Mormons are a religious and cultural group related to Mormonism, the principal branch of the Latter Day Saint movement of Restorationist Christianity, initiated by Joseph Smith in upstate New York during the 1820s. After Smith's death in 1844, the Mormons followed Brigham Young to what would become the Utah Territory. Today, most Mormons are understood to be members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints; some Mormons are either independent or non-practicing. The center of Mormon cultural influence is in Utah, North America has more Mormons than any other continent, though the majority of Mormons live outside the United States. Mormons have developed a strong sense of commonality that stems from their history. During the 19th century, Mormon converts tended to gather to a central geographic location, between 1852 and 1890 a minority of Mormons practiced plural marriage, a form of religious polygamy. Mormons dedicate large amounts of time and resources to serving in their church, many young Mormons choose to serve a full-time proselytizing mission.
Mormons have a health code which eschews alcoholic beverages, tobacco, “hot drinks”, addictive substances. They tend to be family-oriented and have strong connections across generations and with extended family, reflective of their belief that families can be sealed together beyond death. Mormons have a strict law of chastity, requiring abstention from sexual relations outside heterosexual marriage and fidelity within marriage. Mormons self-identify as Christian, although some non-Mormons consider Mormons non-Christian and some of their beliefs differ from mainstream Christianity. Mormons believe in the Bible, as well as other books such as the Book of Mormon, they believe that all people are spirit-children of God. Mormons believe that returning to God requires following the example of Jesus Christ, accepting his atonement through ordinances such as baptism, they believe that Christ's church was restored through Joseph Smith and is guided by living prophets and apostles. Central to Mormon faith is the belief that God answers their prayers.
The number of members in 1971 was 3,090,953 and as of 2018, there are 16,118,169 members worldwide. The word "Mormons" most refers to members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints because of their belief in the Book of Mormon, though members refer to themselves as Latter-day Saints or sometimes just Saints; the term "Mormons" has been embraced by others, most notably Mormon fundamentalists, while other Latter Day Saint denominations, such as the Community of Christ, have rejected it. Both LDS Church members and members of fundamentalist groups use the word "Mormon" in reference to themselves. LDS Church leaders have encouraged members to use the church's full name to emphasize its focus on Jesus Christ, have discouraged the use of the shortened form "Church of the Latter Day Saints", as well as the acronym "LDS", the nickname "Mormons"; the word "Mormon" is associated with polygamy, a distinguishing practice of many early Mormons. Today, polygamy is practiced within Mormonism only by people.
The history of the Mormons has shaped them into a people with a strong sense of unity and commonality. From the start, Mormons have tried to establish what they call "Zion", a utopian society of the righteous. Mormon history can be divided into three broad time periods: the early history during the lifetime of Joseph Smith, a "pioneer era" under the leadership of Brigham Young and his successors, a modern era beginning around the turn of the 20th century. In the first period, Smith had tried to build a city called Zion, in which converts could gather. During the pioneer era, Zion became a "landscape of villages" in Utah. In modern times, Zion is still an ideal, though Mormons gather together in their individual congregations rather than a central geographic location. Mormons trace their origins to the visions that Joseph Smith reported he had in the early 1820s while living in upstate New York. In 1823, Smith said an angel directed him to a buried book written on golden plates containing the religious history of an ancient people.
Smith published what he said was a translation of these plates in March 1830 as the Book of Mormon, named after Mormon, the ancient prophet–historian who compiled the book. On April 6, 1830, Smith founded the Church of Christ; the early church grew westward. In 1831, the church moved to Kirtland, Ohio where missionaries had made a large number of converts and Smith began establishing an outpost in Jackson County, where he planned to build the city of Zion. In 1833, Missouri settlers, alarmed by the rapid influx of Mormons, expelled them from Jackson County into the nearby Clay County, where local residents were more welcoming. After Smith led a mission, known as Zion's Camp, to recover the land, he began building Kirtland Temple in Lake County, where the church flourished; when the Missouri Mormons were asked to leave Clay County in 1836, they secured land in what would become Caldwell County. The Kirtland era ended in 1838, after the failure of a church-sponsored anti-bank caused widespread defections, Smith regrouped with the remaining church in Far West, Missouri.
