Montgomery is the capital city of the U. S. state of Alabama and the county seat of Montgomery County. Named for Richard Montgomery, it stands beside the Alabama River, on the coastal Plain of the Gulf of Mexico. In the 2010 Census, Montgomery's population was 205,764, it is the second most populous city in Alabama, after Birmingham, is the 118th most populous in the United States. The Montgomery Metropolitan Statistical Area's population in 2010 was estimated at 374,536; the city was incorporated in 1819 as a merger of two towns situated along the Alabama River. It became the state capital in 1846, representing the shift of power to the south-central area of Alabama with the growth of cotton as a commodity crop of the Black Belt and the rise of Mobile as a mercantile port on the Gulf Coast. In February 1861, Montgomery was chosen the first capital of the Confederate States of America, which it remained until the Confederate seat of government moved to Richmond, Virginia, in May of that year. In the middle of the 20th century, Montgomery was a major center of events and protests in the Civil Rights Movement, including the Montgomery Bus Boycott and the Selma to Montgomery marches.
In addition to housing many Alabama government agencies, Montgomery has a large military presence, due to Maxwell Air Force Base. Two ships of the United States Navy have been named after the city, including USS Montgomery. Montgomery has been recognized nationally for its downtown revitalization and new urbanism projects, it was one of the first cities in the nation to implement Smart Code Zoning. Prior to European colonization, the east bank of the Alabama River was inhabited by the Alibamu tribe of Native Americans; the Alibamu and the Coushatta, who lived on the west side of the river, were descended from the Mississippian culture. This civilization had numerous chiefdoms throughout the Midwest and South along the Mississippi and its tributaries, had built massive earthwork mounds as part of their society about 950–1250 AD, its largest location was in present-day Illinois east of St. Louis; the historic tribes spoke mutually intelligible Muskogean languages, which were related. Present-day Montgomery is built on the site of two Alibamu towns: Ikanatchati, meaning "red earth.
The first Europeans to travel through central Alabama were Hernando de Soto and his expedition, who in 1540 recorded going through Ikanatchati and camping for one week in Towassa. The next recorded European encounter occurred more than a century when an English expedition from Carolina went down the Alabama River in 1697; the first permanent European settler in the Montgomery area was James McQueen, a Scots trader who settled there in 1716. He married a high-status woman in the Alabama tribe, their mixed-race children were considered Muskogean, as both tribes had a matrilineal system of property and descent. The children were always considered born into their mother's clan, gained their status from her people. In 1785, Abraham Mordecai, a war veteran from a Sephardic Jewish family of Philadelphia, established a trading post; the Coushatta and Alabama had moved south and west in the tidal plain. After the French were defeated by the British in 1763 in the Seven Years' War and ceded control of their lands, these Native American peoples moved to parts of present-day Mississippi and Texas areas of Spanish rule, which they thought more favorable than British-held areas.
By the time Mordecai arrived, Creek had migrated into and settled in the area, as they were moving away from Cherokee and Iroquois warfare to the north. Mordecai married a Creek woman; when her people had to cede most of their lands after the 1813-14 Creek War, she joined them in removal to Indian Territory. Mordecai brought the first cotton gin to Alabama; the Upper Creek were able to discourage most European-American immigration until after the conclusion of the Creek War. Following their defeat by General Andrew Jackson in August 1814, the Creek tribes were forced to cede 23 million acres to the United States, including remaining land in today's Georgia and most of today's central and southern Alabama. In 1816, the Mississippi Territory organized Montgomery County, its former Creek lands were sold off the next year at the federal land office in Milledgeville, Georgia. The first group of European-American settlers to come to the Montgomery area was headed by General John Scott; this group founded Alabama Town about 2 miles downstream on the Alabama River from present-day downtown Montgomery.
