Lockheed C-130 Hercules
The Lockheed C-130 Hercules is an American four-engine turboprop military transport aircraft designed and built by Lockheed. Capable of using unprepared runways for takeoffs and landings, the C-130 was designed as a troop and cargo transport aircraft; the versatile airframe has found uses in a variety of other roles, including as a gunship, for airborne assault and rescue, scientific research support, weather reconnaissance, aerial refueling, maritime patrol, aerial firefighting. It is now the main tactical airlifter for many military forces worldwide. More than 40 variants of the Hercules, including civilian versions marketed as the Lockheed L-100, operate in more than 60 nations; the C-130 entered service with the U. S. in 1956, followed by many other nations. During its years of service, the Hercules family has participated in numerous military and humanitarian aid operations. In 2007, the C-130 became the fifth aircraft to mark 50 years of continuous service with its original primary customer, which for the C-130 is the United States Air Force.
The C-130 Hercules is the longest continuously produced military aircraft at over 60 years, with the updated Lockheed Martin C-130J Super Hercules being produced. The Korean War showed that World War II-era piston-engine transports—Fairchild C-119 Flying Boxcars, Douglas C-47 Skytrains and Curtiss C-46 Commandos—were no longer adequate. Thus, on 2 February 1951, the United States Air Force issued a General Operating Requirement for a new transport to Boeing, Fairchild, Martin, Chase Aircraft, North American and Airlifts Inc; the new transport would have a capacity of 92 passengers, 72 combat troops or 64 paratroopers in a cargo compartment, 41 feet long, 9 feet high, 10 feet wide. Unlike transports derived from passenger airliners, it was to be designed as a combat transport with loading from a hinged loading ramp at the rear of the fuselage. A key feature was the introduction of the Allison T56 turboprop powerplant, developed for the C-130. At the time, the turboprop was a new application of gas turbines, which offered greater range at propeller-driven speeds compared to pure turbojets, which were faster but consumed more fuel.
They produced much more power for their weight than piston engines. The Hercules resembled a larger four-engine brother to the C-123 Provider with a similar wing and cargo ramp layout that evolved from the Chase XCG-20 Avitruc, which in turn, was first designed and flown as a cargo glider in 1947; the Boeing C-97 Stratofreighter had a rear ramp, which made it possible to drive vehicles onto the plane. The ramp on the Hercules was used to airdrop cargo, which included low-altitude extraction for Sheridan tanks and dropping large improvised "daisy cutter" bombs; the new Lockheed cargo plane design possessed a range of 1,100 nmi, takeoff capability from short and unprepared strips, the ability to fly with one engine shut down. Fairchild, North American and Northrop declined to participate; the remaining five companies tendered a total of ten designs: Lockheed two, Boeing one, Chase three, Douglas three, Airlifts Inc. one. The contest was a close affair between the lighter of the two Lockheed proposals and a four-turboprop Douglas design.
The Lockheed design team was led by Willis Hawkins, starting with a 130-page proposal for the Lockheed L-206. Hall Hibbard, Lockheed vice president and chief engineer, saw the proposal and directed it to Kelly Johnson, who did not care for the low-speed, unarmed aircraft, remarked, "If you sign that letter, you will destroy the Lockheed Company." Both Hibbard and Johnson signed the proposal and the company won the contract for the now-designated Model 82 on 2 July 1951. The first flight of the YC-130 prototype was made on 23 August 1954 from the Lockheed plant in Burbank, California; the aircraft, serial number 53-3397, was the second prototype. The YC-130 was piloted by Stanley Beltz and Roy Wimmer on its 61-minute flight to Edwards Air Force Base. Kelly Johnson flew chase in a Lockheed P2V Neptune. After the two prototypes were completed, production began in Marietta, where over 2,300 C-130s have been built through 2009; the initial production model, the C-130A, was powered by Allison T56-A-9 turboprops with three-blade propellers and equipped with the blunt nose of the prototypes.