During the fall of 1838, tensions escalated into the Mormon War with the old Missouri settlers. On October 27, the governor of Missouri ordered that the Mormons "must be treated as enemies" and be exterminated or driven from the state
Pine Mountain Lake, California
Pine Mountain Lake is a private gated community and a census-designated place in Tuolumne County, California. It is located east of Groveland. Pine Mountain Lake sits at an elevation of 2,795 feet; the 2010 United States census reported Pine Mountain Lake's population was 2,796. The ZIP Code is 95321; the community is inside area code 209. The "Gateway to Yosemite", PML is an all-seasons retirement community. PML includes a private 202-acre lake with 6 miles of shoreline; the community hosts an 18-hole championship golf course, golf shop, lake lodge, hiking, horseback riding, fishing, an airport, close proximity to local shopping and government services. PML is 26 miles west of Yosemite National Park on highway 120, it gets a light dusting of snow in the winter, warm summer days, a green spring, colorful fall. The lake is spring fed and is fed by the Big Creek, it has 6 miles of shoreline. It affords water skiing, sailing and fishing, it has a fisherman's park. Pine Mountain Lake Association stocks the lake with trout.
The lake is surrounded by pines and manzanitas, most homes cannot be seen from the lake, preserving its wilderness feeling. The Pine Mountain Lake subdivision was developed by Boise Cascade in the late 1960s with about 3,600 homesites averaging about one third to one half of an acre each. PML offers an equestrian center, tennis, a PGA rated golf course with a full-time golf pro, a "country club," and full-time mobile security patrol; the lake is about 2,546 feet feet above mean sea level. The highest points in the community are about 3,100 feet AMSL. Altitudes range from about 2,600 to 3,100 ft. Temperatures range from the 20–30 °F in winter to 80–90 °F in the summer. Groveland has Tenaya Elementary School and Tioga High School, part of the Big Oak Flat-Groveland Unified School District. Columbia College is about 25 miles down the hill in Columbia, 2 miles from Sonora. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP covers an area of 19.3 square miles, 19.0 square miles of it land and 0.3 square miles of it water.
The 2010 United States Census reported that Pine Mountain Lake had a population of 2,796. The population density was 145.2 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Pine Mountain Lake was 2,596 White, 18 African American, 25 Native American, 24 Asian, 7 Pacific Islander, 21 from other races, 105 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 183 persons; the Census reported that 2,796 people lived in households, 0 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 0 were institutionalized. There were 1,346 households, out of which 200 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 776 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 84 had a female householder with no husband present, 44 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 66 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 7 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 369 households were made up of individuals and 216 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.08. There were 904 families.
The population was spread out with 372 people under the age of 18, 95 people aged 18 to 24, 340 people aged 25 to 44, 973 people aged 45 to 64, 1,016 people who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 60.0 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.8 males. There were 3,048 housing units at an average density of 158.3 per square mile, of which 1,117 were owner-occupied, 229 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 5.2%. 2,239 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 557 people lived in rental housing units. Pine Mountain Lake, as well as the greater Groveland area, sits within Census Block 06109004200, which includes large portions of both southern Tuolumne County, as well as northern portions of Mariposa county. In the California State Legislature, Pine Mountain Lake is in the 8th Senate District, represented by Republican Andreas Borgeas, the 5th Assembly District, represented by Republican Frank Bigelow.
In the United States House of Representatives, Pine Mountain Lake is in California's 4th congressional district, represented by Republican Tom McClintock. The Pine Mountain Lake Airport is five miles from the intersection of Ferretti Road and SR120; the facility features a roughly-3,600-foot runway. Groveland-Big Oak Flat, California Buck Meadows, California Map: "Stanislaus National Forest, California," U. S. Forest Service, 1979. Map: "Groveland, California," U. S. Geological Survey, 1987. Airport Facility Directory: Southwest U. S. U. S. Department of Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration, unknown date. Pine Mountain Lake Association home page Pine Mountain Lake Aviation Association Friends of the Lake US Census Bureau Block Data for Pine Mountain Lake CBD
Twain Harte, California
Twain Harte is a census-designated place in Tuolumne County, United States. The population was 2,226 at the 2010 census, down from 2,586 at the 2000 census, its name is derived from the last names of two famous authors who lived in California, Mark Twain and Bret Harte. Twain Harte is located at 38°2′25″N 120°14′1″W. Twain Harte is situated in Tuolumne County along Highway 108 at an elevation of 3,640 feet; the USPS zip code for Twain Harte is 95383. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 3.7 square miles, of which, 99.49% is land and 0.51% is water. Its municipal water supply comes from the nearby Lyons Reservoir in the Stanislaus National Forest. Twain Harte is both a summer and winter vacation community situated at the transition zone between the oak forest of the California foothills and the mixed pine and fir forest of the Sierra Nevada. Summers are warm during the day and the nights are mild. Winters can be cool with snow occurring several times during the season.
