century, but fragments were preserved. Navicella means "little ship" referring to the large boat which dominated the scene, whose sail, filled by the storm, loomed over the horizon; such a natural representation of a seascape was known only from ancient works of art. The nave ended with an arch, which held a mosaic of Constantine and Saint Peter, who presented a model of the church to Christ. On the walls, each having 11 windows, were frescoes of various people and scenes from both the Old and New Testament; the fragment of an eighth-century mosaic, the Epiphany, is one of the rare remaining bits of the medieval decoration of Old St. Peter's Basilica; the precious fragment is kept in the sacristy of Santa Maria in Cosmedin.
It proves the high artistic quality of the destroyed mosaics. Another one, a standing madonna, is on a side altar in the Basilica of San Marco in Florence. Since the crucifixion and burial of Saint Peter in
The Normans are an ethnic group that arose in Normandy, a northern region of France, from contact between indigenous Franks and Gallo-Romans, Norse Viking settlers. The settlements followed a series of raids on the French coast from Denmark and Iceland, they gained political legitimacy when the Viking leader Rollo agreed to swear fealty to King Charles III of West Francia; the distinct cultural and ethnic identity of the Normans emerged in the first half of the 10th century, it continued to evolve over the succeeding centuries. The Norman dynasty had a major political and military impact on medieval Europe and the Near East; the Normans were famed for their martial spirit and for their Catholic piety, becoming exponents of the Catholic orthodoxy of the Romance community into which they assimilated. They adopted the Gallo-Romance language of the Frankish land they settled, their dialect becoming known as Norman, Normaund or Norman French, an important literary language, still spoken today in parts of Normandy and the nearby Channel Islands.
The Duchy of Normandy, which they formed by treaty with the French crown, was a great fief of medieval France, under Richard I of Normandy was forged into a cohesive and formidable principality in feudal tenure. The Normans are noted both for their culture, such as their unique Romanesque architecture and musical traditions, for their significant military accomplishments and innovations. Norman adventurers played a role in founding the Kingdom of Sicily under Roger II after conquering southern Italy and Malta from the Saracens and Byzantines, during an expedition on behalf of their duke, William the Conqueror, which led to the Norman conquest of England at the historic Battle of Hastings in 1066. In the ninth century, the Normans captured Seville in Southern Spain, Norman and Anglo-Norman forces contributed to the Iberian Reconquista from the early eleventh to the mid-thirteenth centuries. Norman cultural and military influence spread from these new European centres to the Crusader states of the Near East, where their prince Bohemond I founded the Principality of Antioch in the Levant, to Scotland and Wales in Great Britain, to Ireland, to the coasts of north Africa and the Canary Islands.
The legacy of the Normans persists today through the regional languages and dialects of France, England and Sicily, as well as the various cultural and political arrangements they introduced in their conquered territories. The English name "Normans" comes from the French words Normans/Normanz, plural of Normant, modern French normand, itself borrowed from Old Low Franconian Nortmann "Northman" or directly from Old Norse Norðmaðr, Latinized variously as Nortmannus, Normannus, or Nordmannus to mean "Norseman, Viking"; the 11th century Benedictine monk and historian, Goffredo Malaterra, characterised the Normans thus: Specially marked by cunning, despising their own inheritance in the hope of winning a greater, eager after both gain and dominion, given to imitation of all kinds, holding a certain mean between lavishness and greediness, uniting, as they did, these two opposite qualities. Their chief men were specially lavish through their desire of good report, they were, moreover, a race skillful in flattery, given to the study of eloquence, so that the boys were orators, a race altogether unbridled unless held down by the yoke of justice.
They were enduring of toil and cold whenever fortune laid it on them, given to hunting and hawking, delighting in the pleasure of horses, of all the weapons and garb of war. In the course of the 10th century, the destructive incursions of Norse war bands going upstream into the rivers of France penetrated further into interior Europe, evolved into more permanent encampments that included local French women and personal property; the Duchy of Normandy, which began in 911 as a fiefdom, was established by the treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte between King Charles III of West Francia and the famed Viking ruler Rollo known as Gaange Rolf, from Scandinavia, was situated in the former Frankish kingdom of Neustria. The treaty offered Rollo and his men the French coastal lands along the English Channel between the river Epte and the Atlantic Ocean coast in exchange for their protection against further Viking incursions; as well as granting to protect the area of Rouen from Viking invasion, Rollo had to swear not to invade further Frankish lands himself, accept baptism and conversion to the Roman Catholic faith of Christianity becoming Christian and swear fealty to King Charles III.