Deliveries began in December 1956, continuing until the introduction of the C-130B model in 1959. Some A-models were equipped with skis and re-designated C-130D; as the C-130A became operational with Tactical Air Command, the C-130's lack of range became apparent and additional fuel capacity was added with wing pylon-mounted tanks outboard of the engines. The C-130B model was developed to complement the A-models, delivered, incorporated new features increased fuel capacity in the form of auxiliary tanks built into the center wing section and an AC electrical system. Four-bladed Hamilton Standard propellers replaced the Aeroproducts three-blade propellers that distinguished the earlier A-models; the C-130B had ailerons with boost increased from 2,050 psi to 3,000 psi, as well as uprated engines and four-blade propellers that were standard until the J-model's introduction. An electronic reconnaissance variant of the C-130B was designated C-130B-II. A total of 13 aircraft were converted. T
North American F-100 Super Sabre
The North American F-100 Super Sabre is an American supersonic jet fighter aircraft that served with the United States Air Force from 1954 to 1971 and with the Air National Guard until 1979. The first of the Century Series of USAF jet fighters, it was the first USAF fighter capable of supersonic speed in level flight; the F-100 was designed by North American Aviation as a higher performance follow-on to the F-86 Sabre air superiority fighter. Adapted as a fighter-bomber, the F-100 was supplanted by the Mach two-class F-105 Thunderchief for strike missions over North Vietnam; the F-100 flew extensively over South Vietnam as the air force's primary close air support jet until being replaced by the more efficient subsonic LTV A-7 Corsair II. The F-100 served in other NATO air forces and with other U. S. allies. In its life, it was referred to as the Hun, a shortened version of "one hundred". In January 1951, North American Aviation delivered an unsolicited proposal for a supersonic day fighter to the United States Air Force.
Named Sabre 45 because of its 45° wing sweep, it represented an evolution of the F-86 Sabre. The mockup was inspected on 7 July 1951, after over a hundred modifications, the new aircraft was accepted as the F-100 on 30 November 1951. Extensive use of titanium throughout the aircraft was notable. On 3 January 1952, the USAF ordered two prototypes followed by 23 F-100As in February and an additional 250 F-100As in August; the YF-100A first flew on 25 May 1953, seven months ahead of schedule. It reached Mach 1.04 in spite of being fitted with a de-rated XJ57-P-7 engine. The second prototype flew on 14 October 1953, followed by the first production F-100A on 9 October 1953; the USAF operational evaluation from November 1953 to December 1955 found the new fighter to have superior performance, but declared it not ready for wide-scale deployment due to various deficiencies in the design. These findings were subsequently confirmed during "Project Hot Rod" operational suitability tests. Six F-100s arrived at the Air Proving Ground Command, Eglin Air Force Base in August 1954.
The Air Force Operational Test Center was scheduled to use four of the fighters in operational suitability tests and the other two were to undergo armament tests by the Air Force Armament Center. The Tactical Air Division of AFOTC was conducting the APGC testing under the direction of project office Lieutenant Colonel Henry W. Brown. Initial testing was completed by APGC personnel at Edwards Air Force Base. Troubling was the yaw instability in certain regimes of flight which produced inertia coupling; the aircraft could develop a sudden yaw and roll which would happen too fast for the pilot to correct and would over-stress the aircraft structure to disintegration. It was under these conditions that North American's chief test pilot, George Welch, was killed while dive testing an early-production F-100A on 12 October 1954. Another control problem stemmed from handling characteristics of the swept wing at high angles of attack; as the aircraft approached stall speeds, loss of lift on the tips of the wings caused a violent pitch-up.
This particular phenomenon became known as the "Sabre dance". Delays in the Republic F-84F Thunderstreak program pushed the Tactical Air Command to order the raw F-100A into service. Tactical Air Command requested that future F-100s be fighter-bombers, with the capability of delivering nuclear bombs; the North American F-107 was a follow-on Mach 2 development of the F-100 with the air intake moved above and behind the cockpit. It was not produced in favor of the Republic F-105 Thunderchief; the F-100A entered USAF service on 27 September 1954, with the 479th Fighter Wing at George AFB, California. By 10 November 1954, the F-100As suffered six major accidents due to flight instability, structural failures, hydraulic system failures, prompting the air force to ground the entire fleet until February 1955; the 479th became operational in September 1955. Due to ongoing problems, the air force began phasing out the F-100A in 1958, with the last aircraft leaving active duty in 1961. By that time, 47 aircraft had been lost in major accidents.
