Rosslyn Park, South Australia
Rosslyn Park is an eastern suburb of Adelaide in the City of Burnside. Most of Rosslyn Park started life as paddocks belonging to Dr Christopher Rawson Penfold, of Penfolds Wine. Dr Penfold was an English emigrant who purchased 500 acres of land in the area in 1844. Here he planted established Penfolds as one of the leading winemakers in Australia, he and subsequent generations of his family resided at the Grange Cottage, to the east of Penfold Road. Dr Penfold became the first chairman of the District Council of Burnside in 1856. Upon Dr Penfold's death in 1870, his son-in-law, Thomas Hyland, assumed control of the business, began to sell some of the land; the area of Rosslyn Park to the west of Gordon Terrace, between Kensington Road and The Parade, was sold in 1877 to a syndicate made up of: James Gartrell, partner in G. Wood, Son & Co. Thomas Gordon, accountant William Taylor, draper Alexander McGeorge, draper David Tweedy, land agentThe syndicate subdivided the land, sold parcels of it the next year.
Wine production declined at the Rosslyn Park site in the 20th century as production shifted to other areas in South Australia. The last vintage of Penfolds Wine was crushed at Magill Estate in 1972. Prior to and following this, subdivision of the land surrounding Magill Estate continued; the area bounded by Penfold Road, Park Avenue, Edgcumbe Terrace and The Parade was the site of Joseph Gillard Jnr's main vineyard. It was sold and subdivided by the Penfolds in around 1912; the area around Angove Court and Edgcumbe Terrace contains the former family home of Dr Roger Angove, inaugural President of the Burnside Historical Society. This land was subdivided in 1960; the family stables remained until they were demolished by a landowner in 1970. A larger subdivision occurred in the early 1980s, when owners Tooth & Co sold much of the area to the east of Penfold Road, resulting in the survival of only the core of the former winery, including production plants and Grange Cottage. In May 2002, Rosslyn Park experienced an incidence of freak weather when a tornado passed through it and Wattle Park late in the morning.
The tornado cut a narrow, 2 km long path of destruction through the suburbs, tearing limbs off trees and tiles from roofs. Rosslyn Park is situated 6 km east of the Adelaide city centre, it is bounded by The Parade to the north, Coach Road to the east, Kensington Road to the south and Hyland Terrace to the west. The suburb is divided by Penfold Road into two distinct areas. West of Penfold Road, the area is characterised by wide, tree-lined roads and architecture representing many styles popular during the twentieth century. East of Penfold Road, the area is much steeper in its approach to the Adelaide Hills, contains some large and modern architecture; some undeveloped vegetatation, some of the vines remain in this part of the suburb. Land use in Rosslyn Park is residential. Penfolds is a notable exception, with its rows of grapevines along Penfold Road a relic of the area's earlier agricultural focus. By far the most notable landmark in Rosslyn Park is the Magill Estate branch of Penfolds Winery.
This site offers cellar door sales and the award-winning Penfolds Magill Estate Restaurant. The winery's chimney is visible throughout the area. Located at Magill Estate is the historic Grange Cottage; this was constructed by Dr Penfold and his wife, Mary, in 1845, named after Mary's home town in England. Grange Hermitage wine was in turn named after the cottage. Other notable locations in Rosslyn Park include: WH Holmes Reserve, situated on Park Avenue. Dr Christopher Rawson Penfold Reserve, a small park on the corner of The Parade and Penfold Road; the park contains a collection of winemaking artefacts donated by wineries in the area. The Consulate General of Greece, located on Mary Penfold Drive. Street names in Rosslyn Park reflect the area's viticultural history and the predilections of its subdividers. Angove Court: named for Roger Angove, whose former family home is located at the end of the court Ayr Street: the name of a Scottish town originates with the Scottish heritage of members of the syndicate Dalwood Court: the name of a range of Penfolds wine Edgcumbe Terrace: name of the Angoves' family home Gillard Drive: named for Joseph Gillard Jnr, manager of the Penfolds cellars and vineyards 1869-1905 Gordon Terrace: named for Thomas Gordon, syndicate member Grange Avenue: name of the Penfolds' family cottage Hyland Terrace: named for Thomas Hyland, son-in-law of Dr Penfold and a key contributor to the winemaker's success Inez Court: named for Inez Hyland, granddaughter of Dr Penfold Lanark Street: the name of a Scottish town originates with the syndicate Mary Penfold Drive: Mary was Dr Penfold's wife and supervised the development of the company after his death Penfold Road: named for Dr Penfold and his wife, Mary Rawson Penfold Drive: named for Dr Penfold Schubert Court: named for Max Schubert, creator of the Grange Hermitage wine Taylor Terrace: named for William Taylor, syndicate member At the Federal level, Rosslyn Park residents are represented in the electorate of Sturt.
