Military history of Canada during World War II
The military history of Canada during World War II begins with the German invasion of Poland on 1 September 1939. While the Canadian Armed Forces were active in nearly every theatre of war, most combat was centred in Italy, Northwestern Europe, the North Atlantic. In all, over a million Canadians served in the Canadian Army, Royal Canadian Navy, Royal Canadian Air Force, in forces across the Commonwealth, with 42,000 killed and another 55,000 wounded; the financial cost was $21.8 billion between 1939 and 1950. By the end of the war Canada had the world's fourth largest air force, fifth largest navy; the Canadian Merchant Navy completed over 25,000 voyages across the Atlantic, 130,000 Allied pilots were trained in Canada in the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan. On D-Day, 6 June 1944 the 3rd Canadian Infantry Division landed on "Juno" beach in Normandy, in conjunction with allied forces; the Second World War had significant cultural and economic effects on Canada, including the conscription crisis in 1944 which affected unity between francophones and anglophones.
The war effort furthered Canada's global position. When the United Kingdom declared war on Germany in August 1914, Canada was a Dominion of the British Empire with full control over only domestic affairs, thus automatically joining the First World War. After the war, the Canadian government wanted to avoid a repeat of the Conscription Crisis of 1917, which had divided the country and French and English Canadians. Stating that "Parliament will decide," in 1922 Prime Minister William Lyon Mackenzie King avoided participating in the Chanak Crisis as the Parliament of Canada was not in session; the 1931 Statute of Westminster gave Canada autonomy in foreign policy. When Britain entered World War II in September 1939, some experts suggested that Canada was still bound by Britain's declaration of war because it had been made in the name of their common monarch, but Prime Minister King again said that "Parliament will decide."In 1936 King had told Parliament, "Our country is being drawn into international situations to a degree that I myself think is alarming."
Both the government and the public remained reluctant to participate in a European war, in part because of the Conscription Crisis of 1917. Both King and Opposition Leader Robert James Manion stated their opposition to conscripting troops for overseas service in March 1939. Nonetheless, King had not changed his view of 1923 that Canada would participate in a war by the Empire whether or not the United States did. By August 1939 his cabinet, including French Canadians, was united for war in a way that it would not have been during the Munich Crisis, although both cabinet members and the country based their support in part on expecting that Canada's participation would be "limited."It had been clear that Canada would elect to participate in the war before the invasion of Poland on 1 September 1939. Four days after the United Kingdom declared war on 3 September 1939, Parliament was called in special session and both King and Manion stated their support for Canada following Britain, but did not declare war partly to show that Canada was joining out of her own initiative and was not obligated to go to war.
Unlike 1914 when war came as a surprise, the government had prepared various measures for price controls and censorship, the War Measures Act of 1914 was re-invoked. After two days of debate, the House of Commons approved an Address in Reply to the Speech from the Throne on 9 September 1939 giving authority to declare war to King's government. A small group of Quebec legislators attempted to amend the bill, CCF party leader J. S. Woodsworth stated that some of his party opposed it. Woodsworth was the only Member of Parliament to vote against the bill and it thus passed by near-acclamation; the Senate passed the bill that day. The Cabinet drafted a proclamation of war that night, which Governor-General Lord Tweedsmuir signed on 10 September. King George VI approved Canada's declaration of war with Germany on Sept. 10. Canada also declared war on Italy and other Axis powers, enshrining the principle that the Statute of Westminster conferred these sovereign powers to Canada. Though Canada was the oldest Dominion in the British Commonwealth, it was, for the most part, reluctant to enter the war.
Canada, with a population somewhere between 11 and 12 million raised substantial armed forces. Around 10% of the entire population of Canada joined the army, with only a small portion conscripted. After the long struggle of the Great Depression of the 1930s, the challenges of the Second World War accelerated Canada's ongoing transformation into a modern urban and industrialized nation. Canada informally followed the British Ten Year Rule that reduced defence spending after Britain abandoned it in 1932. Having suffered from nearly 20 years of neglect, Canada's armed forces were small, poorly equipped, for the most part unprepared for war in 1939. King's government began increasing spending in 1936; the government had to describe it as for defending Canada, with an overseas war "a secondary responsibility of this country, though one requiring much greater ultimate effort." The Munich Crisis of 1938 caused annual spending to double. Nonetheless, in March 1939 the Permanent Active Militia had only 4,169 officers and men while the Non-Permanent Active Militia numbered 51,418 at the end of 1938 armed with weapons from 1918.