Escalating tension due to construction of the Berlin Wall in August 1961 forced the USAF to recall the F-100As into active service in early 1962. The aircraft was retired in 1970; the TAC request for a fighter-bomber was addressed with the F-100C which flew in March 1954 and entered service on 14 July 1955, with the 450th Fighter Wing, Foster AFB, Texas. Operational testing in 1955 revealed that the F-100C was at best an interim solution, sharing all the flaws of the F-100A; the uprated J57-P-21 engine continued to suffer from compressor stalls. However, the F-100C was considered an excellent platform for nuclear toss bombing because of its high top speed; the inertia coupling problem was reasonably addressed with the installation of a yaw damper in the 146th F-100C retrofitted to earlier aircraft. A pitch damper was added starting at a cost of US$10,000 per aircraft; the addition of "wet" hardpoints meant the F-100C could carry a pair of 275 U. S. gal and a pair of 200 U. S. gal drop tanks. However, the combination caused a loss of directional stability at high speeds and the four tanks were soon replaced by a pair of 450 U.
S. gal drop tanks. The 450s proved scarce and expensive and were replaced by smaller 335 US gal tanks. Most troubling to TAC was the fact that, as of 1965, only 125 F-100Cs were capable of utilizing all non-nuclear weapons in the air force inventory cluster bombs and AIM-9 Sidewinder air-to-air missiles. By the time the
New York Air National Guard
The New York Air National Guard is the air force militia of the State of New York, United States of America. It is, along with the New York Army National Guard, an element of the New York National Guard; as state militia units, the units in the New York Air National Guard are not in the normal United States Air Force chain of command. They are under the jurisdiction of the Governor of New York though the office of the New York Adjutant General unless they are federalized by order of the President of the United States; the New York Air National Guard is headquartered at Stratton Air National Guard Base, Glenville, NY, its commander is Major General Verle Johnston. Under the "Total Force" concept, New York Air National Guard units are considered to be Air Reserve Components of the United States Air Force. New York ANG units are trained and equipped by the Air Force and are operationally gained by a Major Command of the USAF if federalized. In addition, the New York Air National Guard forces are assigned to Air Expeditionary Forces and are subject to deployment tasking orders along with their active duty and Air Force Reserve counterparts in their assigned cycle deployment window.
Along with their federal reserve obligations, as state militia units the elements of the New York ANG are subject to being activated by order of the Governor to provide protection of life and property, preserve peace and public safety. State missions include disaster relief in times of earthquakes, hurricanes and forest fires and rescue, protection of vital public services, support to civil defense; the New York Air National Guard is the largest and most diverse ANG organization established by the National Guard Bureau. Its consists of the following major units: Support units include: The 152d Air Operations Group operates the Theater Battle Management Core Systems. TBMCS is a set of software systems used by the Joint Forces Air Component Commander and within Air Operations Centers by the United States Air Force combat forces to plan and execute military missions utilizing airborne resources, it has two levels of control, at at the detailed ` unit' level. It is used to generate the Air Tasking Order.
It replaced the Contingency Theater Automated Planning System. The 152d AOG is stationed at Hancock Field Air National Guard Base. Located at Rome, the Eastern Air Defense Sector originated in 1956 as the 4621st Air Defense Wing, it is one of two sectors that carries out NORAD's aerospace control mission. The Eastern Air Defense Sector is part of the U. S. Continental NORAD Region. There are Canadian and Alaskan NORAD regions; this unit provides direct support for the annual NORAD Tracks Santa program. The Militia Act of 1903 established the present National Guard system, units raised by the states but paid for by the Federal Government, liable for immediate state service. If federalized by Presidential order, they fall under the regular military chain of command. On 1 June 1920, the Militia Bureau issued Circular No.1 on organization of National Guard air units. The New York Air National Guard origins date to 28 August 1917 with the establishment of the 102d Aero Squadron as part of the World War I American Expeditionary Force.