The member for the seat is Christopher Pyne MP. At the state level, the suburb is split between the electorates of Hartley held by Grace Portolesi MP, Morialta held by John Gardner MP. Rosslyn Park is accessed by car and bus; the main roads leading to the suburb are Kensington Road and Penfold Road. The Adelaide Metro bus system services Rosslyn Park, with routes H22 and H20 travelling from Grenfell Street in the city to service the area via the Parade, routes H23 and 141 servicing the area via Kensington Road; the 141 originates from North Terrace in the city, whilst the
Cleland, South Australia
Cleland is a suburb in South Australia located in the Adelaide metropolitan area about 10 kilometres south-east of the Adelaide city centre. Its boundaries were created in October 2001, with additional land being added in 2010 from the adjoining suburb of Crafers, its name is derived from the Cleland Conservation Park. The principal land use within the locality is conservation with the majority of its land area being occupied by the Cleland Conservation Park. Places within its extent include the summit of Mount Lofty. Cleland is located within the federal Division of Mayo, the state electoral district of Bragg and the local government areas of the Adelaide Hills Council and the City of Burnside. Cleland
Adelaide is the capital city of the state of South Australia, the fifth-most populous city of Australia. In June 2017, Adelaide had an estimated resident population of 1,333,927. Adelaide is home to more than 75 percent of the South Australian population, making it the most centralised population of any state in Australia. Adelaide is north of the Fleurieu Peninsula, on the Adelaide Plains between the Gulf St Vincent and the low-lying Mount Lofty Ranges which surround the city. Adelaide stretches 20 km from the coast to the foothills, 94 to 104 km from Gawler at its northern extent to Sellicks Beach in the south. Named in honour of Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen, queen consort to King William IV, the city was founded in 1836 as the planned capital for a freely-settled British province in Australia. Colonel William Light, one of Adelaide's founding fathers, designed the city and chose its location close to the River Torrens, in the area inhabited by the Kaurna people. Light's design set out Adelaide in a grid layout, interspaced by wide boulevards and large public squares, surrounded by parklands.
Early Adelaide was shaped by wealth. Until the Second World War, it was Australia's third-largest city and one of the few Australian cities without a convict history, it has been noted for early examples of religious freedom, a commitment to political progressivism and civil liberties. It has been known as the "City of Churches" since the mid-19th century, referring to its diversity of faiths rather than the piety of its denizens; the demonym "Adelaidean" is used in reference to its residents. As South Australia's seat of government and commercial centre, Adelaide is the site of many governmental and financial institutions. Most of these are concentrated in the city centre along the cultural boulevard of North Terrace, King William Street and in various districts of the metropolitan area. Today, Adelaide is noted for its many festivals and sporting events, its food and wine, its long beachfronts, its large defence and manufacturing sectors, it ranks in terms of quality of life, being listed in the world's top 10 most liveable cities, out of 140 cities worldwide by The Economist Intelligence Unit.
It was ranked the most liveable city in Australia by the Property Council of Australia in 2011, 2012 and 2013. Before its proclamation as a British settlement in 1836, the area around Adelaide was inhabited by the indigenous Kaurna Aboriginal nation. Kaurna culture and language were completely destroyed within a few decades of European settlement of South Australia, but extensive documentation by early missionaries and other researchers has enabled a modern revival of both. South Australia was proclaimed a British colony on 28 December 1836, near The Old Gum Tree in what is now the suburb of Glenelg North; the event is commemorated in South Australia as Proclamation Day. The site of the colony's capital was surveyed and laid out by Colonel William Light, the first Surveyor-General of South Australia, through the design made by the architect George Strickland Kingston. Adelaide was established as a planned colony of free immigrants, promising civil liberties and freedom from religious persecution, based upon the ideas of Edward Gibbon Wakefield.