Winter sports venues are located nearby at Leland High Sierra Snowplay near Strawberry, Long Barn Lodge & Ice Skating Rink, Dodge Ridge Ski Area near Pinecrest are all along Highway 108, plus the Badger Pass Ski Area in nearby Yosemite Park. Twain Harte is home to the Twain Harte Village, Twain Harte Golf Club, Twain Harte Lake; the 2010 United States Census reported that Twain Harte had a population of 2,226. The population density was 598.6 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Twain Harte was 2,026 White, 5 African American, 34 Native American, 31 Asian, 4 Pacific Islander, 46 from other races, 80 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 171 persons; the Census reported that 2,226 people lived in households, 0 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 0 were institutionalized. There were 1,014 households, out of which 198 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 544 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 83 had a female householder with no husband present, 50 had a male householder with no wife present.
There were 56 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 6 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 273 households were made up of individuals and 125 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.20. There were 677 families; the population was spread out with 355 people under the age of 18, 137 people aged 18 to 24, 387 people aged 25 to 44, 772 people aged 45 to 64, 575 people who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 52.0 years. For every 100 females, there were 105.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 103.8 males. There were 2,148 housing units at an average density of 577.7 per square mile, of which 717 were owner-occupied, 297 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 3.5%. 1,501 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 725 people lived in rental housing units. As of the census of 2000, there were 2,586 people, 1,120 households, 779 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 711.1 people per square mile.
There were 2,056 housing units at an average density of 565.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the CDP was 93.23% White, 0.12% African American, 1.01% Native American, 0.73% Asian, 0.54% Pacific Islander, 1.08% from other races, 3.29% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 5.53% of the population. There were 1,120 households out of which 24.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.4% were married couples living together, 11.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.4% were non-families. 24.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.31 and the average family size was 2.69. In the CDP the population was spread out with 21.4% under the age of 18, 6.1% from 18 to 24, 19.8% from 25 to 44, 31.7% from 45 to 64, 21.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 46 years. For every 100 females, there were 98.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.5 males.
The median income for a household in the CDP was $46,920, the median income for a family was $51,865. Males had a median income of $40,313 versus $26,964 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $23,079. About 5.0% of families and 6.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 6.5% of those under age 18 and 3.2% of those age 65 or over. In the California State Legislature, Twain Harte is in the 8th Senate District, represented by Republican Andreas Borgeas, the 5th Assembly District, represented by Republican Frank Bigelow. In the United States House of Representatives, Twain Harte is in California's 4th congressional district, represented by Republican Tom McClintock. Bret Harte, California, a CDP in Stanislaus County Twain Harte Area Chamber of Commerce official Web site
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, defined by the federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most identify, indicate whether or not they are of Hispanic or Latino origin. The racial categories represent a social-political construct for the race or races that respondents consider themselves to be and, "generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in this country." OMB defines the concept of race as outlined for the US Census as not "scientific or anthropological" and takes into account "social and cultural characteristics as well as ancestry", using "appropriate scientific methodologies" that are not "primarily biological or genetic in reference." The race categories include both national-origin groups. Race and ethnicity are considered separate and distinct identities, with Hispanic or Latino origin asked as a separate question. Thus, in addition to their race or races, all respondents are categorized by membership in one of two ethnic categories, which are "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino".
However, the practice of separating "race" and "ethnicity" as different categories has been criticized both by the American Anthropological Association and members of US Commission on Civil Rights. In 1997, OMB issued a Federal Register notice regarding revisions to the standards for the classification of federal data on race and ethnicity. OMB developed race and ethnic standards in order to provide "consistent data on race and ethnicity throughout the Federal Government; the development of the data standards stem in large measure from new responsibilities to enforce civil rights laws." Among the changes, OMB issued the instruction to "mark one or more races" after noting evidence of increasing numbers of interracial children and wanting to capture the diversity in a measurable way and having received requests by people who wanted to be able to acknowledge their or their children's full ancestry rather than identifying with only one group. Prior to this decision, the Census and other government data collections asked people to report only one race.
The OMB states, "many federal programs are put into effect based on the race data obtained from the decennial census. Race data are critical for the basic research behind many policy decisions. States require these data to meet legislative redistricting requirements; the data are needed to monitor compliance with the Voting Rights Act by local jurisdictions". "Data on ethnic groups are important for putting into effect a number of federal statutes. Data on Ethnic Groups are needed by local governments to run programs and meet legislative requirements." The 1790 United States Census was the first census in the history of the United States. The population of the United States was recorded as 3,929,214 as of Census Day, August 2, 1790, as mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution and applicable laws."The law required that every household be visited, that completed census schedules be posted in'two of the most public places within, there to remain for the inspection of all concerned...' and that'the aggregate amount of each description of persons' for every district be transmitted to the president."