Its origins begin however, on 30 April 1908 as the 1st Aero Company, a pre-World War I independent unit of the New York National Guard. The 1st Aero Company was provisionally recognized by the federal government in June 1916 and called to active duty between July 13, 1916, November 15, 1916, to continue training with the purpose of joining the 1st Aero Squadron, a Regular Army unit deployed to Mexico with the Punitive Expedition; the 1st Aero Company, never left Long Island and was disbanded on May 23, 1917, shortly after the United States entered World War I, when the Army decided not to use national guard aviation units in the war effort. Its history and lineage were bestowed on the 102d Observation Squadron; the 102d Aero Squadron was demobilized 1918 Armistice with Germany in 1919. Constituted in 1920 as the 102nd Squadron, the squadron was assigned to the 27th Division, allotted to the state of New York, as its divisional aviation; the unit was organized in November 1921 from the "Observation Squadron, New York National Guard, organized on 22 March 1921 at Hempstead, New York, with personnel from K Company, 14th Infantry, New York National Guard.
It was reorganized and federally recognized in November 1922 at Miller Field on Staten Island and re-designated as the 102nd Observation Squadron in January 1923. It is one of the 29 original National Guard Observation Squadrons of the United States Army National Guard formed before World War II, its operations were air transportation and aircraft repair and maintenance. However, squadron elements were called up periodically by the state of New York to perform emergency duties that included reconnaissance for the Treasury Department of vessels conducting illegal-liquor trade off the New York-New Jersey coast in the 1920s; the 102d Observation Squadron was ordered into active service on 15 October 1940 as part of the buildup of the Army Air Corps prior to the United States entry into World War II. On 24 May 1946, the United States Army Air Forces, in response to dramatic postwar military budget cuts imposed by President Harry S. Truman, allocated inactive unit designations to the National Guard Bureau for the formation of an Air Force National Guard.
These unit designations were allotted and transferred to various State Nat
Robert Strange McNamara was an American business executive and the eighth United States Secretary of Defense, serving from 1961 to 1968 under Presidents John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson, he played a major role in escalating the United States' involvement in the Vietnam War. McNamara was responsible for the institution of systems analysis in public policy, which developed into the discipline known today as policy analysis, he was born in San Francisco, graduated from UC Berkeley and Harvard Business School and served in the United States Army Air Forces during World War II. After the war, Henry Ford II hired McNamara and a group of other Army Air Force veterans to work for Ford Motor Company; these "Whiz Kids" helped reform Ford with modern planning and management control systems. After serving as Ford's president, McNamara accepted appointment as Secretary of Defense. McNamara became a close adviser to Kennedy and advocated the use of a blockade during the Cuban Missile Crisis. Kennedy and McNamara instituted a Cold War defense strategy of flexible response, which anticipated the need for military responses short of massive retaliation.
McNamara consolidated intelligence and logistics functions of the Pentagon into two centralized agencies: the Defense Intelligence Agency and the Defense Supply Agency. During the Kennedy administration, McNamara presided over a build-up of US soldiers in South Vietnam. After the 1964 Gulf of Tonkin incident, the number of US soldiers in Vietnam escalated dramatically. McNamara and other US policymakers feared that the fall of South Vietnam to a Communist regime would lead to the fall of other governments in the region. In October 1966, he launched Project 100,000, the lowering of army IQ standards which allowed 354,000 additional men to be inducted despite all being incapable of functioning in any high stress situation or dangerous environment. McNamara grew skeptical of the efficacy of committing US soldiers to Vietnam. In 1968, McNamara resigned as Secretary of Defense to become President of the World Bank, he remains the longest serving Secretary of Defense. He served as President of the World Bank until 1981, shifting the focus of the World Bank towards poverty reduction.