Wakefield had read accounts of Australian settlement while in prison in London for attempting to abduct an heiress, realised that the eastern colonies suffered from a lack of available labour, due to the practice of giving land grants to all arrivals. Wakefield's idea was for the Government to survey and sell the land at a rate that would maintain land values high enough to be unaffordable for labourers and journeymen. Funds raised from the sale of land were to be used to bring out working-class emigrants, who would have to work hard for the monied settlers to afford their own land; as a result of this policy, Adelaide does not share the convict settlement history of other Australian cities like Sydney, Melbourne and Hobart. As it was believed that in a colony of free settlers there would be little crime, no provision was made for a gaol in Colonel Light's 1837 plan, but by mid-1837 the South Australian Register was warning of escaped convicts from New South Wales and tenders for a temporary gaol were sought.
Following a burglary, a murder, two attempted murders in Adelaide during March 1838, Governor Hindmarsh created the South Australian Police Force in April 1838 under 21-year-old Henry Inman. The first sheriff, Samuel Smart, was wounded during a robbery, on 2 May 1838 one of the offenders, Michael Magee, became the first person to be hanged in South Australia. William Baker Ashton was appointed governor of the temporary gaol in 1839, in 1840 George Strickland Kingston was commissioned to design Adelaide's new gaol. Construction of Adelaide Gaol commenced in 1841. Adelaide's early history was marked by questionable leadership; the first governor of South Australia, John Hindmarsh, clashed with others, in particular the Resident Commissioner, James Hurtle Fisher. The rural area surrounding Adelaide was surveyed by Light in preparation to sell a total of over 405 km2 of land. Adelaide's early economy started to get on its feet in 1838 with the arrival of livestock from Victoria, New South Wales and Tasmania.
Wool production provided an early basis for the South Australian economy. By 1860, wheat farms had been established from Encounter Bay in the south to Clare in the north. George Gawler took over from Hindmarsh in late 1838 and, despite being under orders from the Select Committee on South Australia in Britain not to undertake any public works, promptly oversaw construction of a governo
Postcodes in Australia
Postcodes are used in Australia to more efficiently sort and route mail within the Australian postal system. Postcodes in Australia are placed at the end of the Australian address. Postcodes were introduced in Australia in 1967 by the Postmaster-General's Department and are now managed by Australia Post, are published in booklets available from post offices or online from the Australia Post website. Australian envelopes and postcards have four square boxes printed in orange at the bottom right for the postcode; these are used. Postcodes were introduced in Australia in 1967 by the Postmaster-General's Department to replace earlier postal sorting systems, such as Melbourne's letter and number codes and a similar system used in rural and regional New South Wales; the introduction of the postcodes coincided with the introduction of a large-scale mechanical mail sorting system in Australia, starting with the Sydney GPO. By 1968, 75% of mail was using postcodes, in the same year post office preferred-size envelopes were introduced, which came to be referred to as “standard envelopes”.
Postcode squares were introduced in June 1990 to enable Australia Post to use optical character recognition software in its mail sorting machines to automatically and more sort mail by postcodes. Australian postcodes consist of four digits, are written after the name of the city, suburb, or town, the state or territory: Mr John Smith 100 Flushcombe Road BLACKTOWN NSW 2148When writing an address by hand, a row of four boxes is pre-printed on the lower right hand corner of an envelope, the postcode may be written in the boxes. If addressing a letter from outside Australia, the postcode is recorded before'Australia'. Australian postcodes are sorting information, they are linked with one area. Due to post code rationalisation, they can be quite complex in country areas; the south-western Victoria 3221 postcode of the Geelong Mail Centre includes twenty places around Geelong with few people. This means that mail for these places is not sorted until it gets to Geelong; some postcodes cover large populations, while other postcodes have much smaller populations in urban areas.
Australian postcodes range from 0200 for the Australian National University to 9944 for Cannonvale, Queensland. Some towns and suburbs have two postcodes — one for street deliveries and another for post office boxes. For example, a street address in the Sydney suburb of Parramatta would be written like this: Mr John Smith 99 George Street PARRAMATTA NSW 2150But mail sent to a PO Box in Parramatta would be addressed: Mr John Smith PO Box 99 PARRAMATTA NSW 2124Many large businesses, government departments and other institutions receiving high volumes of mail had their own postcode as a Large Volume Receiver, e.g. the Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital has the postcode 4029, the Australian National University had the postcode 0200. More postcode ranges were made available for LVRs in the 1990s. Australia Post has been progressively discontinuing the LVR programme since 2006; the first one or two numbers show the state or territory that the postcode belongs to Sometimes near the state and territory borders, Australia Post finds it easier to send mail through a nearby post office, across the border: Some of the postcodes above may cover two or more states.