He became the first Duke of Count of Rouen. The area corresponded to the northern part of present-day Upper Normandy down to the river Seine, but the Duchy would extend west beyond the Seine; the territory was equivalent to the old province of Rouen, reproduced the old Roman Empire's administrative structure of Gallia Lugdunensis II. Before Rollo's arrival, Normandy's populations did not differ from Picardy or the Île-de-France, which were considered "Frankish". Earlier Viking settlers had begun arriving in the 880s, but were divided between colonies in the east around the low Seine valley and in the west in the Cotentin Peninsula, were separated by traditional pagii, where the population remained about the same with no foreign settlers. Rollo's contingents from Scandinavia who raided and settled Normandy and parts of the European Atlantic coast included Danes, Norse–Gaels, Orkney Vikings, p
Theophanu, was an Empress consort of the Holy Roman Empire by marriage to Holy Roman Emperor Otto II, regent of the Holy Roman Empire during the minority of her son from 983 until her death in 990. She was the niece of the Byzantine Emperor John I Tzimiskes. According to the marriage certificate issued on 14 April 972—a masterpiece of the Ottonian Renaissance—Theophanu is identified as the neptis of Emperor John I Tzimiskes, of Armenian descent, she was of distinguished noble heritage: the Vita Mahthildis identifies her as augusti de palatio and the Annales Magdeburgenses describe her as Grecam illustrem imperatoriae stirpi proximam, ingenio facundam. Recent research tends to concur that she was most the daughter of Tzimiskes' brother-in-law Constantine Skleros and cousin Sophia Phokaina, the daughter of Kouropalatēs Leo Phokas, brother of Emperor Nikephoros II. Theophanu was not the blue-blood or "purple-born" princess. Theophanu's uncle, John I Tzimiskes, was considered the usurper of the Byzantine throne, placing Theophanu in a precarious position.
The match was made, on paper, to seal a treaty between the Holy Roman Empire and the Eastern Roman Empire. Otto I was told by some to send Theophanu away, on account of the notion that her questionable imperial origin would not legitimize the emperorship. A reference by the Pope to Emperor Nikephoros II as "Emperor of the Greeks" in a letter while Otto's ambassador, Bishop Liutprand of Cremona, was at the Byzantine court, had destroyed the first round of marriage negotiations. With the ascension of John I Tzimiskes, who had not been referred to other than as Roman Emperor, the treaty negotiations were able to resume. However, not until a third delegation led by Archbishop Gero of Cologne arrived in Constantinople, were they completed. After the marriage negotiations completed and Otto II were married by Pope John XIII in April 972 and she was crowned as Holy Roman Empress the same day in Rome. According to Karl Leysers' book Communications and Power in Medieval Europe: Carolingian and Ottonian, Otto I's choice was not "to be searched for in the parlance of high politics" as his decision was made on the basis of securing his dynasty with the birth of the next Ottonian emperor.
Otto II succeeded his father on 8 May 973. Theophanu accompanied her husband on all his journeys, she is mentioned in one quarter of the emperor's formal documents - evidence of her privileged position and interest in affairs of the empire, it is known that she was at odds with her mother-in-law, Adelaide of Italy, which caused an estrangement between Otto II and Adelaide. According to Abbot Odilo of Cluny, Adelaide was happy when "that Greek woman" died; the Benedictine chronicler Alpert of Metz describes Theophanu as being an unpleasant and chattery woman. Theophanu was criticized for her relative decadence, which manifested in her bathing more than once a day and introducing new luxurious garments and jewelry into the royal court, she is credited with introducing the fork to Western Europe—chroniclers mention the astonishment she caused when she "used a golden double prong to bring food to her mouth" instead of using her hands as was the cultural norm." The theologian Peter Damian asserts that Theophanu had a love affair with John Philagathos, a Greek monk who reigned as Antipope John XVI.