In March 1939 the Royal Canadian Navy had 309 officers and 2967 naval ratings, the Royal Canadian Air Force had 360 officers an
Italian conquest of British Somaliland
The Italian conquest of British Somaliland was part of the East African Campaign, which took place in August 1940 between the metropolitan Italian and Somali forces of Fascist Italy and British and Somali irregulars. The Italian expedition was intended to exploit mobility and speed but was hampered by the Somali terrain, rainy weather and the British defence of the colony at the Battle of Tug Argan. Italian attacks had the advantage of artillery and the outnumbered British and Imperial forces were worn down and outflanked until the remaining fortified hilltops were made vulnerable to being captured piecemeal. After the failure of a counter-attack towards the Mirgo Pass, the local commander, Major-General Reade Godwin-Austen had too few men to retrieve the situation and to guard an escape route and was given permission to retreat towards Berbera; the British fought a rearguard action at Barkasan on 17 August and retreated after dark but the improvised evacuation went better than expected and the second blocking position at Nasiyeh was abandoned.
The Italian advance was slowed by roads being swamped by the rains and the airstrip near Berbera being found to be garrisoned, making a coup de main impractical. The British defeat was controversial and caused a deterioration in relations between General Archibald Wavell, the theatre commander, his subordinates and the Prime Minister Winston Churchill. On 9 May 1936, Italian dictator Benito Mussolini proclaimed the Africa Orientale Italiana, formed from Ethiopia and the colonies of Italian Eritrea and Italian Somaliland. During the First Italo-Abyssinian War, Italy had been thwarted in its colonial ambitions but in the Second Italo-Abyssinian War the Italians again invaded Ethiopia from Italian Somaliland and Italian Eritrea. On 10 June 1940, Mussolini declared war against Britain and the France, making the Italian forces in Africa a threat to British supply routes along the Mediterranean, the Suez Canal and the Red Sea. Egypt and the Suez Canal were obvious targets and an Italian invasion of French Somaliland or British Somaliland was feasible.
Mussolini looked forward to propaganda triumphs in British East Africa. The Italian General Staff had based its strategic calculations on and assumption that there would be no war until 1942 and the Regio Esercito and Regia Aeronautica were not prepared for a long war or the occupation of large tracts of Africa; the Kingdom of Egypt included a condominium between Egypt and Britain. The British had based military forces in Egypt since 1882 but these were reduced by the terms of the Anglo-Egyptian Treaty of 1936, which only allowed British military forces to occupy Egypt in defence of the Suez Canal; the small British and Commonwealth force garrisoned the Suez Canal and the Red Sea route, vital to Britain's communications with its Far Eastern and Indian Ocean territories. In mid-1939, Lieutenant-General Archibald Wavell was appointed General Officer Commanding-in-Chief of the new Middle East Command, with responsibility for the Mediterranean and Middle East; until the Franco-Italian Armistice, the Italian 5th Army in Tripolitania faced the French army in Tunisia and the Italian 10th Army in Cyrenaica, confronted the British in Egypt.
The Royal Army had about 215,000 men in Libya and in Egypt, the British had about 36,000 troops, with another 27,500 men training in Palestine. Wavell had about 86,000 troops at his disposal for Libya, Syria and East Africa. Faced with frontiers guarded by about eight men to the mile, Wavell concluded that a defensive strategy was the only feasible policy and intended to mount delaying actions at the main posts and hope for the best; the Foreign Secretary Anthony Eden convened a conference in Khartoum at the end of October 1940 with Emperor Haile Selassie, the South African General Jan Smuts and the senior military commanders in East Africa, including Lieutenant-General Platt and Lieutenant-General Cunningham. An offensive strategy was decided on against Ethiopia, including the use of Ethiopian irregular forces, by the conference. In November, the British and Commonwealth forces gained an intelligence advantage, when the Government Code and Cypher School at Bletchley Park broke the high grade cypher of the Royal Army in East Africa.
