Twelve-bar blues

The twelve-bar blues is one of the most prominent chord progressions in popular music. The blues progression has a distinctive form in lyrics, chord structure, duration. In its basic form, it is predominantly based on the I, IV, V chords of a key. Mastery of the blues and rhythm changes are "critical elements for building a jazz repertoire". In the key of C, one basic blues progression is. Chords may be represented by a few different notation systems such as sheet music and electronic music. A basic example of the progression would look like this, using T to indicate the tonic, S for the subdominant, D for the dominant, representing one chord. In Roman numeral analysis the tonic is called the I, the sub-dominant the IV, the dominant the V. Using said notations, the chord progression outlined above can be represented as follows; the first line takes four bars. However, the vocal or lead phrases, though they come in threes, do not coincide with the above three lines or sections; this overlap between the grouping of the accompaniment and the vocal is part of what creates interest in the twelve bar blues.

"W. C. Handy,'the Father of the Blues', codified this blues form to help musicians communicate chord changes." Many variations are possible. The length of sections may be varied to create sixteen-bar blues. In the original form, the dominant chord continued through the tenth bar. Seventh chords are used just before a change, more changes can be added. A more complicated example might look like this, where "7" indicates a seventh chord: When the last bar contains the dominant, that bar may be called a turnaround: Play In jazz, twelve-bar blues progressions are expanded with moving substitutions and chordal variations; the cadence uniquely leads to the root by perfect intervals of fourths. Otherwise the last four measures is the blues turnaround, this is the most common form in modern blues-rock; the Bebop blues is: Play This progression is similar to Charlie Parker's "Now's the Time", "Billie's Bounce", Sonny Rollins's "Tenor Madness", many other bop tunes. "It is a bop soloist's cliche to arpeggiate this chord from the 3 up to the ♭9."

There are minor twelve-bar blues, such as John Coltrane's "Equinox" and "Mr. P. C.", "Why Don't You Do Right?", made famous by Lil Green with Big Bill Broonzy and Peggy Lee with the Benny Goodman Orchestra. The chord on the fifth scale degree may be major or minor, in which case it fits a dorian scale along with the minor i7 and iv7 chords, creating a modal feeling. Major and minor can be mixed together, a signature characteristic of the music of Charles Brown. Minor blues Play While the blues is most considered to be in sectional strophic form with a verse-chorus pattern, it may be considered as an extension of the variational chaconne procedure. Van der Merwe considers it developed in part from the American Gregory Walker, though the conventional account would consider hymns to have provided the repeating chord progression or harmonic formulae of the blues. Eight-bar blues Sixteen-bar blues Bird changes Benward and Marilyn Nadine Saker. Music: In Theory and Practice, Vol. I, seventh edition.

Boston: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 978-0-07-294262-0. Covach, John. "Form in Rock Music: A Primer", in Stein, Deborah. Engaging Music: Essays in Music Analysis. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-517010-5. Doll, Christopher. "Transformation in Rock Harmony: An Explanatory Strategy". Gamut: 1–44. Jackson, Fruteland. Beginning Delta Blues Guitar. Alfred Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7390-3006-6. Gerow and Tanner, Paul. A Study of Jazz, Iowa: William C. Brown Publishers, p. 37, cited in Baker, Robert M.. Greene, Ted. Chord Chemistry: For Guitar. Alfred Music. ISBN 9781457455292. Kernfeld, Barry, ed.. "Blues progression". The New Grove Dictionary of Jazz. 2nd Edition. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. Middleton, Richard. Studying Popular Music. Philadelphia: Open University Press. ISBN 0-335-15275-9. National Guitar Workshop. Electric Bass for Guitarists. Alfred Publishing. ISBN 0-7390-3335-2. Spitzer, Peter. Jazz Theory Handbook. Mel Bay. ISBN 978-0-7866-5328-7. Thomas, John. Voice Leading for Guitar: Moving Through the Changes.

Berklee Press. ISBN 0-634-01655-5. Van der Merwe, Peter. Origins of the Popular Style. Oxford: Clarendon Press. ISBN 0-19-316121-4. Cited in Middleton


Negrita is an Italian rock band from Arezzo, Tuscany. Formed in 1991, the band was named after the song "Hey Negrita", included in The Rolling Stones' album Black and Blue, released in 1976; the band consists of Paolo Bruni, Enrico Salvi and Cesare "Mac" Petricich. After recording several demos, the band's first album, was released in 1994 by Mercury and Black Out. Up to 2014, the band had released eight studio albums, including the platinum-selling XXX in 1997, Reset in 1999 and HELLdorado in 2008; the band released two compilation albums, Hei! Negrita in 2003 and Déjà Vu in 2013; the band has received three nominations at the MTV Europe Music Awards for Best Italian Act in 1999, 2003 and 2005. In January 2012, their album Reset was ranked 77th in the list of the 100 Best Italian Albums of All Time compiled by the Italian version of the music magazine Rolling Stone. Studio albumsNegrita Paradisi per illusi XXX Reset Radio Zombie L'uomo sogna di volare HELLdorado Dannato vivere 9 Desert Yacht Club Compilation albumsEhi!