Otto II died on 7 December 983 at the age of 28 from malaria. His three-year-old son, Otto III, had been appointed King of the Romans during a diet held on Pentecost of that year at Verona. At Christmas, Theophanu had him crowned by the Mainz archbishop Willigis at Aachen Cathedral, with herself ruling as Empress Regent on his behalf. Upon the death of Emperor Otto II, Bishop Folcmar of Utrecht released his cousin, the Bavarian duke Henry the Quarrelsome from custody. Duke Henry allied with Archbishop Warin of Cologne and seized his nephew Otto III in spring 984, while Theophanu was still in Italy, he was forced to surrender the child to his mother, backed by Archbishop Willigis of Mainz and Bishop Hildebald of Worms. Theophanu ruled the Holy Roman Empire as regent for a span of five years, from May 985 to her death in 990, despite early opposition by the Ottonian court. In fact, many queens in the tenth century, on an account of male rulers dying early deaths, found themselves in power, creating an age of women rulers for a small period of time.
During her regency, Theophanu brought from her native east, a culture of royal women at the helm of a small amount of political power, something that the West--of which she was in rule of--had remained opposed to for centuries before her regency. Theophanu and her mother-in-law, are known during the empress' regency to butt heads frequently--Adelaide of Italy is quoted in referring to her as "that Greek empress." Theophanu's rivalry with her mother-in-law, according to historian and author Simon Maclean, is over-stated. Theophanu's "Greekness" was not an overall issue, there was a grand fascination with the culture surrounding Byzantine court in the west that slighted most criticisms to her Greek origin. Theophanu did not remain as an image of the Ottonian empire, but as an influencer w
Campagna is a small town and comune of the province of Salerno, in the Campania region of Southern Italy. In 2010, its population was 16,183; the town, located in a mountainous district lost importance in the 20th century. All its district offices have been moved to other cities since the 1930s, the Diocese of Campagna merged with the Archdiocese of Salerno in 1973. During World War II, the Campagna was the site of an internment camp; the Bishop Giuseppe Maria Palatucci turned the camp into a shelter for Italian and foreign Jews, many of them sent there for protection by his nephew Giovanni Palatucci. Much of this is documented in Elizabeth Bettina's book, It Happened in Italy. Campagna borders with Acerno, Contursi Terme, Olevano sul Tusciano, Oliveto Citra, Postiglione and Senerchia, The municipality counts the frazioni of Camaldoli, Mattinelle, Quadrivio, Romandola-Madonna del Ponte, Santa Maria La Nova and Serradarce. Other localities are Avigliano, Oppidi-Varano and Sant'Angelo. Castle Gerione Castle De Alegisio Palazzo di Città Palace Ducale Pironti Palazzo Tercasio Palazzo dei Governatori dei Principi di Monaco Palazzo Rivelli Palazzo Pastore-Alinante Palazzo Bernalla Palazzo Trotta Fountain Giudeca Fountain S.
Lucia Fountain Cortiglia Bridge of Presbyteres Bridge of piazza Guerriero Basilica co-cathedral of Santa Maria della Pace Church and convent Dominican of San Bartolomeo Shrine of Madonna di Avigliano Church of SS. Annunziata Church of SS Salvatore e Sant'Antonino Church of S. Giovanni Seminary di S. Spirito Monastery of Maddalena Church and convent of Osservanti della Concezione Abbey of Santa Maria La Nova Monastery of San Martino Hermitage of S. Erasmo e S. Giacomo degli eremiti Hermitage of San Michele di Montenero Hermitage of S. Maria Domenica Itinerario della Memoria e della Pace Museo della confraternita dei cinturati di Santa Maria del Soccorso Oasi naturale del Monte Polveracchio Oasi di Persano Riserva naturale Foce Sele-Tanagro Antoninus of Sorrento, catholic saint born at Campagna Honoré I, Lord of Monaco, Marquis of Campagna Charles II, Lord of Monaco, Marquis of Campagna Hercule, Lord of Monaco, Marquis of Campagna Honoré II, Prince of Monaco, Marquis of Campagna Juan Caramuel y Lobkowitz, bishop of Campagna Louis I, Prince of Monaco, Marquis of Campagna Giordano Bruno philosopher Dominican friar [[Julius Caesar Capaccio historical of Campagna [[Melchiorre Guerrriero noble of Campagna Campagna hosts a traditional'A Chiena festival annually in mid-August.