That month, the replacement cypher for the Regia Aeronautica was broken by the Combined Bureau, Middle East. The British had fought the Somaliland Campaign against Mohammed Abdullah Hassan and the Dervish state, to gain control over the territory. In 1910 the British garrison had been forced to retreat to the coast until the end of the First World War and only after four campaigns did Somali resistance end in 1920, after three weeks of attacks by local troops, a King's African Rifles battalion and the Royal Air Force; the colony had an area of about 68,000 sq mi with a plain inland from the coast up to 60 mi deep, ending at a mountain range an average of 4,000 ft high. There was little scope for agriculture and most of the 320,000 inhabitants lived off livestock herding. Berbera, the biggest town and port, was ringed by scrubland; the port was a first class anchorage and was the principal entrepôt of the colony, despite having no port installations making it unsuitable for an e
The Xinhai Revolution known as the Chinese Revolution or the Revolution of 1911, was a revolution that overthrew China's last imperial dynasty and established the Republic of China. The revolution was named Xinhai because it occurred in 1911, the year of the Xinhai stem-branch in the sexagenary cycle of the Chinese calendar; the revolution consisted of many uprisings. The turning point was the Wuchang uprising on 10 October 1911, the result of the mishandling of the Railway Protection Movement; the revolution ended with the abdication of the six-year-old Last Emperor, Puyi, on 12 February 1912, that marked the end of 2,000 years of imperial rule and the beginning of China's early republican era. The revolution arose in response to the decline of the Qing state, which had proven ineffective in its efforts to modernize China and confront foreign aggression. Many underground anti-Qing groups, with the support of Chinese revolutionaries in exile, tried to overthrow the Qing; the brief civil war that ensued was ended through a political compromise between Yuan Shikai, the late Qing military strongman, Sun Yat-sen, the leader of the Tongmenghui.
After the Qing court transferred power to the newly founded republic, a provisional coalition government was created along with the National Assembly. However, political power of the new national government in Beijing was soon thereafter monopolized by Yuan and led to decades of political division and warlordism, including several attempts at imperial restoration; the Republic of China in Taiwan and the People's Republic of China on the mainland both consider themselves the legitimate successors to the Xinhai Revolution and honor the ideals of the revolution including nationalism, modernization of China and national unity. 10 October is commemorated in Taiwan as Double Ten Day, the National Day of the ROC. In mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau, the day is celebrated as the Anniversary of the Xinhai Revolution. After suffering its first defeat to the West in the First Opium War in 1842, the Qing imperial court struggled to contain foreign intrusions into China. Efforts to adjust and reform the traditional methods of governance were constrained by a conservative court culture that did not want to give away too much authority to reform.
Following defeat in the Second Opium War in 1860, the Qing tried to modernize by adopting certain Western technologies through the Self-Strengthening Movement from 1861. In the wars against the Taiping, the Muslims of Yunnan and the Northwest, the traditional imperial troops proved themselves incompetent and the court came to rely on local armies. In 1895, China suffered another defeat during the First Sino-Japanese War; this demonstrated that traditional Chinese feudal society needed to be modernized if the technological and commercial advancements were to succeed. In 1898 the Guangxu Emperor was guided by reformers like Kang Youwei and Liang Qichao for a drastic reform in education and economy under the Hundred Days' Reform; the reform was abruptly cancelled by a conservative coup led by Empress Dowager Cixi. The Guangxu Emperor, who had always been a puppet dependent on Cixi, was put under house arrest in June 1898. Reformers Kang and Liang would be exiled. While in Canada, in June 1899, they tried to form the Emperor Protection Society in an attempt to restore the emperor.