After retiring, he served as a trustee of several organizations, including the California Institute of Technology and the Brookings Institution. Robert McNamara was born in California, his father was Robert James McNamara, sales manager of a wholesale shoe company, his mother was Clara Nell McNamara. His father's family was Irish and, in about 1850, following the Great Irish Famine, had emigrated to the U. S. first to Massachusetts and to California. He graduated from Piedmont High School in Piedmont in 1933, where he was president of the Rigma Lions boys club and earned the rank of Eagle Scout. McNamara attended the University of California and graduated in 1937 with a B. A. in economics with minors in mathematics and philosophy. He was a member of Phi Gamma Delta fraternity, was elected to Phi Beta Kappa his sophomore year, earned a varsity letter in crew. McNamara before commissioning into the Army Air Force, was a Cadet in the Golden Bear Battalion at U. C. Berkeley |McNamara was a member of the UC Berkeley's Order of the Golden Bear, a fellowship of students and leading faculty members formed to promote leadership within the student body.
He attended Harvard Business School, where he earned an M. B. A. in 1939. Thereafter, McNamara worked a year for the accounting firm Price Waterhouse in San Francisco, he returned to Harvard in August 1940 to teach accounting in the Business School and became the institution's highest paid and youngest assistant professor at that time. Following his involvement there in a program to teach analytical approaches used in business to officers of the United States Army Air Forces, he entered the USAAF as a captain in early 1943, serving most of World War II with its Office of Statistical Control. One of his major responsibilities was the analysis of U. S. bombers' efficiency and effectiveness the B-29 forces commanded by Major General Curtis LeMay in India and the Mariana Islands. McNamara established a statistical control unit for the XX Bomber Command and devised schedules for B-29s doubling as transports for carrying fuel and cargo over The Hump, he left active duty in 1946 with a Legion of Merit.
In 1946, Tex Thornton, a colonel under whom McNamara had served, put together a group of former officers from the Office of Statistical Control to go into business together. Thornton had seen an article in Life magazine portraying Ford as being in dire need of reform. Henry Ford II, himself a World War II veteran from the Navy, hired the entire group of 10, including McNamara; the "Whiz Kids", as they came to be known, helped the money-losing company reform its chaotic administration through modern planning and management control systems. The origins of the phrase "The Whiz Kids" can be explained; because of their youth, combined with asking lots of questions, Ford employees and disparagingly, referred to them as the "Quiz Kids". The Quiz Kids rebranded themselves as the "Whiz Kids". Starting as manager of planning and financial analysis, McNamara advanced through a series of top-level management positions, he was a force behind the Ford Falcon sedan, introduced in the fall of 1959—a small and inexpensive-to-produce counter to the large, expensive vehicles prominent in the late 1950s.
McNamara placed a high emphasis on safety: the Lifeguard options package introduced the seat belt and a dished steering wheel, whic
United States Secretary of Defense
The Secretary of Defense is the leader and chief executive officer of the United States Department of Defense, the executive department of the Armed Forces of the U. S; the Secretary of Defense's position of command and authority over the U. S. military is second only to that of the Congress, respectively. This position corresponds to what is known as a Defense Minister in many other countries; the Secretary of Defense is appointed by the President with the advice and consent of the Senate, is by custom a member of the Cabinet and by law a member of the National Security Council. Secretary of Defense is a statutory office, the general provision in 10 U. S. C. § 113 provides that the Secretary of Defense has "authority and control over the Department of Defense", is further designated by the same statute as "the principal assistant to the President in all matters relating to the Department of Defense". To ensure civilian control of the military, no one may be appointed as Secretary of Defense within seven years of serving as a commissioned officer of a regular component of an armed force.
Subject only to the orders of the President, the Secretary of Defense is in the chain of command and exercises command and control, for both operational and administrative purposes, over all Department of Defense forces — the Army, Marine Corps and Air Force — as well as the U. S. Coast Guard when its control is transferred to the Department of Defense. Only the Secretary of Defense can authorize the transfer of operational control of forces between the three Military Departments and the 10 Combatant Commands; because the Office of Secretary of Defense is vested with legal powers which exceed those of any commissioned officer, is second only to the President in the military hierarchy, its incumbent has sometimes unofficially been referred to as a de facto "deputy commander-in-chief". The Secretary of Defense, Secretary of State, the Attorney General, the Secretary of the Treasury are regarded as heading the four most important departments. Since January 1, 2019, the Secretary of Defense has been Deputy Defense Secretary Patrick M. Shanahan, serving in an acting capacity.