In June 1818, county courts were moved from Fort Jackson to Alabama Town. Alabama was admitted to the Union in December 1819. Soon after, Andrew Dexter Jr. founded the present-day eastern part of downtown. He envisioned a prominent future for his town. New Philadelphia soon prospered, Scott and his associates built a new town adjacent, calling it East Alabama Town. Rivals, the towns merged on December 3, 1819, were incorporated as the town of Montgomery; the name Montgomery came from a Revolutionary War general. Slave traders used the Alabama River t
Bladon Springs State Park
Bladon Springs State Park is a locally managed public recreation area on the site of four mineral springs that were once part of the historic spa at Bladon Springs, Choctaw County, Alabama. Analysis by a state geologist in 1845 found the springs to contain sulfur, iron and calcium; the park came under local control after the state closed it in October 2015. The state park—which had offered a small campground and picnicking facilities—was one of several that were closed or saw curtailment of services in 2015 following state budget cuts; the springs bearing the name of the property's first owner, John Bladon, were opened as a spa by James Conner in 1838. Travelers from near and far were drawn by the mineral content of the spring water, thought to possess healing qualities. After building cottages that could accommodate one hundred guests, Conner improved his spa in 1846 with a grand Greek Revival–style hotel that could house 200 more people; the structure featured a full-length, two-story veranda across its front, bowling alley, billiard room, hotel bar, skating rink.
A latticed pavilion over the principle spring, bath houses, latticed pergola, croquet court were part of the grounds. The hotel was one of the largest wooden hotels built in Alabama and together with the grounds earned for the springs the nickname the "Saratoga of the South."The hotel operated through the Civil War, finding full operation again by 1870 saw diminishing popularity in the 20th century, until it closed "sometime after 1913." Logging crews found lodging there until the hotel was purchased by the state in 1934 for state employee housing. The grounds were opened as a state park after the hotel burned down in 1938; the cottages were demolished or moved, leaving the pavilion over the main spring as the only remaining original structure. The park came under local management after being one of five Alabama state parks that were closed by the state in 2015; the water from the springs is laden with sulfur-fixing bacteria and is yellow-tinged. It contains small gauze-like masses of the bacteria.
These bacteria are harmless to humans. Although most visitors come to bathe in the water, it is potable, pleasant to drink after the solid materials have been strained out and the water chilled; the park offers picnicking and playground facilities and is a stop on the Alabama Black Belt Birding Trail. Bladon Springs State Park Alabama Department of Conservation and Natural Resources
Alabama is a state in the southeastern region of the United States. It is bordered by Tennessee to the north, Georgia to the east and the Gulf of Mexico to the south, Mississippi to the west. Alabama is the 30th largest by area and the 24th-most populous of the U. S. states. With a total of 1,500 miles of inland waterways, Alabama has among the most of any state. Alabama is nicknamed the Yellowhammer State, after the state bird. Alabama is known as the "Heart of Dixie" and the "Cotton State"; the state tree is the longleaf pine, the state flower is the camellia. Alabama's capital is Montgomery; the largest city by population is Birmingham. The oldest city is Mobile, founded by French colonists in 1702 as the capital of French Louisiana. From the American Civil War until World War II, like many states in the southern U. S. suffered economic hardship, in part because of its continued dependence on agriculture. Similar to other former slave states, Alabamian legislators employed Jim Crow laws to disenfranchise and otherwise discriminate against African Americans from the end of the Reconstruction Era up until at least the 1970s.
Despite the growth of major industries and urban centers, white rural interests dominated the state legislature from 1901 to the 1960s. During this time, urban interests and African Americans were markedly under-represented. Following World War II, Alabama grew as the state's economy changed from one based on agriculture to one with diversified interests; the state's economy in the 21st century is based on management, finance, aerospace, mineral extraction, education and technology. The European-American naming of the Alabama River and state was derived from the Alabama people, a Muskogean-speaking tribe whose members lived just below the confluence of the Coosa and Tallapoosa rivers on the upper reaches of the river. In the Alabama language, the word for a person of Alabama lineage is Albaamo; the suggestion that "Alabama" was borrowed from the Choctaw language is unlikely. The word's spelling varies among historical sources; the first usage appears in three accounts of the Hernando de Soto expedition of 1540: Garcilaso de la Vega used Alibamo, while the Knight of Elvas and Rodrigo Ranjel wrote Alibamu and Limamu in transliterations of the term.