This law along with U. S. marshals were responsible for governing the census. One third of the original census data has been lost or destroyed since documentation; the data was lost in 1790–1830 time period and included data from: Connecticut, Maryland, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Delaware, New Jersey, Virginia. Census data included the name of the head of the family and categorized inhabitants as follows: free white males at least 16 years of age, free white males under 16 years of age, free white females, all other free persons, slaves. Thomas Jefferson the Secretary of State, directed marshals to collect data from all thirteen states, from the Southwest Territory; the census was not conducted in Vermont until 1791, after that state's admission to the Union as the 14th state on March 4 of that year. There was some doubt surrounding the numbers, President George Washington and Thomas Jefferson maintained the population was undercounted; the potential reasons Washington and Jefferson may have thought this could be refusal to participate, poor public transportation and roads, spread out population, restraints of current technology.
No microdata from the 1790 population census is available, but aggregate data for small areas and their compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. In 1800 and 1810, the age question regarding free white males was more detailed; the 1820
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c
Tuolumne City, California
Tuolumne is a census-designated place in Tuolumne County, United States. The population was 1,779 at the 2010 census, down from 1,865 at the 2000 census; the area is known for a history of logging operations. Remnants of logging railroads are still present in the area. In the 1970s, Herbert Reichhold planned to open a theme park using narrow gauge live steam railroad equipment left over from the commercial logging operations, he envisioned transforming the town of Tuolumne into a "Railroad Theme Park", he began purchasing properties in the town. However he abandoned the plans after the death of his wife. In the late 1970s, Glen Bell, the founder of the Taco Bell chain, opened the "Westside and Cherry Valley Railroad" in Tuolumne; this ran for about 5 miles into the mountains. It used the track and several 3 ft gauge locomotives from the logging company; this tourist attraction closed in the mid 80s. Unlike the rest of Tuolumne County, Tuolumne was not in the Bell System/SBC service area. Tuolumne Telephone Company provided service to this area.
Wired telephone numbers in the Tuolumne Central Office follow the pattern 928-xxxx. Tuolumne Telephone is now part of Citizens Telecommunications Company of California, a subsidiary of Frontier Communications. There are three schools: Summerville Elementary with grades K-8, Mother Lode Christian School with grades K-12, Summerville Union High School with grades 9-12. Summerville High School hosts Tuolumne County's Connections Arts School for grades 7-12. A logging company town, Tuolumne experienced an economic downturn when the West Side Lumber Company mill closed. For many years the community has struggled to create a new economic base; the Tuolumne Band of Me-Wuk Indians, a federally recognized tribe, is headquartered in Tuolumne. In recent years, the tribe has contributed new growth with revenues from nearby Black Oak Casino, owned and operated by the Tuolumne Band. A new medical clinic and a new library are a few recent improvements. Another addition has been the renovation of the Tuolumne City Memorial Museum on Carter Street.
Once known as the two towns of "Summersville" in the south and "Carter" in the north, Tuolumne has incorporated them both into one town. A new municipal advisory council has been established to help with this revival. Tuolumne is the birthplace of the Vaudevillian performer and hipster comedian Lord Buckley, born Richard Myrle Buckley, April 5, 1906, died November 12, 1960. Tuolumne is located at 37°57′42″N 120°14′13″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 2.4 square miles, of which, 2.3 square miles of it is land and 0.03 square miles of it is water. The 2010 United States Census reported that Tuolumne had a population of 1,779; the population density was 753.2 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Tuolumne was 1,547 White, 13 African American, 83 Native American, 12 Asian, 1 Pacific Islander, 50 from other races, 73 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 206 persons; the Census reported that 1,768 people lived in households, 11 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 0 were institutionalized.
There were 758 households, out of which 223 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 297 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 95 had a female householder with no husband present, 52 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 70 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 6 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 239 households were made up of individuals and 107 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.33. There were 444 families; the population was spread out with 397 people under the age of 18, 161 people aged 18 to 24, 411 people aged 25 to 44, 510 people aged 45 to 64, 300 people who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41.4 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.5 males. There were 840 housing units at an average density of 355.6 per square mile, of which 396 were owner-occupied, 362 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 3.6%.
987 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 781 people lived in rental housing units. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,865 people, 736 households, 474 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 801.4 people per square mile. There were 797 housing units at an average density of 342.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the CDP was 89.01% White, 0.38% African American, 4.29% Native American, 0.21% Asian, 0.54% Pacific Islander, 1.82% from other races, 3.75% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 6.97% of the population. There were 736 households out of which 31.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.7% were married couples living together, 15.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.5% were non-families. 29.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.51 and the average family size was 3.10. In the CDP the population was spread out with 28.3% under the age of 18, 8.1% from 18 to 24, 26.5% from 25 to 44, 23.5% from 45 to 64, 13.6% who were 65 years of a
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
Trade, intermarriage a