Empress Dowager Cixi controlled the Qing dynasty from this point on. The Boxer Rebellion prompted another foreign invasion of Beijing in 1900 and the imposition of unequal treaty terms, which carved away territories, created extraterritorial concessions and gave away trade privileges. Under internal and external pressure, the Qing court began to adopt some of the reforms; the Qing managed to maintain its monopoly on political power by suppressing with great brutality, all domestic rebellions. Dissidents could operate only in secret societies and underground organizations, in foreign concessions or in exile overseas. There were many revolutionaries and groups that wanted to overthrow the Qing government to re-establish Han led government; the earliest revolutionary organizations were founded outside of China, such as Yeung Ku-wan's Furen Literary Society, created in Hong Kong in 1890. There were 15 members, including Tse Tsan-tai, who did political satire such as "The Situation in the Far East", one of the first Chinese manhua, who became one of the core founders of the South China Morning Post.
Sun Yat-sen's Xingzhonghui was established in Honolulu in 1894 with the main purpose of raising funds for revolutions. The two organizations were merged in 1894; the Huaxinghui was founded in 1904 with notables like Huang Xing, Zhang Shizhao, Chen Tianhua and Song Jiaoren, along with 100 others. Their motto was "Take one province by force, inspire the other provinces to rise up"; the Guangfuhui was founded in 1904, in Shanghai with Cai Yuanpei. Other notable members include Tao Chengzhang. Despite professing the anti-Qing cause, the Guangfuhui was critical of Sun Yat-sen. One of the most famous female revolutionaries was Qiu Jin, who fought for women's rights and was from Guangfuhui. There were many other minor revolutionary organizations, such as Lizhi Xuehui in Jiangsu, Gongqianghui in Sichuan and Hanzudulihui in Fujian, Yizhishe in Jiangxi, Yuewanghui in Anhui and Qunzhihui in Guangzhou. There were criminal organizations that were anti-Manchu, including the Green Gang and Hongmen Zhigongtang.
Sun Yat-sen himself came in cont
World War II by country
Nearly every country and territory in the world participated in World War II. Most were neutral at the beginning; the Second World War pitted two alliances against the Axis powers and the Allied powers. The leading Axis powers were the Kingdom of Italy and the Empire of Japan; the countries involved in or affected by World War II are listed here alphabetically, with a description of their role in the conflict. The Kingdom of Afghanistan maintained its neutrality, it was neither invaded nor sent an invasion force from or to a foreign nation, was unaffected during the war. After the Italian invasion of Albania in April 1939, 100,000 Italian soldiers and 11,000 Italian colonists who wanted to integrate Albania into the Italian Empire settled in the country; the Albanian Fascist Party received support from the population because of the unification of Kosovo and other Albanian-populated territories with Albania proper after the conquest of Yugoslavia and Greece by the Axis in Spring 1941. Benito Mussolini boasted in May 1941 to a group of Albanian fascists that he had achieved the Greater Albania long wanted by the Tirana nationalists.
On June 22, 1941, Germany launched Operation Barbarossa and on June 28 Albania declared war on the USSR. In October 1941, small Albanian Communist groups established an Albanian Communist Party in Tirana of 130 members under the leadership of Enver Hoxha. In mid-1942, party leaders increased their popularity by calling young people to fight for the liberation of their country from Italy. In September 1942, the party organized the Albanian National Anti-Fascist Front, from a number of resistance groups, including several that were anticommunist, they assembled a National Liberation Army. Germany occupied Albania in September 1943, dropping paratroopers into Tirana before the Albanian guerrillas could take the capital, soon drove the guerrillas into the hills and to the south. Berlin subsequently announced it would recognize the independence of a neutral Albania and organized an Albanian government and military. Many Balli Kombëtar units and leaders collaborated; the partisans liberated Albania from German occupation on November 29, 1944.