As early as 1702, the French called the tribe the Alibamon, with French maps identifying the river as Rivière des Alibamons. Other spellings of the name have included Alibamu, Albama, Alibama, Alabamu, Allibamou. Sources disagree on the word's meaning; some scholars suggest the word comes from amo. The meaning may have been "clearers of the thicket" or "herb gatherers", referring to clearing land for cultivation or collecting medicinal plants; the state has numerous place names of Native American origin. However, there are no correspondingly similar words in the Alabama language. An 1842 article in the Jacksonville Republican proposed it meant "Here We Rest." This notion was popularized in the 1850s through the writings of Alexander Beaufort Meek. Experts in the Muskogean languages have not found any evidence to support such a translation. Indigenous peoples of varying cultures lived in the area for thousands of years before the advent of European colonization. Trade with the northeastern tribes by the Ohio River began during the Burial Mound Period and continued until European contact.
The agrarian Mississippian culture covered most of the state from 1000 to 1600 AD, with one of its major centers built at what is now the Moundville Archaeological Site in Moundville, Alabama. This is the second-largest complex of the classic Middle Mississippian era, after Cahokia in present-day Illinois, the center of the culture. Analysis of artifacts from archaeological excavations at Moundville were the basis of scholars' formulating the characteristics of the Southeastern Ceremonial Complex. Contrary to popular belief, the SECC appears to have no direct links to Mesoamerican culture, but developed independently; the Ceremonial Complex represents a major component of the religion of the Mississippian peoples. Among the historical tribes of Native American people living in present-day Alabama at the time of European contact were the Cherokee, an Iroquoian language people. While part of the same large language family, the Muskogee tribes developed distinct cultures and languages. With exploration in the 16th century, the Spanish were the first Europeans to reach Alabama.
The expedition of Hernando de Soto passed through Mabila and other parts of the state in 1540. More than 160 years the French founded the region's first European settlement at Old Mobile in 1702; the city was moved to the current site of Mobile in 1711. This area was claimed by the French from 1702 to 1763 as part of La Louisiane. After the French lost to the British in the Seven Years' War, it became part of British West Florida from 1763 to 1783. After the United States victory in the American Revolutionary War, the territory was divided between the United States and Spain; the latter retained control of this western territory from 1783 until the surrender of the Spanish garrison at Mobile to U. S. forces on April 13, 1813. Thomas Bassett, a loyalist to the British monarchy during the Revolutionary era, was one of the earliest white settlers in the state
United States National Forest
National Forest is a classification of protected and managed federal lands in the United States. National Forests are forest and woodland areas owned collectively by the American people through the federal government, managed by the United States Forest Service, a division of the United States Department of Agriculture; the National Forest System was created by the Land Revision Act of 1891, signed under the presidency of Benjamin Harrison. It was the result of concerted action by Los Angeles-area businessmen and property owners who were concerned by the harm being done to the watershed of the San Gabriel Mountains by ranchers and miners. Abbot Kinney and forester Theodore Lukens were key spokesmen for the effort. In the United States there are 155 National Forests containing 190 million acres of land; these lands comprise 8.5 percent of the total land area of the United States, an area about the size of Texas. Some 87 percent of National Forest land lies west of the Mississippi River in the mountain ranges of the Western United States.