His predecessor, Jim Mattis, resigned on December 20, 2018, effective February 2019, after failing to persuade President Donald Trump to reconsider a decision to withdraw U. S. troops from Syria. A few days Trump announced that Mattis would leave at the end of December. An Army and Marine Corps were established in 1775, in concurrence with the American Revolution; the War Department, headed by the Secretary of War, was created by Act of Congress in 1789 and was responsible for both the Army and Navy until the founding of a separate Department of the Navy in 1798. Based on the experiences of World War II, proposals were soon made on how to more manage the large combined military establishment; the Army favored centralization while the Navy had institutional preferences for decentralization and the status quo. The resulting National Security Act of 1947 was a compromise between these divergent viewpoints; the Act split the Department of War into the Department of the Army and Department of the Navy and established the National Military Establishment, presided over by the Secretary of Defense.
The Act separated the Army Air Forces from the Army to become its own branch of service, the United States Air Force. At first, each of the service secretaries maintained cabinet status; the first Secretary of Defense, James Forrestal, who in his previous capacity as Secretary of the Navy had opposed creation of the new position, found it difficult to exercise authority over the other branches with the limited powers his office had at the time. To address this and other problems, the National Security Act was amended in 1949 to further consolidate the national defense structure in order to reduce interservice rivalry, directly subordinate the Secretaries of the Army, the Navy and the Air Force to the Secretary of Defense in the chain of command, rename the National Military Establishment as the Department of Defense, making it one Executive Department; the position of the Deputy Secretary of Defense, the number two position in the department, was created at this time. The general trend since 1949 has been to further centralize management in the Department of Defense, elevating the status and authorities of civilian OSD appointees and defense-wide organizations at the expense of the military departments and the services within them.
The last major revision of the statutory framework concerning the position was done in the Goldwater–Nichols Department of Defense Reorganization Act of 1986. In particular, it elevated the status of joint service for commissioned officers, making it in practice a requirement before appointments to general officer and flag officer grades could be made; the Secretary of Defense, appointed by the President with the advice and consent of the Senate, is by federal law the head of the Department of Defense, "the principal assistant to the President in all matters relating to Department of Defense", has "authority and control over the Department of Defense". Because the Constitution vests all military a
306th Tactical Fighter Squadron
The 306th Tactical Fighter Squadron is an inactive United States Air Force unit. Its last assignment was with the 31st Tactical Fighter Wing. Stationed at Homestead Air Force Base, where it was inactivated on 1 October 1986; the squadron was first activated as the 306th Fighter-Bomber Squadron in 1957 when the 31st Wing expanded from three to four squadrons and was equipped with the North American F-100 Super Sabre. In 1965 it deployed with its "Huns" to Vietnam, where it engaged in combat until returning to the United States in 1970, it was inactivated in 1971 but was active at Homestead Air Force Base, Florida for two brief periods in the 1970s with the McDonnell F-4 Phantom II and 1980s with the General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon. The squadron was first activated at Turner Air Force Base, Georgia in September 1957 when the 31st Fighter-Bomber Wing expanded from three to four squadrons flying North American F-100 Super Sabres. In the spring of 1959, Turner was transferred from Tactical Air Command to Strategic Air Command and the 31st Wing and its components became non operational and transferred on paper to George Air Force Base, California.
Most of the squadron's Super Sabres were transferred to the 356th Tactical Fighter Squadron at Myrtle Beach Air Force Base, South Carolina. At George the squadron assumed the personnel and F-100s of the 1st Tactical Fighter Squadron, inactivated. Between 1960 and 1963 the squadron deployed four times to Aviano Air Base, Italy to augment United States Air Forces Europe strike forces in the Mediterranean; the squadron moved to Homestead Air Force Base, Florida in June 1962. During the Cuban Missile Crisis the squadron assumed an air defense alert posture from October until tensions eased in November 1962, it continued training and participation in exercises with deployments to both Europe and the Pacific. In 1965, the squadron deployed to Bien Hoa Air Base, Vietnam and in March 1966, when the 31st Wing moved from Homestead to Tuy Hoa Air Base, the squadron moved to join it; the 306th engaged in combat operations in South Vietnam from 1965 until 1970, earning a Presidential Unit Citation, an Air Force Outstanding Unit Award with Combat V and Air Force Outstanding Unit Award, as well as a Vietnamese Gallantry Cross with Palm from the Republic of Viet Nam.