The Albanian partisans helped in the liberation of Kosovo and parts of Yugoslavia. After the Fall of France, along with France's other possessions in Africa, were under the control of Nazi Germany and Vichy France. On November 8, 1942 the Allies launched. Allied Forces advanced south against an army of 60,000 Vichy troops; the Allies retook Morocco along with Algeria. During the War, large numbers of both Muslim and European Algerians served with the French Army. Algerian troops distinguished themselves in the French Expeditionary Corps under General Juin during the Italian campaign of 1943 and in Operation Dragoon, the Allied invasion of southern France in 1944. Technically, Andorra was still at war with Germany since World War I due to being left out of the Versailles Peace Conference. Nonetheless, Andorra remained politically neutral throughout the war but was used as a smuggling route by Axis Vichy French and Axis-aligned Spanish personnel. See Caribbean Islands. During the period of World War II, Argentina was ruled by a coalition of conservative and independent socialists until 1943 and by a de facto military government.
Despite the sympathy of the government of Concordance for Great Britain, the country's political tradition made the neutralist sentiments prevail. Many Argentines saw the war as a potential source of economic benefit by exporting to both sides; the military government of Edelmiro Julian Farrell gave in to international pressure, Argentina joined other countries in Latin America and declared war on Germany and Japan, a month before the war in Europe ended. More than 750 Argentine volunteers fought in the South African and Canadian Air Forces. 164 Squadron RAF saw action in Northern Belgium. Nearly 4,000 Argentine volunteers fought on the Allied side. Armenia was part of the Soviet Union during World War II. See this article's section on the Soviet Union in general, its subsection on the Armenian SSR in particular. Australia was among the first countries to announce it was at war with Germany, on 3 September 1939; the Prime Minister, Robert Menzies considered that the British declaration bound Australia, he announced a state of war between Australia and Germany as a direct consequence of the British declaration.
More than one million Australian men served in the war out of a total population of around seven million. Although it was ill-prepared for war, the Australian government soon dispatched squadrons and personnel to serve with the Royal Air Force; the Royal Australian Navy commenced operations against Italy in June 1940. That year the Australian Army entered the North Africa campaign and fought in Greece. German submarines and raiding ships operated in Australian waters throughout the war. After the outbreak of hostilities with Japan in late 1941, Japanese aircraft launched a bombing attack on Darwin in February, smaller Air raids on Australia, 1942–43. For the remainder of the war, the Australian war effort was concentrated in south-east Asia and the South West Pacific Area: they were involved from January 1942 in Malaya, the Dutch East Indies and the Australian territory of
Kenya in World War II
The involvement of the British Colony of Kenya in World War II began with the declaration of war on Nazi Germany by the British Empire in September 1939. Though some fighting with Italian troops occurred in Kenya itself from June 1940 to February 1941, it remained an important economic asset for the Allies and contributed a significant number of soldiers to fight in the British Army. Kenya bordered Italian East Africa to the north, at the start of the war, it was feared that the much larger Italian army would advance into Kenya as it had into British Somaliland; the King's African Rifles, responsible for the defence of the whole of British-occupied east Africa with the Somaliland Camel Corps and Sudan Defence Force, numbered just 2,900 men in 1939, compared with the 250,000 Italian colonial troops in the region. A drought in 1939–40 and accompanying crop failure, known at the time as the "Famine of the Italian" encouraged Kenyans from the agricultural Akamba in eastern Kenya, who had not traditionally joined the army in large numbers, to enlist.
Enemy aliens in the colony were placed under supervision. While the feared large-scale invasion did not occur, smaller incursions into Kenya were conducted in concert with similar operations against Sudan. In the summer of 1940, Kenya saw combat between Italy; the first action of the East African Campaign was the Italian bombing of the South Rhodesian air base at Wajir on 13 June. Italian troops took "Fort Harrington" after heavy fighting. By the end of July they had advanced 100 kilometres into Kenya and occupied Buna and Dabel, halting their advance due to concerns about the poor supply situation; these areas remained under Italian control until liberated in February 1941 as part of the Allied offensive into Italian East Africa. Our troops have occupied Sukela, Tagaba, Kokaiya Dula and Danisa cutting the area of Kenya that entered inside Somalia toward Dolo and so the border-line was cut of 300 km. A tentative of enemy attack in the lake Rodolfo area has been defeated with the help of the local population, with heavy losses for the enemy "Bollettino di Guerra" 36 of July 16, 1940 On 6 September 1940, near Liboi a column the 2nd East African Brigade under British command was attacked and destroyed by a force of Banda and Italian Colonial infantry: it was the first action involving South African ground troops in World War II The British troops retaliated with a first attack on the Somali-Kenyan village of El Wak, but were not successful.