Alaska has 12 percent of all National Forest lands. The U. S. Forest Service manages all of the United States National Grasslands, around half of the United States National Recreation Areas. There are two distinctly different types of forests within the National Forest system; those east of the Great Plains in the Midwestern and Eastern United States were acquired by the federal government since 1891, may be second growth forests. The land had long been in the private domain and sometimes logged since colonial times, but was purchased by the United States government in order to create new National Forests; those west of the Great Plains in the Western United States, though established since 1891, are on lands with ownership maintained by the federal government since the U. S. acquisition and settling of the American West. These are lands that were kept in the public domain, with the exception of inholdings and donated or exchanged private forest lands. Land management of these areas focuses on conservation, timber harvesting, livestock grazing, watershed protection and recreation.
Unlike national parks and other federal lands managed by the National Park Service, extraction of natural resources from national forests is permitted, in many cases encouraged. However, the first-designated wilderness areas, some of the largest, are on National Forest lands. There are management decision conflicts between conservationists and environmentalists, natural resource extraction companies and lobbies, over the protection and/or use of National Forest lands; these conflicts center on endangered species protection, logging of old-growth forests, intensive clear cut logging, undervalued stumpage fees, mining operations and mining claim laws, logging/mining access road-building within National Forests. Additional conflicts arise from concerns that the grasslands and forest understory are grazed by sheep, and, more rising numbers of elk and mule deer due to loss of predators. Many ski resorts and summer resorts operate on leased land in National Forests. List of U. S. National Forests United States National Grassland National Forests of the United States topics State forest National Forest Management Act of 1976 Protected areas of the United States USDA Forest Service USDA Forest Service - The First Century 100 Years of Federal Forestry
Confederate Memorial Park (Marbury, Alabama)
Confederate Memorial Park is an Alabama State Park located in Mountain Creek, in rural Chilton County, Alabama. Its address is 437 County Road 63, Alabama 36051, it is sometimes found with the same address in Verbena, Alabama 36091. Its centerpiece is Alabama's only state home for Confederate soldiers, it "operated from 1902–1939 as a haven for disabled or indigent veterans of the Confederate army, their wives, widows." The last veteran died at the home in 1934, the facility closed in 1939 when "the five remaining widows were moved to Montgomery for better care". In 1964, during the Civil War Centennial, the Alabama State Legislature established Confederate Memorial Park, encompassing the original 102-acre site of the home, as "a shrine to the honor of Alabama's citizens of the Confederacy." In 1971, the site was placed under the authority of the Alabama Historical Commission. The home was founded in 1901 by former Confederate veteran Jefferson Manly Falkner, a lawyer from Montgomery, Alabama.
He wished to provide a home for former Confederate veterans and their wives and widows who could no longer support themselves with pensions. The wives had to have their Confederate husbands alive and living at the homes, but in 1915 the rules were changed to permit widows, he donated 80 acres in 1902 for the purpose of housing such residents in Mountain Creek, a summer resort area. The state government took control of the operations at the home in 1903, it was the only official home for Confederate veterans in Alabama. The home included a small hospital, a dairy barn, mess hall, nine cottages, with a then-modern sewage system. At its height between 1914 and 1918, 104 veterans and nineteen widows of such veterans lived at the home. A total of 650–800 individuals lived at the home at one time or another, most from Alabama, but some had lived in other states during the war, came to Alabama after the war; the last veteran in the home died in 1934. The home closed in October 1939, with the five widows left at the home moved south to a home in Montgomery, where they could receive better care.
The Mountain Creek Baptist Church first met at the Home in 1908. Though the church moved out, the earliest surviving church records show many of the Confederate veterans still going to the church in the 1920s; the grounds include two cemeteries, with 313 graves. A museum with relics from the war and the home is on the site. At the site is a Methodist church; the home's cemetery rosters, insurance papers, superintendent reports are available at the Alabama Dept. of Archives and History in Montgomery. Alabama in the American Civil War Confederate Memorial Park Pewee Valley Confederate Cemetery — site of the Kentucky Confederate Home, in Oldham County, Kentucky Reprint of the Building of Confederate Veteran's Home article from the Blount County News-Dispatch, April 17, 1902 Official website