In 1970, the Air Force began implementing Operation Keystone, the withdrawal of units from Vietnam in the process of "Vietnamization." However, withdrawal was governed by budgetary reasons and troop ceilings imposed by Congress. In the fall of 1970, under Project Keystone Robin Alfa, the 31st Wing and its squadrons returned to the United States; the 306th was a paper unit at England Air Force Base, but in October the 31st Wing was re-established at Homestead Air Force Base, where it replaced the 4531st Tactical Fighter Wing, discontinued. At Homestead, the squadron took over F-4E Phantom IIs flown by the 4531st; the squadron was inactivated in July 1971. The 306th was reactivated in July 1978 and served as a F-4E replacement training unit, as the 31st again added a fourth squadron, it replaced its F-4Es with F-4Ds in 1980. The squadron was inactive from 1983 until 1985, when it activated with mixture of F-16A/B Block 15 Fighting Falcons for combat readiness operations, it was inactivated after about a year and its aircraft and personnel transferred to the 308th Fighter Squadron.
Constituted as the 306th Fighter-Bomber Squadron on 30 August 1957Activated on 25 September 1957 Redesignated 306th Tactical Fighter Squadron on 1 July 1958 Inactivated on 28 September 1970Activated on 30 October 1970Inactivated on 15 July 1971Activated on 1 July 1978Redesignated: 306th Tactical Fighter Training Squadron on 30 March 1981 Inactivated on 1 September 1983Redesignated 306th Tactical Fighter Squadron and activated on 1 October 1985Inactivated on 31 October 1986 31st Fighter-Bomber Wing, 25 September 1957 – 28 September 1970 31st Tactical Fighter Wing, 1 July 1958 – 28 September 1970 31st Tactical Fighter Wing, 30 October 1970 – 15 July 1971 31st Tactical Fighter Wing, 1 July 1978 - 1 September 1983 31st Tactical Fighter Wing, 1 October 1985 – 31 October 1986 Turner Air Force Base, Georgia, 25 September 1957 George Air Force Base, California, 1 March 1959 Homestead Air Force Base, Florida, 1 June 1962 - 6 December 1966Numerous deployments to Aviano Air Base, Italy Deployed to Kadena Air Base, Okinawa, 1963, Cigli Air Base, Turkey, 1964, Bien Hoa Air Base, South Vietnam, 1965-1966.
Tuy Hoa Air Base, South Vietnam, 25 December 1966 England Air Force Base, Louisiana, 28 September 1970 Homestead Air Force Base, Florida, 30 October 1970 - 15 July 1971 Homestead Air Force Base, Florida, 1 July 1978 – 1 September 1983 Homestead Air Force Base, Florida, 1 October 1985 – 31 October 1986 North American F-100 Super Sabre, 1957-1970 North American F-100F Super Sabre, 1957-1970 McDonnell F-4E Phantom II, 1970-1971, 1978-1980 McDonnell F-4D Phantom II, 1980-1983 General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon, 1985-1986 This article incorporates public domain material from the Air Force Historical Research Agency website http://www.afhra.af.mil/. Davies, Peter E. North American F-100 Super Sabre. Ramsbury, Wiltshire, UK: Crowood Press, 2003. ISBN 1-86126-577-8. Martin, Patrick. Tail Code: The Complete History of USAF Tactical Aircraft Tail Code Markings. Atglen, PA: Schiffer Military Aviation History. ISBN 0-88740
United States Indo-Pacific Command
United States Indo-Pacific Command is a unified combatant command of the United States Armed Forces responsible for the Indo-Pacific region. It is the largest of the unified combatant commands, its commander, the senior U. S. military officer in the Pacific, is responsible for military operations in an area which encompasses more than 100 million square miles, or 52 percent of the Earth’s surface, stretching from the waters off the west coast of the United States to the west coast of India, from the Arctic to the Antarctic. The commander reports to the President of the United States through the Secretary of Defense and is supported by service component and subordinate unified commands, including U. S. Army Pacific, Marine Forces Pacific, U. S. Pacific Fleet, Pacific Air Forces, U. S. Forces Japan, U. S. Forces Korea, Special Operations Command Korea, Special Operations Command Pacific. USINDOPACOM has two direct reporting units - U. S. Pacific Command Joint Intelligence Operations Center and the Center for Excellence in Disaster Management and Humanitarian Assistance as well as a Standing Joint Task Force, Joint Interagency Task Force West.