According to Arrigo Pertacco, Buna is remembered as the Italian Army's deepest point of penetration into Kenya during the war. The city was occupied in July 1940 and a permanent Italian garrison made by Somalis of the area remained there until the end of January 1941. Malindi was one of the only two big towns in Kenya bombed by Italian airplanes; this happened on October 24, 1940 when the port of Malindi was damaged, after this event Allied troops were stationed in the town until the end of the war. After the partial success of the 1st South African Infantry Brigade against the Italians at another El Wak border post attack on 16 December 1940, Lieutenant-General Alan Cunningham ordered a full attack on the Italians in eastern Kenya. In the last days of January 1941, two South African brigades of the 1st South African Infantry Division attacked the Italian-controlled territory in Kenya from Marsabit; however before advancing into southern Abyssinia, General George Brink was compelled to protect his western flank and to deny water sources to the Italians.
For this reason, on 16 January the 1st Natal Mounted Rifles, No 2 Armoured Car Company, 12 SA Field Battery and two irregular companies attacked the string of wells at "El Yibo" and "El Sardu" in the Kenyan Northern Frontier District. After four days of heavy fighting, with the Brink attacks supported by the South African Air Force, the Italians were forced to move away from El Yibo on the night of 17 January and on the afternoon of the 18 January, the 2nd Field Force Battalion, moved up from the brigade reserve, entered an abandoned El Sardu. With the only water sources in the area in the hands of the South Africans, the advance into Abyssinia could commence. On 18 February, the Commonwealth forces entered southern Ethiopia and conquered the fort-city of Mega; the two South African brigades launched a double flanking movement on the area. After a three-day battle in which many of the South Africans—equipped for tropical conditions—suffered from exposure because of the heavy rains and near freezing temperatures.
However west of Lake Rudolf, the 25th East African Brigade of Brig. W. Owen marched on Namaraputh with the objective of taking the town of Kalam near the border Ethiopia-Kenya. Opposition from local pro-Italian Merille tribesman in the area was so fierce, that the Brigade was compelled to cease its advance and to go over to the defensive. Moyale—70 miles southeast of Mega on the border between Kenya and Ethiopia—was occupied on 22 February by a patrol of Abyssinian irregular troops, attached to the South African Division. Meanwhile on 24 January, Cunningham's main force, including the 11th Division and the 12th Division, invaded the "Somalia italiana" from coastal Kenya. During the war, Kenya was one of the single most important recruiting grounds for the British Army in Africa. During the course of the war, 98,240 Kenyans were recruited as Askaris into the King's African Rifles, representing 30% of the unit's total strength; the vast majority of
Roman von Ungern-Sternberg
Baron Roman Fyodorovich Ungern-Sternberg, better known as Roman von Ungern-Sternberg, was an Austrian-born Russian anti-Bolshevik lieutenant general in the Russian Civil War and an independent warlord whose Asiatic Cavalry Division wrested control of Mongolia from the Republic of China in 1921 after its occupation. He was referred to as Baron Ungern, or Ungern. Ungern was an arch-conservative monarchist who aspired to restore the Russian monarchy under Grand Duke Michael Alexandrovich of Russia and to revive the Mongol Empire under the rule of the Bogd Khan. During the Russian Civil War, Ungern's attraction to Vajrayana Buddhism and his eccentric violent treatment of enemies and his own men, earned him the sobriquet "the Mad Baron". In February 1921 he expelled Chinese troops from Mongolia and restored the monarchic power of the Bogd Khan. During his five-month occupation of Outer Mongolia, Ungern imposed order on the capital city, Ikh Khüree, through fear and brutal violence against his opponents Bolshevik supporters.