For example, postcode 2620 covers both a locality in NSW as well as a locality in the ACT, postcode 0872 covers a number of localities across WA, SA, NT and QLD. Three locations straddle the NSW-Queensland border. Jervis Bay Territory, once an exclave of the ACT but now a separate territory, is geographically located on the coast of NSW, it is just south of the towns of Huskisson, with which it shares a postcode. Mail to the Jervis Bay Territory is still addressed to the ACT; the numbers used to show the state on each radio callsign in Australia are the same number as the first number for postcodes in that state, e.g. 2xx in New South Wales, 3xx in Victoria, etc. Radio callsigns pre-date postcodes in Australia by more than forty years. Australia's external territories are included in Australia Post's postcode system. While these territories do not belong to any state, they are addressed as such for mail sorting: Three scientific bases in Antarctica operated by the Australian National Antarctic Research Expeditions share a postcode with the isolated sub-Antarctic island of Macquarie Island: Each state's capital city ends with three zeroes, while territorial capital cities end with two zeroes.
Capital city postcodes were the lowest postcodes in their state or territory range, before new ranges for LVRs and PO Boxes were made available. The last number can be changed from "0" to "1" to get the postcode for General Post Office boxes in any capital city: While the first number of a postcode shows the state or territory, the second number shows a region within the state. However, postcodes with the same second number are not always next to each other; as an example, postcodes in the range 2200–2299 are split between the southern suburbs of Sydney and the Central Coast of New South Wales. Postcodes with a second number of "0" or "1" are always located within the metropolitan area of the state's capital city. Postcodes with higher secon
Census in Australia
The census in Australia, or the Census of Population and Housing, collects key characteristic data on every person in Australia, the place they are staying in, on a particular night. The census is the largest statistical collection compiled by the Australian Bureau of Statistics and is held every five years. Participation in the census is compulsory; the Australian Bureau of Statistics is legislated to collect and disseminate census data under the Australian Bureau of Statistics Act 1975, the Census and Statistics Act 1905. The first Australian census was held in 1911, on the night of 2 April and subsequent censuses were held in 1921, 1933, 1947, 1954 and 1961. In 1961 the five-year period was introduced. Censuses are held on the second Tuesday of August; the most recent was held on 9 August 2016 at a cost of $440 million. The census counts all people who are located within Australia and its external and internal territories, with the exception of foreign diplomats and their families, on census night.
For the first time, in 2016 Norfolk Island was included in the Australian census rather than being conducted by the Norfolk Island Government. The census examines data such as age, incomes, dwelling types and occupancy, transportation modes, languages spoken, religion; the census is collected and published against geographic areas defined by the Australian Standard Geographical Classification. The ASGC provides a set of geographic classifications for the dissemination of all ABS statistics. In 2007 the ABS published; the primary aim of mesh blocks is to provide a building block for constructing alternative and more relevant geographies. Only data on total persons and total dwellings is released at the mesh block level. Mesh blocks will form the basis of a new statistical geography, the Australian Statistical Geography Standard; the traditional concept of a Collection District is that it was the area that one census collector can cover in about a ten-day period. In the 2001 census, collectors may be allocated more than one urban collection district because of their size.
In urban areas collection districts average about 220 dwellings. In rural areas the number of dwellings per collection district reduces as population densities decrease. For the 2016 census there were 358,122'mesh blocks' and 57,523 spatial Statistical Area Level 1 regions defined throughout Australia; the Census and Statistics Act 1905 and Privacy Act 1988 guarantee that no personally-identifiable information is released from the ABS to other government organisations, or the public. However the ABS makes confidential census data available to researchers, who must make various legal commitments before being given access. In the 1970s there was public debate about the census. In 1979 the Law Reform Commission reported on the Census. One of the key elements under question was the inclusion of names, it was found. On 18 December 2015, the ABS announced that it will retain name and address data collected in the 2016 census for up to four years; this was an increase from 18 months in the 2011 censuses.