The USINDOPACOM headquarters building, the Nimitz-MacArthur Pacific Command Center, is located on Camp H. M. Smith, Hawaii. Known as United States Pacific Command since its inception, the command was renamed to U. S. Indo-Pacific Command on 30 May 2018, in recognition of the United State's alliance with India. United States Indo-Pacific Command protects and defends, in concert with other U. S. Government agencies, the territory of the United States, its people, its interests. With allies and partners, we will enhance stability in the Indo-Asia-Pacific region by promoting security cooperation, encouraging peaceful development, responding to contingencies, deterring aggression and, when necessary, fighting to win; this approach is based on partnership and military readiness. We recognize the global significance of the Indo-Asia-Pacific region and understand that challenges are best met together. We will remain an engaged and trusted partner committed to preserving the security and freedom upon which enduring prosperity in the Indo-Asia-Pacific region depends.
We will collaborate with the Services and other Combatant Commands to defend America's interests. USINDOPACOM's Area of Responsibility encompasses the Pacific Ocean from Antarctica at 92°W, north to 8°N, west to 112°W, northwest to 50°N/142°W, west to 170°E, north to 53°N, northeast to 62°30’N/175°W, north to 64°45’N/175°W, south along the Russian territorial waters to the People's Republic of China, the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, the Republic of Korea, Japan. 36 nations More than half the world's population 3,200 different languages 5 of 7 U. S. collective defense treaties In the Pacific Region, instead of NORAD, the United States Indo-Pacific Command must make the decision that an incoming ballistic missile is a threat to the United States. Hawaii is the only state in the United States with a pre-programmed Wireless Emergency Alert that can be sent to wireless devices if a ballistic missile is heading toward Hawaii. If the missile is fired from North Korea, the missile would take 20 minutes to reach Hawaii.
The United States Indo-Pacific Command would take less than 5 minutes to make a determination that the missile could impact Hawaii and would notify the Hawaii Emergency Management Agency. HI-EMA would issue the Civil Defense Warning that an inbound missile could impact Hawaii and that people should Shelter-in-Place: Get Inside, Stay Inside, Stay Tuned. People in Hawaii would have 12 to 15 minutes before impact. Federal Emergency Management Agency is not required to be notified for approval to cancel an alert. Signal carriers allow people to block alerts from state and law enforcement agencies, but not those issued by the President. FEMA can send alerts to targeted audiences but has not implemented this as of January 2018. Other states can take as long as 30 minutes to create and distribute a missile alert; as of January 2018, the nationwide system for Wireless Emergency Alerts to mobile devices has never been tested. USINDOPACOM has evolved through the gradual consolidation of various commands in the Pacific and Far East.
Its origins can be traced to the command structure established early in World War II to wage the war in the Pacific. In April 1942, U. S. military forces in the Pacific Theatre were divided into two commands: the Southwest Pacific Area under Army General Douglas MacArthur. Each had command of all U. S. military forces assigned to his area. The authority of the POA Commander-in-Chief was technically separate from that of the Commander in Chief, Pacific Fleet, but Admiral Nimitz was assigned to both positions and bore the title CINCPAC/CINCPOA. Efforts to establish a unified command for the entire Pacific AOR proved impossible during the war; the divergent interests of the Army and the Navy precluded the subordination of either of the two principal commanders in the Pacific Theatre. When the war ended in September 1945, the command arrangement carried forward with Fleet Admiral Nimitz as CINCPAC/CINCPOA and General of the Army MacArthur as Commander in Chief, U. S. Army Forces Pacific. Command arrangements after World War II were defined by the "Outline Command Plan" –