In June 1921 he went on to invade east Siberia in support of supposed anti-Bolshevik rebellions and to head off a Red Army-Mongolian partisan invasion. He was taken prisoner by the Red Army and a month put on trial for counterrevolution in Novonikolaevsk. After a six-hour trial he was found guilty, on 15 September 1921 he was executed. Robert Nikolaus Maximilian Freiherr von Ungern-Sternberg was born in Graz, Austria, in 1886 to a noble Baltic-German family; the Ungern-Sternberg family settled in. Ungern-Sternberg's first language was German, but he was fluent in French, Russian and Estonian, his mother was a German noblewoman named Sophie Charlotte von Wimpffen Sophie Charlotte von Ungern-Sternberg, his father was Theodor Leonhard Rudolph Freiherr von Ungern-Sternberg. He had Hungarian roots, claimed descent from Batu Khan, Genghis Khan's grandson, which played a role in his dream of reviving the Mongol Empire. In 1888 his family moved to Reval, the capital of the Governorate of Estonia within the Russian Empire, where his parents divorced in 1891.
In 1894 his mother married Baltic German nobleman Oskar Anselm Hermann Freiherr von Hoyningen-Huene. Ungern-Sternberg grew up in the Governatorate, with his home being the Hoyningen-Huene estate at Jerwakant, set deep in the forests about 40 miles from Reval. In the summer Ungern-Sternberg lived on the island of Dago in the Baltic, which he liked to boast had belonged to his family for over 200 years; as a boy, Ungern-Sternberg was noted for being such a ferocious bully that the other bullies feared him and several parents forbade their children from playing with him as he was a "terror". Ungern was well known for his love of torturing animals and at the age of 12 tried to strangle to death his cousin's pet owl for no particular good reason other than his cruelty towards animals. Ungern-Sternberg had an extreme pride in his ancient, aristocratic family writing that his family had over the centuries "never taken orders from the working classes" and it was outrageous that "dirty workers who've never had any servants of their own, but still think they can command" should have any say in the ruling of the vast Russian Empire.
Ungern-Sternberg, despite his pride of German origin, identified himself strongly with the Russian Empire. When asked if his "family had distinguished itself in Russian service", Ungern proudly answered: "Seventy-two killed in wartime!". Ungern-Sternberg believed that return to monarchies in Europe was possible with the aid of "cavalry people", meaning Russian Cossacks, Tatars, Kyrgyz, etc. In 1898 his father was imprisoned for fraud and in 1899 was committed to the local insane asylum. From 1900–02 Ungern attended the Nicholas I Gymnasium in Reval, his school records show that he was an unruly, bad-tempered young man, in trouble with his teachers owing to frequent fights with other cadets and breaking other school rules—smoking in bed, growing long hair, leaving without permission, etc.—which led to the schoolmaster writing a letter in February 1905 to his stepfather and mother, asking them to withdraw him from the school, otherwise he would be expelled. In 1905 he left the school to join the fighting in eastern Russia during the Russo-Japanese War, but it is unclear whether he participated in operations against the Japanese or if all military operations had ceased before his arrival in Manchuria, although he was awarded the Russo-Japanese War Medal in 1913.
In 1905 Russia exploded into revolution, in the Governatorate Estonian peasants went on a bloody jacquerie against the Baltic-German nobility, which owned most of the land there, lynching aristocrats and burning down their estates. One of the estates burned down was the one at Jerwakant; the revolution of 1905 and the destruction of the Jerwakant estate were huge traumas to Ungern-Sternberg, who saw the jacquerie as confirming his belief that the Estonian peasants who worked on his family's lands were all "rough, untutored and angry, hating everybody and everything without understanding why". In 1906 Ungern was transferred to service in the Pavlovskoe Military School in St. Petersburg as a cadet of ordinary rank; as an army cadet he proved to be a better student than he was as a naval cadet, he studied his course material, though
Allies of World War II
The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War. The Allies promoted the alliance as a means to control German and Italian aggression. At the start of the war on 1 September 1939, the Allies consisted of France and the United Kingdom, as well as their dependent states, such as British India. Within days they were joined by the independent Dominions of the British Commonwealth: Australia, New Zealand and South Africa. After the start of the German invasion of North Europe until the Balkan Campaign, the Netherlands, Belgium and Yugoslavia joined the Allies. After first having cooperated with Germany in invading Poland whilst remaining neutral in the Allied-Axis conflict, the Soviet Union perforce joined the Allies in June 1941 after being invaded by Germany; the United States provided war materiel and money all along, joined in December 1941 after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor.