From 1971 to 1996 the ABS had a policy of destruction of the original census forms and their electronic representations, as well as field records. Prior to that it appears there was no explicit policy of destruction, but most material had been destroyed because of lack of storage facilities; however the 2001 census offered, for the first time, an option to have personal data archived by the National Archives of Australia and released to the public 99 years and in 2001 54% of Australians agreed to do so. Indigenous Australians in contact with the colonists were enumerated at many of the colonial censuses; when the Federation of Australia occurred in 1901, the new Constitution contained a provision, which said: "In reckoning the numbers of the people of the Commonwealth, or of a State or other part of the Commonwealth, aboriginal natives shall not be counted." In 1967, a referendum was held which approved two amendments to the Australian constitution relating to indigenous Australians. The second of the two amendments deleted Section 127 from the Constitution.
It was believed at the time of the referendum, is still said, that Section 127 meant that aboriginal people were not counted in Commonwealth censuses before 1967. In fact section 127 related to calculating the population of the states and territories for the purpose of allocating seats in Parliament and per capita Commonwealth grants, its purpose was to prevent Queensland and Western Australia using their large aboriginal populations to gain extra seats or extra funds. Thus the Commonwealth Bureau of Census and Statistics interpreted Section 127 as meaning that they may enumerate "aboriginal natives" but that they must be excluded from published tabulations of population. Aboriginal people living in settled areas were counted to a greater or lesser extent in all censuses before 1967; the first Commonwealth Statistician, George Handley Knibbs, obtained a legal opinion that "persons of the half blood" or less are not "aboriginal natives" for the purposes of the Constitution. At the first Australian census in 1911 only those "aboriginal natives" living near white settlements were enumerated, the main population tables included only those of half or less aboriginal descent.
Details of "half-caste" (but not "ful
Rose Park, South Australia
Rose Park is a suburb with a population of 1,293 in the South Australian capital city of Adelaide. It is located one kilometre east of Adelaide's central business district. Rose Park is a leafy, tree-lined and wealthy inner suburb containing a number of historical and contemporary attractions. Much of the area's 19th Century housing stock has been recognised with heritage protection. Part of the Burnside Council, it is bounded to the north by Kensington Road, to the east by Prescott Terrace, to the south by Dulwich Avenue and to the west by Fullarton Road; the area is residential in nature, with commercial buildings along Fullarton Road, Kensington Road, Dulwich Avenue. This places it on the edge of the Adelaide Park Lands, bordering Victoria Park. In the second quarter of 2010, the median price of the four property sales in Rose Park was $1,500,000. Laid out in 1878 on part section 262, Hundred of Adelaide by the South Australia Company. Named after Sir John Rose, chairman of the company for fourteen years in the latter half of the nineteenth century.
Rose Park Post Office opened on 1 October 1946 but was renamed Norwood South in 1966. Rose Park Primary School According to the 2001 Census the population of the Rose Park census area was 2,663 people, with a slight decrease in population between the 1996 and 2001 censuses. 52.4% of the population was female, 79.4% were Australian born and 92.5% of residents were Australian citizens. In the 2006 census, the population of the Rose Park was 1,293 people. Notable residents include Andrew Fairweather. Like most areas across Australia in 2001, private motor vehicles were the main form of transport used by Rose Park residents, with only about 7% using public transport. Rose Park Primary School is located in Rose Park; the Adelaide Japanese Community School, Inc. a part-time Japanese educational programme, holds its classes in Rose Park Primary School. Rose Park is part of the state electoral district of Bragg, held since 2002 by Liberal MP Vickie Chapman. In federal politics, the suburb is part of the division of Adelaide, has been represented by Labor MP Kate Ellis since 2004.
Rose Park Primary School
Linden Park, South Australia
Linden Park is a suburb of Adelaide, South Australia in the City of Burnside. It derives its name from the Linden Tree. Many of its streets are named after British First Sea Lords and admiralty, such as: Hood st: Samuel Hood, 1st Viscount Hood Keyes st: Roger Keyes, 1st Baron Keyes Sturdee st: Doveton Sturdee Jellicoe st: John Jellicoe, 1st Earl Jellicoe Beatty st: David Beatty, 1st Earl Beatty Wemyss st: Rosslyn Wemyss, 1st Baron Wester Wemyss Hay Rd: Lord John Hay