Negrita Déjà Vu

Jason Koumas

Jason Koumas is a Welsh former professional footballer who played for Tranmere Rovers, Cardiff City, West Bromwich Albion and Wigan Athletic, as well as the Welsh national team. He was selected in both the 2005 -- 2006 -- 07 Football League Championship team of the season. On 12 May 2016, Leon Barton wrote in a long blog post for The Guardian that Koumas's talent - described as "mercurial" - was no less than Steven Gerrard's, but that he had lacked the spirit and determination to succeed at the highest level. Born in Wrexham, Koumas played for Olympic F. C. during his school years, before playing youth football at the Liverpool Academy with players such as Steven Gerrard and Michael Owen. However, he did not sign Youth Training Scheme forms with the club, instead opting to join Tranmere Rovers. Koumas made his professional debut for Tranmere Rovers in the 1998–99 season. A series of impressive performances over the next four years won him many plaudits, including a place in the PFA Division Two team of the year for 2001–02.

Koumas established himself as a talented youngster with immense potential. He scored one of Tranmere's goals when they knocked out Merseyside rivals Everton in the 2000–01 FA Cup in a memorable 3–0 victory at Goodison Park. In August 2002, this potential was spotted by West Bromwich Albion manager, Gary Megson, who paid Rovers a fee of £2.25 million to secure his services. A successful first season at Premiership level, including sensational solo goals against Manchester United and Blackburn Rovers, saw Koumas win the club's Player of the Season award. However, this was not enough to prevent Albion from suffering relegation to the Football League. Koumas inspired the Baggies promotion back to the Premiership in 2004, winning the First Division player of the month award for November 2003, as well as being named in the First Division team of the year. In the summer of 2004, Koumas signed a new contract with Albion, but during the following season fell out with new boss Bryan Robson. Robson placed him on the transfer list.

At the start of the 2005–06 season, Koumas was loaned out to Cardiff City. This move proved an immediate success, with Koumas coming off the bench to score on his debut against Leeds United. Throughout the remainder of the season, Koumas turned in man-of-the-match winning performances, scoring 13 times in 44 appearances from midfield, including a hattrick away at Luton in a pulsating victory. Koumas earned himself hero status amongst the Bluebirds faithful as well as the club's Player of the Year award and a place in the Championship's PFA team of the season. Cardiff City attempted to negotiate a transfer fee for Koumas before the start of the 2006–07 season, however they failed to come to an agreement with West Brom. Koumas was on strike throughout the negotiations and refused to return to the Hawthorns resorting to training on his own away from the club. On 23 August, Koumas made a U-turn in his West Bromwich Albion career by signing a new three-year deal at the club, his club career was rejuvenated under new manager Tony Mowbray, becoming a first team regular again, put in several man of the match performances during 2006–07.

He won the Powerade Championship player of the month award for December 2006. Koumas was named the Championship Player of the Year at the Football League Awards in March 2007, was honoured in April with a place in the Championship team of the year. In July 2007, West Brom agreed a fee of £5.3 million with Wigan Athletic, stating that it was a head-turning offer. Koumas completed the move to Wigan on 10 July. Tranmere received a portion of the transfer fee having included a sell-on clause in their agreement with West Brom, he made his Wigan debut on 11 August 2007 in a 2–1 defeat away at Everton. The following month he marked his 300th career league appearance by scoring his first goal for his new club, converting an 80th-minute penalty to rescue a 1–1 home draw with Fulham. Due to injury and a lack of first team opportunities under three different managers during his three years at Wigan, Koumas was linked with a return to previous club West Bromwich Albion along with Newcastle United and Leicester City on a loan deal until the end of the 2009–10 season, however a loan move never materialised.

Koumas was released at the end of 2010–11 season following his return from a loan period at Cardiff City. On 5 August 2010, Koumas agreed a deal to re-join Cardiff City on a season-long loan, but was unable to complete the move until after Cardiff's transfer embargo was lifted; the following day, the club's transfer embargo was lifted and Koumas was able to register with the club two days prior to the start of the 2010–11 season. Koumas made his second Cardiff City debut in the 4–0 home victory over Doncaster Rovers, coming on as a late substitute for Craig Bellamy. Koumas' second stint at the Bluebirds was hampered with injuries and further niggley setbacks. Cardiff needed a win to keep the pressure on second placed Norwich and to keep automatic promotion alive. With it 1–1 at the Keepmoat Stadium in the 87th minute, Cardiff boss Dave Jones sent Koumas on. Within 3 minutes of his arrival he curled a 25-yard free-kick into the top left hand corner. Koumas finished the game by passing the ball past the Doncaster keeper to make it 3–1.

After being released by Wigan in 2011, Koumas remained as a free agent and considered his playing career. It was revealed by BBC on 8 July 2013 that Koumas asked to train with former club Tranmere Rovers as he attempted to rebuild his footballing career. After a successful trial, he signed a one-year deal on 1 August. On 23 May 2014, Koumas signed a one-year extension. Koumas announced his retirement on 10 July 2015. Born in Wrexham to a