China had been in a prolonged war with Japan since the Marco Polo Bridge Incident of 1937, but joined the Allies in 1941. The alliance was formalised by the Declaration by United Nations, from 1 January 1942. However, the name United Nations was used to describe the Allies during the war; the leaders of the "Big Three"—the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the United States—controlled Allied strategy. The Big Three together with China were referred as a "trusteeship of the powerful" were recognized as the Allied "Big Four" in the Declaration by United Nations and as the "Four Policemen" of the United Nations. After the war ended, the Allied nations became the basis of the modern United Nations. Members The origins of the Allied powers stem from the Allies of World War I and cooperation of the victorious powers at the Paris Peace Conference, 1919. Germany resented signing Treaty of Versailles; the new Weimar Republic's legitimacy became shaken. However, the 1920s were peaceful. With the Wall Street Crash of 1929 and the ensuing Great Depression, political unrest in Europe soared including the rise in support of revanchist nationalists in Germany who blamed the severity of the economic crisis on the Treaty of Versailles.
By the early 1930s, the Nazi Party led by Adolf Hitler became the dominant revanchist movement in Germany and Hitler and the Nazis gained power in 1933. The Nazi regime demanded the immediate cancellation of the Treaty of Versailles and made claims to German-populated Austria, German-populated territories of Czechoslovakia; the likelihood of war was high, the question was whether it could be avoided through strategies such as appeasement. In Asia, when Japan seized Manchuria in 1931, the League of Nations condemned it for aggression against China. Japan responded by leaving the League of Nations in March 1933. After four quiet years, the Sino-Japanese War erupted in 1937 with Japanese forces invading China; the League of Nations initiated sanctions on Japan. The United States, in particular, was sought to support China. In March 1939, Germany took over Czechoslovakia, violating the Munich Agreement signed six months before, demonstrating that the appeasement policy was a failure. Britain and France decided that Hitler had no intention to uphold diplomatic agreements and responded by preparing for war.
On 31 March 1939, Britain formed the Anglo-Polish military alliance in an effort to avert a German attack on the country. The French had a long-standing alliance with Poland since 1921; the Soviet Union sought an alliance with the western powers, but Hitler ended the risk of a war with Stalin by signing the Nazi–Soviet non-aggression pact in August 1939. The agreement secretly divided the independent nations of Eastern Europe between the two powers and assured adequate oil supplies for the German war machine. On 1 September 1939, Germany invaded Poland. On 17 September 1939, the Soviet Union invaded Poland from the east. A Polish government-in-exile was set up and it continued to be one of the Allies, a model followed by other occupied countries. After a quiet winter, Germany in April 1940 invaded and defeated Denmark, Belgium, the Netherlands and France. Britain and its Empire stood alone against Mussolini. In June 1941, Hitler broke the non-aggression agreement with Stalin and Germany invaded the Soviet Union.
In December, Japan attacked the Britain. The main lines of World War II had formed. During December 1941, U. S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt devised the name "United Nations" for the Allies and proposed it to British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, he referred to the Big Three and China as a "trusteeship of the powerful", later the "Four Policemen". The Declaration by United Nations on 1 January 1942 was the basis of the modern United Nations. At the Potsdam Conference of July–August 1945, Roosevelt's successor, Harry S. Truman, proposed that the foreign ministers of China, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the United States "should draft the peace treaties and boundary settlements of Europe", which led to the creation of the Council of Foreign Ministers of the "Big Five", soon thereafter the establishment of those states as the permanent members of the UNSC. Great Britain and other members of the British Commonwealth, most known as the Dominions, declared war on Germany separately from 3 September 1939 with the UK first, all within one week of each other.
British West Africa and the British colonies in E