During the festival, the river Tenza is deflected from its natural course through the city streets, becoming a stream where locals and tourists refresh themselves by throwing bucketfuls onto each other. The festival has an ancient origin, although it was organized in order to wash the city streets and shops. Monte Carlo in the Principality of Monaco is Campagna's sister city. Media related to Campagna at Wikimedia Commons Official website Comuni italiani: Campagna
Sabina called the Sabine Hills, is a region in central Italy. It is named after Sabina, the territory of the ancient Sabines, once bordered by Latium to the south, Picenum to the east, ancient Umbria to the north and Etruria to the west, it was separated from Umbria by the River Nar, today's Nera, from Etruria by the River Tiber. Today, Sabina is northeast of Rome in the regions Lazio and Abruzzo. Upper Sabina is in the province of Rieti. Sabina Romana is in the province of Rome. Part of Sabina is in the regions of Abruzzo; some Sabines who lived in two of the Seven Hills of Rome formed part of the postulation of Rome at the time of its foundation. The second king of Rome, Numa Pompilius, was from the capital of Sabina. During the reigns of the Roman kings Ancus Marcius and Tarquinius Priscus the Sabines attacked Roman territory several times; this occurred during the early period of the Roman Republic. After the Third Samnite War, the Romans moved to crush the Sabines; the Roman consul Manius Curius Dentatus pushed deep into Sabina in the area between the rivers Nar and Anio and the source of the River Avens.
Spurius Carvilius confiscated large tracts of land in the plain around Reate and Amiternum, which he distributed to Roman settlers. Florus did not give the reasons for this campaign; the modem historian Salmon speculates that "it might have been because of the part they had played or failed to play in the events of 296/295." That is, they let the Samnites cross their territory to go to Etruria and join forces with the Etruscans and Senone Gauls. Forsythe speculates that it may have been a punishment for this. Livy mentioned; the Sabines were given citizenship without the right to vote, which meant that their territory was annexed to the Roman Republic. Reate and Amiternum were given full Roman citizenship in 268 BC. In the Augustan division of Italy, Sabina was included in the region IV Samnium. With Diocletian's late 3rd-century administrative reforms, Italy became a Roman diocese and was subdivided into Roman provinces. Sabina became part of the province of Samnium. Constantine the Great subdivided it into two dioceses.
Sabina fell under the diocese of Italia suburbicaria as the province of Valeria. With the Lombard invasion of Italy in the Early Middle Ages, the territory of Sabina became part of the Lombard Duchy of Spoleto. With the Byzantine reconquest of central Italy, it came under the Duchy of Rome of the Byzantine Exarchate of Ravenna. With the rise of the Papal States, Sabina was governed directly by the pontificate or indirectly, by the counts of Sabina, a title of the noble Crescentii family in the 10th and 11th centuries. During the late 9th to early 10th century, the region was, along with much of central Italy, a stronghold of, or threatened by the Saracens; the extra virgin olive oil Sabina is, chronologically speaking, the first Italian Protected Designation of Origin oil to gain the certification from the European Community, the production of olives and oil is a millennial tradition in Sabine. In 1996, the Italian government designated the vineyards around the Sabine Hills as a DOC wine region eligible to produce red and rose wine as well as some sweet sparkling wine from white grape varieties.
The grapes are limited to a harvest yields of 12 tonnes/ha. Red and rose wines are a blend of 40–70% Sangiovese, 15–40% Montepulciano with other local varieties permitted up to 30%; the white wines are a blend of at least 40% Trebbiano and at least 40% Malvasia with other local grape varieties permitted to make up to 20% of the remaining blend. Red and rose wines must have a minimum alcohol level of 11% with whites having a minimum of 10.5%. See suburbicarian diocese. Sabina has been the seat of a Catholic bishopric since the 6th century, though the earliest names in the list of bishops may be apocryphal; the official papal province of Sabina was established under Pope Paul V in 1605. The Cardinal Bishop of Sabina is one of the six suburbican tituli of the College of Cardinals which carry the rank of Cardinal Bishop. Since 1925 the Cardinal Titular Church of Sabina has been joined to that of Poggio Mirteto, a municipality of the region, named Sabina e Poggio Mirteto, since 1986 Sabina–Poggio Mirteto.
The current Cardinal Bishop of Sabina-Poggio Mirteto is Giovanni Battista Re. Henry James, American author, visited on horseback at the end of January 1872; the area was alive. It was charged "to the supersensuous ear, with the murmur of an extinguished life", he noted to his family that "I can stick on a horse better than I supposed". Sabines Strada dell'Olio Farfa Abbey Province of Rieti Province of Rome Santacittarama Buddhist Monastery Sabina on-line Catholic Hierarchy: Sabina-Poggio Mirteto (Cardinal Titular Church GCatholic Travel Information for the Sabina Photos